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ITA's Industrial Applications Committee Update
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Industrial Applications Committee Update

Table of Contents

Committee's Mission & Objective


ASM International Local Chapter Meeting in Houston

ASME Boiler Code Week Meetings 2020

Global Industrial Markets / AnTi Corrosion Segment at Titanium USA 2019 - Mobile, Al

Global Industrial Markets Session at Titanium Europe 201- in Vienna, Austria

Potential Joint Industry Program for the Addition of Ti Grade 2H (7H and 16H) to ASME Pressure Vessel Code

IAC Participates in the 14th World Conference on Titanium

NACE TEG 120X Reactive Metal Speaker Track 6, 2019

Evaluation of NACE Standard MRO 175

Upcoming Event Reminders/Save the Date

Past Conference Proceedings

ITA Industrial Committee Members

TITANIUM TODAY - Industrial Edition 2019

Committee's Mission & Objective
The Industrial sub-group is part of the ITA Applications Committee. The group compliments the already existing Medical, Consumer, and Aerospace sub-groups. Each sub-group chair is a member of the Applications committee and meets on an as needed basis to discuss new proposals or funding requests.

The group's mission is to help facilitate the expanded use of titanium based products in existing and new market sectors and applications. The objective is to contribute to the growth of the overall titanium industry and to promote the selection of titanium as a competitive material by identifying new market sectors and applications and communicating this information to the other ITA committees in support of their annual goals and objectives

IAC is hosting the upcoming speaker tracks in 2020 – contact the ITA for more information about registration.




TITLE: Metals: Reactive

SCOPE: Exchange of experiences on the use of reactive metals as related to properties, fabrication, and application.

Tuesday June 16, 2020
09:00 to 12:00 a.m. (CST)

Room: 361 EF

George R. Brown Convention Center
1001 Avenida de Las Americas Houston
Houston, TX USA

Chair:           Rob Henson

Vice Chair:  Chris Wilson

Secretary:    David Frey

Moderator:  Wendy McGowan

Revision of Grade 12 Titanium within the NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156-3 Standard for Sour Gas Service

Chris Wilson
Technical Director
Uniti Titanium


Grade 12 Titanium has recently been balloted to remove existing restrictions within the NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156-3 standards.  The ballot has been successfully approved and is now awaiting publication.  The original ballot wording required a specific batch annealing process and prohibited continuous annealing.  The revised requirements will now permit continuous annealing in addition to removing a restrictive maximum hardness requirement.  The presentation will explore the effect of the new standard requirements, which are anticipated to expand the availability and usage of grade 12 titanium in sour gas service environments.  The corrosion resistance and cost benefits of grade 12 will be compared against other commonly used corrosion resistant materials.


Update on Titanium “H” Grade Code Case for ASME Section VIII Division 2

Bill MacDonald
Director of Technical Sales
Titanium Metals Corporation

Titanium “H” grades were conceived in the late 1990’s when it was recognized that the minimum UTS values were significantly higher than required by ASTM or ASME.  In 2008, Code Case 2497-3 was issued for the use of “H” grades (2H, 7H, 16H and 26H) in Section VIII, Division 1 pressure vessel construction.  Allowing higher UTS minimum values in the ASME Boiler Code resulted in more efficient use of titanium for construction of pressure containing components.  In 2018, the International Titanium Association Industrial Committee initiated the process to incorporate the H grades into Section VIII Division 2, to allow for further reduction in section thickness using more sophisticated design formulae and/or finite element analysis.  This paper provides an overview of the Code Case process and an update on the status of the project.  Possible reasons for the overall increase in UTS values will be presented in terms of improvements in titanium melt practice.


Considerations in the Design, Fabrication, Inspection and repair of Tantalum Process Equipment

David Frey
RME Technology Manager
Mersen USA ACE Corp

This presentation provides an overview of Tantalum process equipment in the chemical process industry.  A wide variety of topics will be discussed starting with typical applications, corrosion resistance, economics of design options, material specifications, fabrication methods, inspection and testing, reliability, maintenance and repair. Each of the above topics will be discussed from the perspective that Ta can provide a reliable, cost effective solution for many of the more challenging and severe process equipment corrosion problems.


Recent Advancements in Zirconium Cladding Technology for Chemical Processing Applications

Steve Sparkowich
Business Development Manager – Materials Engineering
NobelClad, A DMC Global Company

Explosion welding (EXW) is a well-established, technically-based industrial process. This process has been used for over 50 years for industrial production of welds and clad metals between a broad range of metal combinations, including titanium and zirconium metallurgically bonded to carbon steel and alloy steels.  EXW is a “cold welding” process which is free of the physical, mechanical, and thermal limitations imposed by traditional welding processes. The presentation will include a process overview, a discussion of key explosion cladding parameters and a review of recent process advancements in the cladding of zirconium. A discussion of design strategies for reducing project cost and for improving equipment reliability of zirconium clad equipment will be given along with some practical examples in the chemical processing industry, including acetic acid and concentrated sulfuring acid applications.


A New Titanium Alloy for Use in Aggressive Geothermal Environments

Jim Grauman
Manager, Industrial & Corrosion Technology
Titanium Metals Corporation

The Salton Sea KGRA has long been known for its power generating potential, however, the corrosivity of the hypersaline fluid has limited power generation as well as the production casing material choices.  In the 1990’s titanium grade 29 was utilized very successfully to line nearly all of the energy producing wells in this field.  The material proved to be an excellent choice and has given 25+ years’ service life to date.  Despite its excellent performance, grade 29 is a high strength, costly titanium alloy that is also difficult to manufacture and finish.  Recent wells (2012 and beyond) have utilized other (non-titanium) materials that were less expensive upfront, but appear to be degrading at a much faster rate than the grade 29 titanium alloy.  To date, these newer wells have required repairs in as little as 2-3 years after start-up.  TIMET has recently developed a new alloy, TIMETAL 475 that addresses both the cost and performance issues seen in this geothermal field.  This presentation will highlight the corrosion performance of this new alloy, along with its more cost effective manufacturing process route for geothermal well casing.


Industrial Titanium Market Update

Nate Fairfield
Sales Manager
Uniti Titanium

Titanium is consumed in a broad spectrum of industrial markets, including chemical processing, oil and gas, power generation, pulp & paper, desalination, automotive, and consumer products.  Most notably of late, business levels have been strong in the chemical processing industry, where demand is linked to capital spending and can therefore fluctuate considerably.  However, we have experienced strong demand for well over two years, largely associated with – but not limited to - purified terepthalic acid (PTA) and chlorine capacity expansion projects in the USA.  Power generation, especially connected to emerging renewable energy applications, represents an attractive growth area for titanium mill products.  Oil and gas, industrial water/desalination, and consumer markets (like architecture) all have significant and specific high volume requirements where titanium is ideally suited.  This presentation will explore the products, applications, and demand drivers influencing titanium usage in these markets.   It will conclude with a look back at industrial titanium consumption trending over time, with an attempt to forecast near-term global demand.


Constructing A Marine Engine Exhaust Gas Scrubber From Titanium Material

Tim Mournian
Ti Marine Heat Exchanger

Pending international regulations are driving ship owners to install Exhaust Gas Scrubbers (EGS) on all of their vessels which burn Heavy Fuel Oil.   These emission control devices are very large, heavy and provide limited service life due to the corrosive service environment.  It is estimated that over 50,000 ships are candidates for outfitting with Exhaust Gas Scrubbers over the next five years.

These devices are typically made of high-end stainless steels like 6-Mo or Duplex.  These materials are susceptible to corrosion failure if pre and post construction heat treating is not performed properly.  They experience corrosion and eventual failure with a resulting need for repair or replacement.  A solution to this inherent material weakness is needed to keep the EGS systems in service and the vessels in compliance with environmental regulations.

An exciting replacement material is Titanium, which is corrosion resistant, lighter and stronger than other metals.  This paper discusses the feasibility of using Titanium for the construction of an exhaust gas scrubber.  The benefits relative to corrosion, vessel stability, weight and installation costs are examined.   The “Total Cost of Ownership” is the determining factor in this examination.  TCO includes upfront costs, installation costs, maintenance and repair / replacement costs.


NACE CORROSION 2020 Link to Conference Registration and Online Schedule pages:


ASM International Local Chapter Meeting in Houston:

Postponed until September 2020 - Please check back for date.

Meeting details:
Location: The Forest Club, 9950 Memorial Dr., Houston, TX 77024

Event Schedule:

5:30 – 6:30pm – Social Hour

6:30 – 7:15pm – Dinner

7:15 – 8:15pm – Presentation and Q&A

Bill MacDonald and Charles Young will host a 1-hour presentation before dinner.  Presentation will cover oil exploration, production, refining and the downstream petrochemicals. 

Bill will talk about the front end of the titanium business and maybe some of the downhole subjects then Chuck will talk about the chemical processing / refining side.

Online registration will be available starting March 24th and a link will be posted here at that time.  ASM Members and Non Members both invited.


ITA Enlists Sutherlin to Mentor Mechanical Engineers On ASME Code Work For Industrial Titanium Applications

In a spirit of professional stewardship, leaders of the International Titanium Industry (ITA) continue to reach out and provide support to a new generation of engineers, procurement managers and technical sales representatives, all of whom are eager to establish their place in the titanium industry. One example of this interactive outreach is a new program that will involve Rick Sutherlin, a paid technical consultant of ITA, who will be mentoring young mechanical engineers with the ASME code work, especially as it relates to industrial applications for titanium.

A registered professional engineer, Sutherlin, who retired in 2015, spent many years at Wah Chang Corp., which was based in Albany, OR. (Wah Chang, following various acquisition moves, became part of the Specialty Alloys division of Allegheny Technologies Inc.). He has served on various committees with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for over 20 years with a focus on reactive and refractory metals (titanium, zirconium, niobium and tantalum). His resume lists committee work with the American Welding Society (AWS), and he also is a general member of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers.


When it comes to specifying titanium for various industrial applications, Sutherlin said he has expertise in critical aspects of ASME’s boiler and pressure vessel codes. He will provide written reports to ITA of ASME actions on all reactive metal actions and any other code actions that are not confidential to the ASME, and will attend ASME quarterly meetings as an ITA representative.


His work as a mentor will include assistance to any ITA member on ASME action items and procedural issues. He also will work with the American Society for Testing and Materials (“ASTM”) committee on adoption of ASTM specifications for ASME, and help facilitate the updating of future ASME titanium specifications. In addition, he will report on any potential changes in AWS filler-metal specifications that might affect future titanium filler-metal requirements.


ASME supervisory boards are responsible for pressure vessel technology, nuclear installations, safety codes and standards, standardization and performance test codes and conformity assessment. “The supervisory boards in turn have standards committees, each responsible for an area of standards development. The advisory boards deal with strategic initiatives, energy and environmental standards, hearings and appeals and council operations,” he said.


Sutherlin indicated that, during the last 20 years, he has been one of the few knowledgeable individuals working on the ASME committees supporting reactive metals like titanium and zirconium, which are both ASME pressure vessel materials of construction. “We would like to have more trained engineers join the standards committees and begin to support these important materials of construction in the ASME code committees.”


What’s the essential “take away” from these training programs being offered under the auspices of the ITA? The basic answer, according to Sutherlin, is to “protect the interests” of the titanium industry. During his 40-plus years in the business, he has seen many experienced engineers retire and new ones come on board. “There’s always a concern with the transfer of experience,” he observed. “Experience makes a big difference. We don’t want to lose that experience, especially when it comes to ASME codes. People need to have that knowledge.”


For example, he said that for individuals making decisions on specifying a material for a given industrial application, their experience, for whatever reason, may not include a comprehensive knowledge on titanium alloys. Designers and engineers involved in industrial projects tend to “fall back” on materials that they know. They may not know about titanium’s properties or the relevant ASME codes. “People may choose the ‘safe route’, but that might not be the best choice for specifying a material,” he said. “They may not know about titanium.” When it comes to a critical application like a pressure vessel for the chemical processing industry, Sutherlin said engineers and designers must know about specific titanium alloys in order to make informed decisions.


2020 Boiler Code Meeting Schedule:

Tele-Conference Calls - please contact ITA for more details.

ASME BOILER CODE WEEK – May 1015, 2020

ASME BOILER CODE WEEK – August 1621, 2020

To learn more about Sutherlin’s mentoring program, call the ITA at (303) 404-2221 or visit the website (

Industrial Market/AnTi Corrosion Seg. at TITANIUM USA 2019

Global Industrial Markets/AnTi Corrosion Segment

The Global Industrial Markets/“AnTi” Corrosion Segment was split into two speaker panels. Nate Fairfield, sales manager, UNITI Titanium, served as the moderator for the first panel. Chris Wilson, technical director, UNITI Titanium, gave an “Update on Ballot for Titanium Grade 12 – NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156-3.” Wilson explained that the ITA sponsored a project to remove restrictions on Grade 12 titanium within the NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156-3 standard. He said the current standard has the following restrictions on hardness and annealing:

“UNS R53400 shall be in the annealed condition. Heat treatment shall be annealing at (774±14)°C [(1,425±25)°F] for 2 hours followed by air-cooling. Maximum hardness shall be 92 HRB. Continuous annealed product is currently not permitted. Hardness values greater than 92 HRB are not permitted.”

Wilson reported on the ballot voting:

  • FIRST BALLOT VOTE: MR0175 / ISO 15156-3 Maintenance Panel meeting in Krakow Poland on September 3, 2018. FAILED – (2 positive votes/10 negative votes)
  • SECOND BALLOT VOTE: Maintenance Panel vote in January 2019.

PASSED – (11 positive votes/3 negative votes)

  • THIRD BALLOT VOTE: TG299 Task Group vote in May 2019.

PASSED – (26 positive/7 negatives)

  •  FINAL BALLOT VOTE: MR0175 / ISO 15156-3 Maintenance Panel meeting in Seville Spain on Sept. 6, 2019. PASSED

He then spelled out the revised wording:

  • Current Wording: UNS R53400 shall be in the annealed condition.  Heat treatment shall be annealing at (774±14)°C [(1,425±25)°F] for 2 h followed by air-cooling.  Maximum hardness shall be 92 HRB.
  • Revised Wording: UNS R53400 shall be in the annealed condition.

Wilson then explained the significance of the change, saying that it now removes barriers for Grade 12 titanium producers, with no restrictions on annealing cycle and no maximum hardness requirement. It increases supply availability for NACE MR0175 the “sour” service market; with improved mechanical properties over Grade 2/2H.; improved corrosion resistance over Grade 2/2H; with potential project cost savings over Grade 2/2H.


In summary, Wilson said the Grade 12 modifications will be included in the next technical circular publication of the NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156 standard. “Grade 12 is a viable and competitive option, when all factors of the project scope are considered, such as allowable stress at elevated temperatures, density of material, cost of material, and corrosion resistance.”

Charles Young, business development manager/metallurgist, Tricor Metals, discussed the “Addition of Titanium Grade 2H (7H, 16H and 26H) to ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII–Div. 2.” Why Ti Grade 2H in Division 2? According to Young, greater savings for titanium equipment could result. “Pete Philippon of Tricor Metals at the 2018 Managing Aging Plants conference showed that the use of Titanium Grade 2H under ASME Section VIII-Div. 2 (Class 2) rules would yield a material savings of about 14 percent over that of Sec VIII-Div. 1.”


Young then asked: “What do we need to do? Develop an ASME Code Case; present data and analysis on “H” titanium grades; and gain ASME committee approvals.”


He then referenced the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code “Division 1 establishes minimum section thicknesses based on formula and the allowable stresses found in Section II, Part D. Division 1 Allowable Stresses for titanium are based on UTS/3.5. Division 2 establishes section thickness based on either more sophisticated design formula and/or allows Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to be used. Division 2 Allowable Stresses for Class 1 are based on UTS/3.0 and for Class 2 on UTS/2.4.” Young listed the current status, saying that “six titanium grades approved for use in ASME Section VIII-Division 2 (Ti-1, 2, 3, 7, 12, and 16). Titanium H grades approved for use in ASME Section VIII – Division 1 are (Ti 2H, 7H, 16H and 26H). There are No “H” grades approved for Section VIII-Div.2.


He then noted the current existing data. “All of the 2H alloys (including 7H, 16H and 26H) are currently in ASTM specifications and in ASME Section VIII – Div. 1 and approved for use to 600˚F (325˚C). Mechanical test data from 6 (Six) heats of material for annealed plate/strip is available for analysis. The data generated during the original Section VIII-Div. 1 JIP (ITA-MTI) programs can be used for this program.” Requirements or Approvals that currently exist include an External Pressure Chart that has been established for the 2H Grades - External Pressure Chart NFT-2. “All physical property information has been established (thermal expansion, modulus, thermal conductivity, Poisson’s ratio, and thermal diffusivity). Welding requirements have been established.”

Iryna Smokovych of the Institute of Materials and Joining Technology of the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Germany, outlined research being done at the institute on “Derived Oxidation Barrier Coatings for Titanium Alloys.”


Smokovych said that silicon-based polymers can be used to prepared polymeric and ceramic coatings, citing the development of a coating system intended for oxidation protection of Ti-6Al-4V alloys on the base of perhydridopolysilazane precursor (PHPS) filled with Si and B powders. “As a result of polymer to ceramic conversion a homogenous distribution of fillers in the SiO2/SiNO matrix was achieved; (13B+22Si)+PHPS, volume percent coating provides promising oxidation protection upon cyclic oxidation at 800oC up to 100 hours in air.”

Dennis Schumerth, ASME fellow and principal, DBA, Titanium Tubular Consultants, offered information on “Titanium Applications for Industrial Heat Exchangers Using Treated Sewage Effluent and Gray Water Cooling.” He outlined the potential market, saying that there are 16,000 to 24,000 municipal wastewater plants in the United States, and more than 1,500 employ water reuse. Worldwide, there are more than 60,000 municipal wastewater plants and 6 percent of the wastewater volume is currently reused.


Schumerth offered photos of a treated sewage effluent (TSE) facility (in a remote location, not disclosed), which he said went on line in 1986, describing it as the “largest 100-percent TSE facility in the world. The TSE is pumped 45 miles via a 96-inch diameter transport pipe, with a sewage plant flow of 58 million gallons per day. This facility uses Grade 2 titanium as a tube material.


“After 33 years of TSE cooling of titanium-tubed plant heat exchangers operation, there has been zero corrosion,” he said, adding that there have been some isolated fatigue failures due to support plat spacing design errors and several tube failures due to improper cold water Sparger design—all of which have been corrected.

Bill MacDonald, director of technical sales for Timet, moderated the second half of the corrosion speaker panel. Edgar E. Vidal, Ph.D of NobelClad a DMC Global Inc. company, reviewed information on “Large Titanium Clad Pressure Vessels: Global Developments in Design, Manufacture, and Fabrication.” He first gave an overview, saying that titanium clad (Ti-Clad) pressure vessels, columns and heat exchangers are increasingly used in modern processing plants which typically involve a combination of highly corrosive process media, high pressures and/or temperatures. “Explosion welding (EXW) is the only proven technology for manufacture of the large, heavy titanium clad,” he said.


Vidal said titanium clad is typically supplied as flat clad plates and formed clad heads. Two industries support up to 70 percent of Ti-Clad production globally: purified terephthalic Acid (PTA) in PET and polyester fiber production; and pressure acid leaching of metal ores. Ti-Clad manufacturing technology that uses EXW is highly proprietary, and details about EXW titanium clad manufacturing technology are not available in the public literature, he said.

He cautioned conference attendees to “only consider clad vendors with verifiable, reliable titanium clad supply performance. Titanium clad manufacture requires unique technology and significant proprietary intellectual property. Proven, verified experience in producing titanium clad for PTA and/or IPA equipment is the only true indicator of a clad producer’s ability to perform – there are a limited few vendors with this experience. When suppliers are not adequately vetted, and those suppliers fail to perform, the project cost can increase dramatically due to poor quality and/or late delivery.”


He continued by saying that titanium clad equipment design and fabrication “requires unique technology and equipment, which often includes very tightly held intellectual property. Not all fabricators have the same equipment, level of automation and capabilities. A thorough in-process inspection plan must be developed jointly by the fabricator, design engineer and owner selected inspectors. Proven, verifiable experience in fabricating with titanium cladding for multiple projects is the only true indicator of the clad fabricators ability to perform. There are a limited few fabricators with this experience. Accept only those with verifiable, reliable experience based on specific equipment type and size.”


Tim Mournian of Titanium Marine Heat Exchangers presented a business case for “Building a Marine Exhaust Gas Scrubber from Titanium Materials.” Large sea-going vessels such as ocean liners and intermodal cargo ships are a major source of air pollution worldwide and the public is demanding that emissions at sea and in port be reduced, he said. “Ships burning heavy fuel oil (HFO) are a major contributor to GHG, CO2, NOx and SOx. IMO 2020 regulations dictate a reduction in SOx emissions, by reducing allowable sulphur in Heavy Fuel Oil from 3.0-0.5 percent. To comply, ships must now burn lighter Marine Gas Oil, or they can continue to use HFO with an “exhaust gas scrubber.”

Compliance deadline is Jan. 1, 2020.”

One solution is to install an exhaust gas scrubber on the ships. The opportunity for the titanium industry is to replace existing super austenitic stainless steel (SASS) with scrubbers designed and built with titanium, which can offer significant advantages in terms of life-cycle costs and pollution-control performance. “Replacement costs for SASS are substantial and recurring,” Mournian said. “Replacement cycle for SASS is every five to seven years. The replacement cycle for titanium, equal to life of vessel (assume 25 years). The return on investment is less than 24 months for titanium. Ships with exhaust gas scrubbers will save on fuel ($5.6 million savings per year, 300 days sailing). Regulatory compliance costs are minimized with titanium.”


A presentation by Laura Ely, services leader with the Barnes Group Advisors, declared that “Additive Manufacturing Makes Making Dynamic Again.” Additive manufacturing is a “team sport” involving elements such as physics, optics, electromagnetics; computational fluid dynamics; gas behavior; mechanics of materials; materials science and metallurgy; big data, simulation, analysis; powder manufacturing; flow and spreadability.

Bob Salo of Sciaky Inc. presented information on electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) and the Sciaky EBAM process, which is suitable for large industrial parts. The process, according to Salo, has closed-loop controls that monitor bead geometry uniformity; improved consistency of microstructure, mechanical properties and chemistry; automated and adaptive real-time process controls; and automatic process variable acquisition and recording. EBAM has the potential to deliver 20-75 percent material savings, 20-75 percent reduced machining, and potential lead time reduction of over 80 percent.

Young delivered a second presentation:” Clad Metal Repairs – How Thin is Too Thin?” He underlined the advice that, when welding clad metal, “using highly skilled welders from an experienced company is essential to success. What thickness of clad should you weld on? It’s risky to weld on anything less than 0.078” thick. Even 0.098” thick could be contaminated with too much heat input. The difference between 0.098” and 0.068” is only 0.03.” That is less than the thickness of a penny. It doesn’t take much time to grind through 0.03” of titanium.”

Global Industrial Markets Session at Titanium Europe 2019 in Vienna, Austria

Speakers at the seventh annual TITANIUM EUROPE Conference and Exhibition, hosted and organized by the International Titanium Association (ITA), held May 13-15 at the Austria Trend Hotel Savoyen in Vienna, shared their expertise in a variety of business topics including titanium supply and demand trends, powder metallurgy, additive manufacturing, commercial aerospace, medical, and industrial business sectors.

The industrial topics at this year’s event were robust and attendance of 444 from 32 countries at the annual conference was the second highest since its inception in 2013.

A recap of industrial markets topics (non-aerospace) and speakers with links to video proceedings follow below.  For medical topics, please visit the Medical Technology committee page.

For the World Titanium Industry Demand Trends speaker panel, Albert Bruneau, the president of Neotiss, outlined “Global Trends in Industrial Markets.” He reviewed the activity and expectations in major industrial markets for titanium, including power, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, chemical processing, desalination, shipbuilding, oil and gas, and automotive. Bruneau estimated the annual use for titanium in industrial market at 60,400 metric tons.


Titanium flat products accounts for about 60 percent of the consumption, followed by tubes and bars. Chemical processing represents the largest industrial sector for titanium use. When segmented by country, China is the largest user of titanium for industrial markets, followed by Europe, North America and Japan.


Bruneau said he based his trend projections on a recent Neotiss market review, customers and suppliers interviews, ongoing tenders, the 2019 BP energy outlook, and the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) annual energy outlook for 2019. Strong growth is slated for the HVAC and automotive sectors; moderate growth for shipbuilding, oil and gas and chemical processing; and mixed or flat conditions for power and desalination.


Global Industrial Markets Session
Alan Wagner, head of business development, Metals BU, Cristal Metals, Inc., examined demand and business conditions in the “Middle East Market for Titanium.” Wagner said an accurate assessment of the market is difficult as titanium is usually integrated into equipment when shipped into the region. “Market volumes calculated based on trade data by countries, identification of projects in the sectors, and interviews with potential customers. Industrial titanium demand is mainly for tubes, sheets and plates for application in fabrication of process equipment such as heat exchangers, condensers, reactors, pumps, pipes and fittings. Industrial titanium demand in the Middle East historically is driven by the desalination market. Demand for potable water is expected to grow with increasing population and industry.”


He pointed out that seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination is more energy efficient than thermal technology (MSF, MED) (which favors the use of titanium), and has gained a significant share of announced projects. The current preference for SWRO is reducing average demand for titanium tubes to around 200 metric tons per year compared with the previous annual demand level of 1600 metric tons. “Technology of several major projects to be decided and could require hundreds of tons of welded titanium tube if thermal/hybrid is selected.”


Wagner also tracked near-term titanium demand forecasted for Middle East power generation at 173 metric tons per year, and demand from process industries at 415 metric tons per year. “The execution of titanium operations in the region will provide a local presence/ease of availability and coupled with government initiatives and educating customers on the benefits of titanium should help increase titanium demand.”


Pol Rixhon, sales director, Welders N.V., discussed the “Use of Titanium in the Pressure Vessels Industry.” Rixhon said the chemical processing industry typically prefers titanium grades 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, and 16 for pressure vessels. Applications include pressure vessels used in refineries, marine environments, chemical processing, organic synthetics and petrochemicals. Refinery heat exchangers represent another major application.


Titanium’s inherent properties that make it desirable for these application areas include low density, high strength, low modulus of elasticity, high thermal conductivity and lower thermal expansion, and weldability, when compared with alternative industrial materials.


Olivier Sarrat, manager, business development, NobelClad Europe, addressed the “Ultrasonic Examination of Titanium Explosion Cladded Plates for Condenser Tube Sheets Used in Nuclear Power Plant Environments.” Sarrat said nearly all the power generation plants located close to seashore, using sea water for cooling and condensate electrical turbine steams, designs condenser tube sheets with titanium tubes. “In that configuration, tubesheets also shall be lined with titanium to ensure sealing between tubes and collector. The most reliable solution to get that titanium lining is the explosion cladding of titanium sheet on a carbon substrate.”


The nuclear requirements in terms of non-destructive examination (NDE) are very stringent in the nuclear power industry,” he said. “Ultrasonic inspection being one of them is considered the most reliable NDE available to check the integrity of the bonding.”


La Chance Lepemangoye, Université de Bourgogne & Neotiss SAS, spoke about the “Impact of Cold Rolling on the Hydriding of Titanium Grade 2. The properties of titanium Grade 2 (99 percent titanium and 1 percent impurities) include excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, along with good mechanical properties and weldability. However, it primary disadvantage is that Grade 2 has an affinity for hydrogen.


“Hydrogen can easily find its way into the interstitial sites in the crystal lattice of titanium,” she wrote in her abstract. “When the hydrogen content dissolved inside the crystalline lattice is sufficient, it can be combined with the metal to form hydrides. That affects the physico-chemical and mechanical behaviors of the material. This embrittlement could affect the equipment integrity, mostly when subjected to fatigue and/or high temperatures.”


She said that several steps in the production of tubes can be a source of hydrogen absorption. As such, it’s necessary to optimize the manufacturing process to reduce the hydrogen content in the material. Tests to reduce the hydrogen content included symmetrical and asymmetrical cold rolling. “The hydrides depend of the crystallographic orientation of grains,” she said. “Only asymmetrical cold rolling changes crystallographic orientation of grains.”


Mathieu Lheureux, technical sales manager, Neotiss SAS, shared thoughts on a competitive solution for titanium heat exchangers tubes in refineries. Lheureux’s presentation reviewed the technical and cost advantages of titanium over copper alloys in overhead condenser used in refineries.


Lheureux began by listing the most common types corrosion in heat exchanger tubing: general corrosion: uniform loss of metal over an entire surface: pitting: local corrosion attack leading to the creation of small holes in the metal; crevice, which occurs in confined spaces to which the access of the working fluid from the environment is limited; microbiological, with some sulfate-reducing bacteria producing hydrogen sulfide gas; stress cracking, which results from the combined action of temperature, corrosive agent and residual stresses; erosion, the degradation of surface material due to particles suspended in fast flowing liquid or gas; flow accelerated, fast-flowing water that damages the protective oxide layer on a metal surface; and galvanic, damage induced when two dissimilar materials are coupled in a corrosive electrolyte and brought into electrical contact under water.


Some refineries obtain half of their energy needs thanks to energy reconversion through heat exchangers, according to Lheureux. “Seawater and brackish water are sometimes used as cooling media for the heat exchangers. Historically Copper alloys such as CuNi90/10 or CuNi70/30 were used in shell and tubes heat exchangers with brackish water or seawater. Since then, titanium tubing prices have significantly decreased and it has become a cost competitive solution versus historical copper alloys solution. Water cooled overhead condenser is a good example of application for which titanium is now a better cost competitive solution.”

Presenters Video Proceedings and Slide Presentation Links:

Albert Bruneau
Neotiss High Performance Tube
Topic:  Industrial Markets
Click Here for Slide Presentation
Click Here for Video

Alan Wagner
Head of Business Development, Metals BU
Cristal Metals, Inc.
Topic: The Middle East Market for Titanium
Click Here for Slide Presentation
No video for this speaker

Pol Rixhon
Sales Director
Welders N.V.
Topic:  Use of Titanium in the Pressure Vessels Industry
Click Here for Slide Presentation
Click Here for Video

Olivier Sarrat
Manager Business Development
NobelClad Europe
Topic:  Ultrasonic Examination of Titanium Explosion Cladded Plates for Condenser Tubesheets Used in Nuclear Power Plant Environment
Click Here for Slide Presentation
Click Here for Video

La Chance Lepemangoye
Université de Bourgogne & Neotiss SAS
Topic: Impact of Hydrogen on the Behavior of Titanium Alloys Welded Tubes
Click Here for Slide Presentation
Click Here for Video

Mathieu Lheureux
Technical Sales Manager
Neotiss SAS
Topic: Titanium Heat Exchanger Tubes : A Competitive Solution for Heat Exchangers in Refineries
Click Here for Slide Presentation
Click Here for Video

Potential Joint Industry Program for the Addition of Ti Grade 2H (7H and 16H) to ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII – Div.

The Global Industrial Applications Committee of the International Titanium Association (ITA) is looking to develop a “joint industry program” composed of Chemical Processing Industry (CPI) companies, titanium fabricators and other interested parties to work together to develop a “Code Case” for titanium “H” alloy grades to be included in the ASME’s Section VIII Division 2.

Rob Henson, Chair of the ITA Industrial Applications Committee, and manager, business development, VSMPO-Tirus, U.S., said this joint industry program would need a “champion” company and person to assist in guiding the Code Case through the various stages of the ASME approval process. This Code Case would verify that the “H” alloys have higher mechanical properties as their non-“H” counterparts listed in current ASME Division 2 specifications and would develop the “design allowable” stress levels at the various temperatures of use—up to 600o F.

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code allows for the use of 17 different titanium alloys in Section VIII Division 1, including titanium Grade 2 and Grade 2H. These grades are commercially pure titanium alloys with differing levels of interstitial oxygen, iron and carbon in the metal structure, with clearly defined (and different) tensile strengths of 50 ksi and 58 ksi, respectively. In this ASME Code Section, there are also several other titanium grades, based on titanium Grade 2 chemistry with Grade 2 mechanical properties that have an “H” grade designated. The list includes titanium Grades 7 and 7H, 16 and 16H and 26 and 26H (all of these grades are already included in ASTM specifications). However, when looking at Section VIII, Division 2, none of these “H” grades are included, which restricts their use in ASME Code vessels and, in some cases, increases the cost of titanium vessels to the CPI.

Michael Stitzlein, ITA Global Industrial Applications Committee member and president of Tricor Metals, said the ability to use the titanium “H” grades for the design and fabrication of ASME Code vessels would “allow for fabricators to potentially offer thinner wall vessels at a potentially lower cost to the Chemical Processing Industry.” The possibility of also offering Division 2-designed vessels as an alternative to titanium clad vessels also exists and could result in lower cost as well as shorter lead times for vessel fabrication, as titanium plate is more readily available than clad titanium plate.

Peter Philippon, design engineering manager at Tricor Metals, in a recent presentation, offered the following comparison to show the potential difference between titanium Section VIII Division 1 and titanium Section VIII Division 2 Code vessels:

By being able to use Titanium Grade 2H under ASME Division 2 requirements, the fabricator and the end use chemical process plant can save by reducing the wall thickness from 7/8-inch to ¾”-inch. This would yield a savings of 14 percent in material.

As also shown in Philippon’s comparison, the wall thickness for a titanium Grade 2H Section VIII Division 2 vessels is dramatically thinner than for the same design in Section VIII Division 1, and with even more savings when compared to Titanium Grade 2 Section VIII Division 1, which would have been used for older vessels. ITA committee members believe that a cost savings of almost 50 percent or more may be available.

But why hasn’t this ASME update for titanium grades been done already? The easy answer is that no one has seen the need in the past and has not been willing to undertake the effort to develop the necessary criteria. But now, with environmental friendly production and economic incentives to reduce costs, it makes sense to use all of the tools that we have to manufacture less expensive vessels; vessels with the same corrosion resistance and long life that has become expected of titanium equipment.

The ITA’s Global Industrial Applications Committee believes that developing this ASME Code Case for these alloys will allow CPI companies to become more cost effective when using their capital dollars for new equipment as well as replacing older, outdated equipment.

What is the next step in achieving the inclusion of these “H” grades in ASME Section VIII, Division 2? As mentioned above, the ITA’s Global Industrial Committee is looking to establish an alliance among the association, chemical companies (end users who would specify titanium Grade 2H or the other H grades, for pressure vessels) and fabricators (who would design and fabricate using these alloys in Division 2). “We are looking for interested parties to participate and we need the technical expertise and experience of end users and engineers to work with us to be successful,” Henson said, adding that the ITA would assist in coordinating and managing the program to ensure its timely completion and success.

 IAC Participates in the 14th World Conference on Titanium
The Materials Society (TMS) 14th World Conference on Titanium

TMS hosts this academic conference every 4 years in a different location.  Established in 1968, the World Conference on Titanium presents the latest research in titanium and its high-value alloys.  This year the event will take place June 10-14, 2019 at the Nantes Congress Center in France.

ITA Industrial Applications Committee Chair Rob Henson, Manager, Business Development, VSMPO Tirus US will present “Opportunities and Challenges for the Industrial Titanium Market”.


The industrial titanium market is the second largest segment of the titanium industry and currently comprises less than 20 % of the overall titanium market. In spite of a more than 50 year history of successful application in corrosive environments myths about availability, fabrication, pricing and corrosion resistance are still part of the conversation and culture with many potential customers. The author will discuss these issues and present comparisons with other common materials of construction to demonstrate the business case for titanium. With seawater/brackish water being the most common corrosive environment where titanium is applied examples of current applications will be presented. By highlighting the characteristics of titanium that led to the material choice in these examples potential new applications can be identified. These examples will come from application on offshore platforms, LNG liquefaction plants, power generation, desalination and petroleum refining operations. Against the backdrop of the application analysis the author will also explore regulatory, market influences and new technology impacting the industrial titanium market segment. Drawing on statistics from the Titanium Association and other resources a projection for industrial growth will be presented for the next decade.


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Click here for Historical TMS World Conference Proceedings

Recap of NACE TEG 120X Reactive Metals Speaker Track

March 26, 2019
Nashville Tennessee USA
The ITA Industrial Applications Committee participated in hosting a speaker track at the Technology Exchange Group (TEG) 120X for Reactive Metals at NACE in Nashville, Tennessee USA on March 26, 2019.  TEG 120X provides an exchange of experiences on the use of reactive metals as related to properties, fabrication, and application.


Update On Revision of NACE MRO 175 Gr12 Requirements
Chris Wilson
Technical Director
Uniti Titanium
Click Here for Slide Presentation


Potential Joint Industry Program for the Addition of Ti Grade 2H (7H and 16H) to ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII – Div.
Richard Sutherlin, President
Richard Sutherlin, PE, Consulting LLC
Click Here for Slide Presentation


How Thin Is Too Thin For Titanium Cladding
Alex Orr
Welding Engineer
Tricor Metals
Click Here for Slide Presentation


Large Titanium Clad Pressure Vessels Design, Manufacture, and Fabrication Issues – An Update 15 Years Later
Presented by Edgar Vidal, Director of Marketing - Nobelclad
Prepared by:  Edgar Vidal, Curtis Prothe, John Banker
John G Banker, FASM, Clad Metal Consultants
Click Here for Slide Presentation


Additive Manufacturing Makes Making Dynamic Again
John E. Barnes
The Barnes Group Advisors
Click Here for Slide Presentation


Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM™) of Reactive Metal Equipment
Steve Sparkowich
Technical Sales Manager
Sciaky Inc.
Click Here for Slide Presentation


Weld Deposition Additive Manufacturing
Chet Fuller, COO
Norsk Titanium
Click Here for Slide Presentation


The ITA Industrial Applications Committee plans on hosting a speaker track at the next TECHNOLOGY EXCHANGE GROUP (TEG) 120X to be held Tuesday, March 17, 2020 in conjunction with the NACE Corrosion conference being held the same week in Houston, Texas USA.


Historical Conference Proceedings from IAC:

NACE TEG 120X meeting from 2018
NACE TEG 120X meeting from 2017

Evaluation of NACE Standard MRO 175 - ITA’s IAC Eyes Finish Line on Efforts to Update Grade 12 NACE Standards

The Global Industrial Applications Committee of the International Titanium Association (ITA), having pursued a multi-year process to update requirements Grade 12 titanium in NACE MRO 175 specifications, is hopeful of a major milestone as early as June, 2019.


If all goes as expected, a ballot of completed test results will be reviewed by the maintenance panel of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), and it’s hoped the ballot will be accepted. NACE publishes many documents related to corrosion control for industrial applications. MRO 175 is the standard regarding the use and performance of metallic industrial materials in a corrosive, hydrogen-sulfide (H2S) in oil and gas production environments.


Titanium Grade 12 alloy 0.3 percent molybdenum and 0.8 percent nickel is designed to perform in reducing environments and offer protection from crevice corrosion. Element, previously known as Exova Group Plc, West Midlands, UK, conducted the testing work on Grade 12 under the guidance of the ITA’s Global Industrial Applications Committee. NACE serves 30,000 members in 116 countries and is recognized as the premier global authority for corrosion control solutions.


Rob Henson, manager of business development for VSMPO Tirus US, gave a presentation on the testing conducted to gain approval in the MRO 175 standard at TITANIUM EUROPE 2018 held in Seville, Spain.  During his talk, he outlined the completed test results, which indicated “no observable cracking” in corrosion testing for sulfide stress cracking (SSC), galvanic hydrogen stress cracking (GHSC) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC).  The original ballot proposal was submitted in July 2018 to the NACE MRO 175/ISO 15156-3 maintenance panel and TG299 oversight committees for approval.   The committee now anticipates receiving a final vote by June 2019.


Once approved, the updated MRO 175 specification will result in inquiries for Grade 12 from oil and gas engineering companies. Titanium Grade 12 provides “a more efficient price point” for titanium in these applications when it competes against historical materials of construction such as nickel alloys, according to Henson. In essence, he said the updated specification will mean that titanium mills can now certify Grade 12 to the NACE standard without taking any exceptions to the specification.


The committee’s mission is to facilitate new applications for titanium in industrial markets; remove barriers to applications for the welding and machining of titanium; and assure that specifications, such as MRO 175, are updated and appropriate.


Henson said the ITA’s Global Industrial Applications Committee decided to embark on a review process to update MRO 175 because this specification “will impact the titanium industry globally. It is a tangible deliverable to advance the removal of barriers to the use of titanium. This is a first step, but it’s a significant first step.” Today, Henson feels the four-year process has been worth the effort and that it will yield results for the titanium industry. “Our motivation is still valid today and still the same.”


Applications for titanium Grade 12 in oil and gas production would include valves, pipes, fittings and heat exchangers. Such components, under MRO 175, must be certified to resist “catastrophic cracking” and failure when operating in a corrosive hydrogen sulfide environment. The MRO 175 standard addresses an industrial material’s ability to withstand stress cracking in a hydrogen sulfide environment, also known as a “sour service” or “sour gas environment.”


The specification addresses petroleum and natural gas industries materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production. An estimated 70 percent of world oil reserves and 40 percent of gas reserves contain high levels of sulfur. Given the insatiable growth in global energy demand, it’s expected that the exploration and production of “sour” resources will increase dramatically.


Titanium Grade 12 is of interest because of superior corrosion resistance and strength compared to Grade 2 (commercially pure titanium), a global manufacturing base for the full range of mill products, and a favorable price point compared with titanium/palladium alloys or nickel alloys. It is estimated global production of Grade 12 today falls into an annual range of 500 to 1,000 metric tons, depending on project activity in industries such as chemical processing, waste-water treatment and certain mining projects.


“Today customers cannot afford to accept exceptions in an industry standard,” Henson pointed out, referring to contractual agreements between engineering companies and end users. “Today all the parties must comply with the details of a standard. No one wants the responsibility of an exception in a specification.” 
Event Reminders/Save the Date

NACE TEG120X Reactive Metals
Postponed to June 16, 2020
Houston, Texas
9:00am to 12:00 noon
Click here for Speakers, Agenda and Registration

ASM Local Chapter Meeting & Dinner
April 7th - will be postponed to September 2020
The Forest Club
9950 Memorial Dr.
Houston, TX 77024
5:30 – 8:15 pm
Presenters:  Bill MacDonald, TIMET and Chuck Young, Tricor Metals
Registration Available Soon – Click Here to learn more.

Titanium Europe 2021
May 3-5th Dublin, Ireland

ASME Boiler Code Week
All 2020 Meetings will be held via video-teleconference.

Managing Aging Plants 2020
October 5-6th
Houston, Texas
Registration coming soon

September 6-10th
SQUARE Brussels Meeting Centre, Brussels, Belgium Source
Registration Here

Titanium USA 2020
October 11-14th
Chicago, Illinois USA

 Past Conference Proceedings:
NACE TEG 120X 2018
NACE TEG 120X 2017
Corrosion Solutions Conference
TMS World Conference on Titanium
Managing Aging Plants 2018
Titanium Europe 2019 Vienna, Austria
AnTi Corrosion 2017 Miami, Florida USA 

ITA Industrial Committee Members

  • Rob Henson, VSMPO - Tirus, US (Chair)
  • Regis Baldauff, Titanium Industries, Incorporated
  • Bill Bieber, Webco Industries
  • Bill Brownlee, Titanium Fabrication Corp.
  • Mike Stitzlein, Tricor Metals
  • Chris Wilson, Uniti Titanium
  • Kevin Cain, Uniti Titanium
  • Greg Dunn, Titanium Fabrication Corp
  • Larry Haubner, TITAN Metal Fabricators
  • Wendy McGowan, Neotiss
  • Tim Mournian, Titanium Marine Heat Exchangers
  • Steve Patera, Titanium Processing Center
  • Charles Young, Tricor Metals
  • Steve Sparkowich, NobelClad
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