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TITANIUM EUROPE 2016 Paris France
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TITANIUM EUROPE 2016 Executive Summary

Dawne Hickton
ITA President, Women in Titanium Chair
Former CEO RTI International Metals, Inc.,
and serves as Member of the Board of Directors of Norsk Titanium

Dawne S. Hickton is the former Vice Chair, President and Chief Executive Officer of RTI International Metals, Inc. (RTI), where she was employed for over 18 years. RTI was a global supplier of advanced titanium and specialty metals products and services in commercial aerospace, defense, propulsion, medical device, energy and other markets. Ms. Hickton served as CEO from April 2007 until July 2015, when Alcoa acquired RTI.

For the past 2 years Ms. Hickton has been recognized as one of the top 100 global leaders in STEM by STEMconnector.

Ms. Hickton serves on the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.

In addition, she is a member of the board of directors of Norsk Titanium AS, Oslo, Norway, a global leader in manufacturing performance critical titanium components for aerospace and industrial applications. She is also a board member of Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., one of the world’s largest and most diverse providers of technical professional and construction services, serving on the audit committee. She is also a member of the board of directors of Triumph Group, Inc., a global leader in manufacturing and overhauling aerospace structures, systems and components, and serves on that board’s audit and nominating and corporate governance committees.

Ms. Hickton is a member of the Board of Directors of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum and a director of The Wings Club. She is a member of the University of Pittsburgh’s Board of Trustees, serving on the student affairs and property and facilities committees, as well as chairing the School of Law’s Board of Visitors.


Eric Roegner
Innovation is Driving Growth in the Defense Industry

Mr. Roegner's discussion is a call to action for ITA members to work outside of the box to advance the use of titanium in military through innovation. Eric Roegner is Chief Operating Officer responsible for Alcoa Power & Propulsion (APP) and Alcoa Titanium & Engineered Products (ATEP) and President of ATEP. He also serves as President of Alcoa Defense, a role he has held since 2012.

As COO, Eric oversees APP, a global leader in advanced nickel airfoils, and nickel and titanium structural castings, primarily for jet engines and industrial gas turbines, and ATEP, the designation for the recently acquired titanium aerospace leader RTI International Metals, which he also leads as President. Eric continues as President of Alcoa Defense, which develops new technologies for military applications across air, land and sea. ATEP, APP and Alcoa Defense are part of Alcoa's Engineered Products & Solutions Segment, which is primarily focused on aerospace. In addition to these roles, Eric serves on Alcoa’s Executive Council, the senior leadership team that sets strategic direction for the company.

Most recently, Eric served as Chief Operating Officer, Alcoa Investment Castings, Forgings & Extrusions in Alcoa's Engineered Products & Solutions Segment, a position he assumed in 2013. In that role, Eric was responsible for Alcoa’s Power and Propulsion and Alcoa Forgings and Extrusions businesses.

Prior to that, Eric served as President of Alcoa Forgings & Extrusions, a position he assumed in 2009. Eric joined Alcoa in 2006 as Chief Operating Officer of Alcoa’s Global Engineered Products business, before being named President of Alcoa's Global Hard Alloy Extrusions business at the beginning of 2007.

Prior to Alcoa, Eric was a partner with management consulting firm McKinsey & Company and held engineering positions with Nordson Corporation, a producer of precision dispensing equipment, and for Schlumberger Limited, the world’s leading oilfield-services provider.

Eric holds a bachelor's degree in mechanical and aerospace engineering from Princeton University and an MBA degree from Case Western Reserve University. He currently sits on the Board of Governors of the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) and the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the Ohio Chamber of Commerce (OCC).


Wade Leach
Titanium Demand and Trends in the Airframe Market Titanium is a preferred option in a wide variety of airframe applications from small fasteners weighing a few grams to landing gear and large wing beams weighing close to one ton. New applications for titanium will drive increased usage in the next generation of aircraft. The combination of mechanical properties, low density and compatibility with composite structures make it an excellent material for use in aerostructures. This presentation discusses the market trends, the applications and how the industry is answering the growth challenge. Wade Leach joined ATI in August 1983 as a Product Engineer after graduating from North Carolina State University with degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Engineering. In September of 1985, he joined the Sales Department as an Inside Salesperson and transitioned to Field Sales for the Southeastern United States in January of 1986. In April of 1988, Wade moved to the Los Angeles area to become Western Regional Sales Manager. Wade was promoted to Plant Manager of ATI’s South Boston, Virginia, facility in October 1992. In that role he oversaw a significant expansion of the plant and successfully led the effort to increase the business and product offerings of that facility. In September 1996, he was named General Manager of Tool Steel Products. In August 1998, he became Director of Long-Term Agreements and added the responsibilities for Product Management in August 2000. Wade was appointed Vice President of Sales, Marketing, and Product Management in February 2006. In that role Wade’s responsibilities included the U.S.-based field and inside sales groups, product management, and long-term agreements with customers. In October 2014, Wade was promoted to Senior Vice President – Commercial, ATI Specialty Materials.

Note:  No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Henry Seiner
Developments in Jet Engines: A Titanium Perspective

Today’s engine market is very different than the one we saw in the 1960s during the dawn of the jet engine. Engine size and performance characteristics have evolved in conjunction with changes in the market landscape. This presentation will examine this aforementioned history and provide a forecast that accounts for future challenges and opportunities for the next generation of commercial aerospace jet engines.

Mr. Seiner, TIMET's Vice President of Business Strategy, oversees the Marketing, Product Management, Purchasing and Production Planning organizations for TIMET. In this role, he has responsibility for and visibility into all aspects of TIMET’s supply chain.

Henry is based in TIMET's Toronto, OH facility ‐‐ which is geographically and structurally in the middle of TIMET's global supply chain. He has held various positions in Production Planning, Manufacturing, Purchasing and Marketing in his 24 year tenure at TIMET.

Prior to coming to TIMET, Henry spent six years at U. S. Steel Corporation in Sales, Marketing and Production Planning. His educational background includes a Masters Degree from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA and a Bachelors Degree from Duke University in Durham, NC. Henry is a native of Pittsburgh and continues to reside in Western Pennsylvania.

Note: No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Claudio Dalle Donne
VP Materials and Processes
Airbus S.A.S.

Titanium Aerospace Demand & Integrated Supply Chain

In the context of growing aircraft demand and of ramp up of new programs, Airbus titanium supply chain needs to deliver on challenges of both accompanying the ramp up by delivering with excellent industrial performance, and of optimizing total cost of ownership of flying parts. Engineering cost out of the supply chain will be instrumental for that purpose.

Dr. Claudio Dalle Donne is Vice President Materials and Processes for Airbus S.A.S.. In 2015 he headed the Technical Capability Centre “Metallic Technologies and Surface Engineering” of Airbus Group Innovations with labs in Munich, Paris and Filton (UK). His team developed the eco-efficient surface technologies, metallic materials and processes and is supporting Airbus Group business units in manufacturing, testing and failure analysis. He received a mechanical engineering degree (1991) and a PhD degree
(1996) from the University of Karlsruhe. From 1991 to 2004 he was scientific officer and group leader in the Institute of Materials Research of the German Aerospace Center DLR in Cologne. In parallel he was teaching at the University of Parma, Italy. In 2004 he joined EADS Corporate Research Center in Munich as Head of the Metallic Structures Dept.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Raphael Duflos

Titanium Aerospace Demand & Integrated Supply Chain In the context of growing aircraft demand and of ramp up of new programs, Airbus titanium supply chain needs to deliver on challenges of both accompanying the ramp up by delivering with excellent industrial performance, and of optimizing total cost of ownership of flying parts. Engineering cost out of the supply chain will be instrumental for that purpose. Mr Raphael DUFLOS is an Engineer, with a degree from the Engineering School of Central Lyon and the University of Salford, with a post-graduation in Telecom Paris. He started his career in 1989 at Aerospatiale Missile as Design Engineer then as Cooperation Contract negotiator. In 1995, he joined Airbus in various program roles around Cost Sharing between partners. Following the launch of the A380 and the start of the EADS group, he went back abroad in 2001, as Senior Manager Sourcing Strategy for EADS, based in Munich. In June 2004, he led the Procurement Directorate and became a member of the Executive Committee of EADS Socata in Tarbes. 3 years later, he joined Astrium to implement innovative Supply Chain Solutions in the space domain. Finally, he participate to the creation of Aerolia as Chief Procurement, Quality & Supply Chain officer. Aerolia is an aeronautical tier one equipment supplier and European leader of b Aerostructures. Since its creation in 2009, Mr DUFLOS has taken an active part in the strong growth of the company, the procurement budget passing from 500M€ to more than B€ 1 in 6 years with the creation of Stelia. In his career, Mr DUFLOS gives priority to overall costs and advocates in his approach the collaborative work with suppliers to be competitive and to respect the market’s requirements.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.

Michael Metz
Overview of Russian Market for Titanium Mill Products

Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.

Michael Metz joined VSMPO - Tirus, US in November 2003 as Vice President, Commercial and was named President of the organization in 2007. VSMPO is the largest producer of titanium in the world, vertically integrated from titanium sponge manufacture through melting and mill products such as plate, sheet, bar, billet, wire, and welded and seamless tubing. In addition, VSMPO supplies titanium closed die forgings for airframe and engine applications. Mike has served on the International Titanium Association Board of Directors since 2007 holding the positions of Director, Vice President and President.

He has significant experience in the titanium industry, having had held positions in sales, distribution, product management, market research and forecasting at Titanium Metals Corporation from 1986 to 2003 before joining VSMPO. Mike graduated from Hamilton College in 1981 with a BA in economics, and from Carnegie – Mellon University in 1983 with an MBA.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Albert Bruneau
Global Trends Industrial Markets

Significant volume of Titanium is consumed every year as plates, sheets or tubes by the Power Generation, Process and Desalination markets. These volumes have been fluctuating significantly over the recent past, generating lack of visibility and concern for all the players along the supply chain. What are the drivers and trend on market? Thanks to its long and worldwide presence, VHET has a unique understanding of the dynamics and trends of Titanium usage by these complex markets.

Albert BRUNEAU will discuss the key drivers of titanium consumption in the industrial market and provide an estimate of the evolution in the coming years.

Albert BRUNEAU is Executive VP of Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes since 2013. Subsidiary of Vallourec group, headquartered in France, Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes is the worldwide leader of titanium and stainless steel welded tubes for heat exchangers, with facilities and sales forces based in five countries on three continents: France, United States, China, India and Korea.
Prior to Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes, Albert Bruneau has held numerous senior sales & marketing management positions within Vallourec group mainly for the Oil & Gas industry, involved in Europe, South America, Africa and Middle East.

Albert Bruneau graduated from French Engineering School ESPCI and conducted one Executive MBA at the French Business School HEC.


Ren Wei Feng
Chief Economist
Beijing Antaike Information Development Co., Ltd.

Titanium demand trends in the Asia Pacific Region

This presentation will review the current status of the demand of titanium metal, predict the trend, and examine the driving forces, type and mode of the demand in the countries of the Pacific Rim, especially of China.

Dr. Feng is the chief economist of Antaike, Chief Editor of China Titanium magazine and China Rare Earth magazine, graduated from Sichuan University with a master’s degree of World Economics in 1996 and a PhD of World Economics in 2008. He started his career in Antaike in 2008 and is mainly engaged in research of titanium industry and rare earth industry, and the work of macroeconomic research, industry finance research, nonferrous metals industry data model building and forecasting.

Mr. Ren took part in some key national science and technology projects such as Nonferrous Metals Industry Energy Efficiency Technology Selection and Evaluation, Nonferrous Metals Industry location and Regional Environmental Coordinative Development Research, and some national, regional and corporate research projects such as Rare Earth Industry Clean Production Technology Implementation Scheme, Titanium Development Specialty Planning in Shaanxi Province (2011-2015) and Rare Earth Industry Thematic Research in Jiangxi Province. He is in charge of the research of China Nonferrous Metals Industry Prosperity Information System Platform Building and Nonferrous Metals Price Forecast Model Development.

He was granted a first level prize and a second level prize of China Nonferrous Metals Science and Technology Advance in 2012 and 2013 and published an academic book named as Global Climate Change, Low Carbon Economy and Environment Finance.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Thomas Ebel
From Powder to Demanding Components – Titanium and Powder Metallurgy

Powder metallurgy (P/M) still represents a niche in processing of titanium and titanium alloys. Though, usage of fine powders as raw material offers unique possibilities related to design of the part, fabrication and shaping of special alloys as well as significant cost reduction. Currently, additive manufacturing (“3D-printing”), in particular, is of high interest, even for the manufacturing of critical Ti-components. However, concerns mainly exist related to mechanical properties, especially low fatigue resistance due to residual porosity or embrittlement by impurity uptake during processing. Successful P/M processing of titanium implies understanding of the specific features of the material and corresponding adaption of the manufacturing chain. In this presentation an introduction to P/M processing and its current status related to titanium materials is given. The special properties of titanium und titanium powders and the critical issues during production and processing are pointed out as well as ways to overcome these challenges. Technologies like additive manufacturing and metal injection moulding are introduced enabling near-net-shape forming of parts. As a conclusion, successes and challenges of titanium P/M including current research topics are shown.

Since 2006 Dr. Ebel has been the Head of department at Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, firstly, department “Powder technology”, now “Materials Design and Characterisation”. Focus on powder metallurgical (P/M) techniques for processing of titanium and magnesium. Expertise: metal injection moulding. Main interest: development of P/M alloys. From 1996 to 2006 Dr. Ebel worked at a private medical company in Kiel, Germany, member of department “Development”, last three years head of development department, focus introduction of Metal Injection Moulding of titanium for manufacture of permanent implants. From 1994 to 1996 Dr. Ebel was a Post doctoral fellow at Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, a public German research centre working on materials science and coastal research.


Christoph Genter
Managing Partner
AMCG Unternehmensberatung GmbH
Market Intelligence • Consulting

Titanium Powder Markets – Chances and Risks

The high buy-to-fly ratio of titanium in the aerospace industry is a major driver for the growing use of titanium powder as a substitute for conventional titanium mill products and processes. Titanium powder and powder metallurgy is a disruptive technology with chances and risks for the complete titanium metal value chain.

The current market volumes for titanium powder in total as well as by powder manufacturing and processing technologies will be shown together with the volumes by market segments. Furthermore, an outlook for the titanium powder markets is given. Finally, chances and risks for the players in the value chain are evaluated.

Christoph Genter is founder and managing partner of AMCG Unternehmensberatung. He has more than 30 years experience in the titanium industry from projects in Europe, North America and Asia. Christoph Genter has an M.B.A. from University in Munich and M.Sc. on Chemical Engineering from University in Karlsruhe. AMCG is a management consulting company focused on market intelligence and business development for the customer industries special metals, chemicals and engineering. AMCG’s customers are global players and medium-sized companies as well as public organizations.


Chris van Dam
Titanium PM and AM / 3D Printing

The lecture will cover industrial aspects of titanium powder manufacturing, powder manufacturing techniques, 3D modeling and 3D printing. Some potential aerospace applications will be shown and described. The lecture will describe the current state of affairs from an industrial point of view. As such, it will be general in nature avoiding detailed, specialized subjects.

Chris van Dam is an aerospace engineer from Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. He is specialized in aerospace materials - like metals and composites, and manufacturing. His thesis work was done at the (then still existing) Fokker Aircraft, where he designed, manufactured and tested a primary aircraft structure designed as a composite sandwich panel.

He has extensive experience in the international trading of high quality and aerospace grade metals, including titanium.

In 2014, he set up startup company Airborne Metals. Airborne Metals is a distributor of aerospace grade raw materials and semifinished products working with mills holding relevant system certifications. The company is also seeking access to innovative technologies in the industry, like powder metallurgy and additive manufacturing.


Neill McDonald
Pilot-Scale Research in Ti Powder Production

Tailor-designed titanium powders are in increasing demand due to new applications and stringent final product specifications in various industrial sectors. The growth of tailored titanium powders is also linked to the evolving requirements of additive manufacturing processes such as HIP, LBM, EBM, MIM, etc.. The development of such powders – from idea to industrialization - is complex and time consuming.

Pilot- and semi-industrial scale research on titanium powder is an often underestimated step in this process and beneficial in order to reduce risk, in particular related to investments, and to optimize processes and productivity both before and after industrialization. In addition, pilot-scale equipment can provide suitable quantities of powder to facilitate tests on existing AM equipment and to produce small powder batch series. The investment (CAPEX/OPEX) for such pilot-scale equipment is significant for most companies and questions related to upscaling persist even after successful trials.

MetaFensch is a publicly funded R&D centre created in France in 2014 and dedicated to accompanying innovative metallurgical projects through to industrialization. In order to carry out this mission, a platform has been created in Lorraine (near the Belgian, German and Luxembourgish borders) which houses pilot-scale melting, casting and powder manufacturing equipment and the personnel and infrastructure necessary to operate them. A major theme for this platform is titanium powder production including an EIGA furnace with the possibility to employ up to 100 mm diameter electrodes.

This presentation aims to provide an overview of the challenges related to pilot-scale Ti powder production as well as the solutions put in place by MetaFensch in order to meet them.


Stuart Bond
Lab Testing to Qualify Ti Gr 12 (UNS R53400) for Potential Ballot for Inclusion in NACE MR0175

Sour service applications in upstream oil & gas require materials which are demonstrated to be resistant to the relevant cracking mechanisms which can manifest in such service. The most widely accepted document to guide materials selection for H2S-containing service is NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 which includes in Part 3 information on the corrosion resistant alloys. The history of the document extends back to the 1970s and as such some data are very old.

Titanium Grade 12 has been covered for application in sour service without limitation but with restrictions on both the material properties and manufacturing parameters. This historic information is no longer aligned with modern processing and therefore the titanium industry desires to produce data to permit a change to the document to accommodate current manufacturing parameters (which is undertaken via balloting to the Maintenance Panel). This presentation will provide details on the aspects of alloy inclusion and the proposed testing programme to be undertaken by Exova to generate the data to support a ballot to the Standard.

Stuart brings over 26 years’ experience in consultancy and industrial applied research, with a particular focus on the Oil & Gas sector. Prior to joining Exova, Stuart spent over 21 years with TWI Ltd, where he held a number of key technical and business development positions, most recently as manager of the company’s Materials Performance and Ferrous Alloys Section.

A well-respected corrosion expert, Stuart is a professional member of the Institute of Corrosion, and sits on the European Federation of Corrosion Working Party 13. As a Senior Corrosion Technologist of NACE International, he also actively participates on a number on NACE committees, and recently took over the post of Vice Chair of NACE STG32, a two year post prior to two years as Chair.

Stuart will work closely with specialist teams at the Exova Corrosion Centre in Dudley and teams in Exova’s corrosion laboratories throughout the world.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Rand Dannenberg
A New High-Throughput Ultra-High Precision Process for the Manufacture of Fiber-Optical Components

nanoPrecision Products, Inc. has developed a breakthrough ultra-high precision, high-throughput titanium stamping process that will disrupt the single-mode fiber-optic ferrule interconnect marketplace. The market is anticipated to be on the order of 500 million parts per year by 2020, and our product will consume 1600 metric tons per year of titanium grade 2. The name of our product is the Ferrolder® . The manufacturing process that presently pervades the marketplace is based on precision grinding of ceramic zirconia ferrules and alignment sleeves, which is slow and expensive. nanoPrecision's cost-and-performance competitive advantage stems from our stamping technique, that retains the traditional high production throughput of stamping, yet enables us to achieve geometrical form tolerances on the stamped parts on the order of 100 nanometers. The performance of our titanium interconnects has exceeded the standard ceramic product on both the Telcordia GR-386 metric, and on the even more stringent Verizon metric. The Ferrolder® based single-fiber connector SC/UPC Kit now has Verizon quality acceptance. The Ferrolder® is presently produced on a 2 million part-per-month prototype production line. Crucial to our competitive advantage in this space is the use of commercially pure titanium grade 2 as the material for a variety of attributes which will be outlined in the presentation.

Dr. Dannenberg is a materials scientist and optical physicist working in the CTO's Office of nanoPrecision Products, Inc. on novel high-precision applications of metalforming for use in optics.


Bertrand Flipo
Linear Friction Welding for Increased Industrial Titanium Productivity
Focusing on the state of the art technique for Near Net Shape manufacturing; this presentation will describe recent developments and economical assessments in the joining of Titanium alloys using Linear Friction Welding (LFW). Currently, many such components are machined from solid blocks of Titanium alloys, resulting in relatively poor scrap ratios. The use of near net shape parts produced by LFW can significantly reduce production costs for a wide range of components.

Build up of near net shape parts by LFW also provides the opportunity for selection of appropriate dissimilar alloys in different parts of the part structure. This approach allows the production of tailored components, resulting in both functional and economic benefits. Examples will be shown of the application of this approach to aerospace components, from simple LFW fabrications, to more complex components produced by sequential LFW of multiple parts to build up structures.

In summary this presentation will provide an update on recent Linear Friction Welding developments and their potential economic benefits, aimed at improving product effectiveness and reducing production costs for a wide range of aerospace components.

Specialised in Linear Friction Welding, Bert has an extensive experience on the LFW technology for the Aerospace industry. Bert has been involved in all aspects of the LFW implementation:
- Innovation strategies,
- Process development,
- Machine design and manufacture,
- New products introduction,
- Production and manufacturing improvements,
- Quality monitoring,
- Product life cycle.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Christopher Higgins
Titanium Alloy Bars For Renewal Of Civil Infrastructure

Internationally, civil transportation infrastructure continues to age and deteriorate. Society has increased demands on these systems and requires them to carry higher volume, heavier loads, and remain in-service beyond their intended design life. Simultaneously, new and larger hazards have emerged from natural and manmade sources. Large investments are needed to maintain safety, mobility, and ensure continuous performance, yet replacement of existing assets is beyond fiscal reach. Due to limited resources, strengthening, rehabilitation, and renewal of existing infrastructure have become necessary alternatives to replacement. Carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) have become the material of choice for rehabilitation projects but have many drawbacks that can be overcome using titanium alloy bars. Challenges to widespread acceptance of titanium alloy bars for civil infrastructure include the industry’s ignorance of titanium’s mechanical properties and long-term benefits, perception that the material is cost prohibitive, and lack of performance data for structures with titanium reinforcement.

Research is presently underway to develop methods and demonstrate the potential of using titanium alloy bars to strengthen aging and deficient reinforced concrete bridges. The addition of titanium alloy bars will allow the bridges to carry heavier truck loads and resist large earthquakes. Ti-6-4 bars with special surface deformations were developed for this application. The surface deformation pattern permits epoxy bonding to the underlying concrete. Fabrication of the bars is performed using conventional methods.

Christopher Higgins is the Cecil and Sally Drinkward Professor of Structural Engineering in the School of Civil and Construction Engineering in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University. His field is structural engineering and he created and directs the Structural Engineering Research Laboratory at OSU. He holds a B.S.C.E. from Marquette University, M.S. from The University of Texas at Austin, and Ph.D. from Lehigh University. He is a registered Professional Engineer.

Dr. Higgins teaches graduate and undergraduate courses, mentors students, and conducts research in Structural, Bridge, and Earthquake Engineering. He has received numerous teaching and research awards including the 2015 Titanium Applications Development Award.


François Ory
Titanium Alloys in Metals & Processing for the Orthopaedic Global Markets

Francois Ory was born in 1959. He earned his MBA at New York City’s Pace Uninversity in 1983. Mr. Ory worked in the industrial development with the French Industrial Development Agency, then Pechiney Group. He began a Supply Chain management team at Snecma, a French aircraft engine group. He moved to Forecreu in the 90 and conducted LBO in 2006 with private equity support.

He is currently the President and Owner of Forecreu, a group specialized in extruded & drawn hollow bars in special steel and titanium alloys used for the manufacturing of cutting tools, orthopaedic and trauma instrument or implants.


Lars Ryberg
Area Sales Director
Arcam AB Sweden

Additive Manufacturing of Implants - The Path to Production

Experiences from how the implant manufacturers who have implemented Additive Manufacturing in their production have gone about obtaining CE certification and FDA clearance for their EBM-manufactured orthopedic and spinal implants.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Kim Seung Eon PhotoTiEU2016.jpg
Seung Eon KIM
Principal Researcher
Korea Institute of Materials Science

A Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a New Beta Titanium Alloy

A new beta titanium alloy, Ti-39Nb-6Zr (TNZ40), has been studied for biomedical implant applications. This alloy showed quite low elastic modulus and good mechanical properties and biocompatibilities. Microstructure and mechanical properties are very sensitive to processing and heat treatment condition of beta titanium alloys. In this study, we have investigated the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties after swaging of TNZ40 alloy. Swaging process was conducted up to 75% reduction before heat treatment. After swaging, direct aging was only employed with temperature range from 350oC to 450oC. Elastic modulus was dramatically decreased below 45GPa after 10 minutes aging and it was steeply increased again with aging time at all aging temperatures. Tensile strength showed similar behavior to elastic modulus in all aging conditions. From XRD and TEM examination, it is noted that the size and distribution of omega and alpha phases play an important role to control elastic modulus and tensile strength of TNZ40 alloy. This paper will discuss the relationship between constituent phases and elastic modulus and mechanical strength. Further, fatigue property of this alloy will be also discussed as a candidate alloy for dental or orthopedic implant applications.

Seung Eon KIM is working for the Titanium Department in Korea Institute of Materials Science. His major field of study is alloy design and liquid processing of titanium based alloys. He is currently interested in new beta titanium alloys for biomedical applications.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Volker Güther
GfE Metalle und Materialien GmbH
Alloy Development and Production of TiAl TNM forging stocks for Low Pressure Turbine Blades
A beta stabilized Titanium Aluminide exhibiting improved wrought processing capability has been developed. Based on this alloy (TNM) an entire production line for LPT blades for the PW1000G aircraft engine has been established in Germany consisting of
• VAR TNM ingot production
• VAR Skull melting / Induction Skull Melting with subsequent centrifugal casting
• Isothermal forging
• Thermal treatments
• Machining to final blade
Alloy development was based on thermodynanamic modelling. The adjustment of the final composition has been made after the evaluation of the thermomechanical properties of different alloy variations. Due to the defined fracture of beta phase in the microstructure, the TNM alloy shows outstanding wrought processing capability. Furthermore, tensile strength, fatigue strength and creep resistance exceed the figures of conventional TiAl alloys.
A robust industrial production technology for the production of forging stocks has been developed, evaluated and fully approved for aerospace applications. VAR ingots are being homogenized in a VAR Skull Melter and centrifugally cast in permanent moulds to small diameter forging stocks. The very low remaining casting porosity is being closed via HIP. The robustness and productivity of the process is demonstrated. Parts of the casting stock (feeders, funnel, casting crown etc.) are being converted to products in a single step metallurgical process based on Induction Skull Melting. After homogenization of the melt, the subsequent centrifugal casting process remains unchanged. Evaporation losses of alloying elements exhibiting high partial pressure in vacuum can easily be compensated. Products resulting from the virgin VAR SM route and the revert ISM route cannot be distinguished with regard to their chemical composition and physical properties.

Please Note: Speaker has requested presentation not to be included in proceedings.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter


Matthias De Sousa
R&D Manager

Can TiAl Oversized Powder Coming from EIGA Process be Managed ?

Due to its low ductility and poor-machinability, TiAl-parts are quite hard to manufacture using classical shaping techniques. Powder metallurgy, like Metallic Injection Molding (MIM), or additive manufacturing techniques allows to develop structural TiAl-parts manufacturing, even if it is highly related to the powder quality and cost.  

Because of its high reactivity, TiAl powders are usually produced thanks to free-crucible gas atomization like for example, Electrode Induction Gas Atomization (EIGA) or Rotating Electrode Process (REP). These two methods produce a quite large size distribution (from 5 up to 300 µm), in particular for the REP technique. Powders with particles size above 100 µm are called “oversized” powder, because their low-value market compared to powders with particles size below 100 µm.

A study led by the companies Silimelt and ALD Vacuum Technologies allowed to work out a two-step process for TiAl powder manufacturing. The first step consists in producing TiAl powder using EIGA process, developed by ALD Vacuum Technologies. The EIGA-produced powder contains around 55% of particles sized below 100 µm and only 22% sized below 50 µm. The second step deals with the plasma fragmentation of oversized TiAl powders (>100 µm), in order to convert coarse powders into finer ones. A parametric study of this new plasma process has been led in order to define a range of optimized operating conditions for enhancing the production of fine particles. Starting from particles size above 100 µm, up to 50% of the raw material can be converted into particles sized below 100 µm, after in-flight plasma treatment.


Wilfried Smarsly
Representative Advanced Materials
MTU Aero Engines GmbH

Status of Titanium Aluminides for Aero Engine Applications

Advances in gas-turbine development are driven by the need to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and costs.

From material aspect, these requirements enhanced the development of highly creep and oxidation resistant materials of greater temperature potential than titanium alloys and of lower density than nickel superalloys. Advanced TiAl alloys are complex multi-phase alloys which can be processed by ingot or powder metallurgy as well as precision casting methods or even forging. Each process leads to specific microstructures which can be altered and optimized by thermo-mechanical processing and/or subsequent heat treatments. The blades can be forged using isothermal forging equipment.

Subsequent, two-step heat treatments were conducted to adjust balanced mechanical properties i.e. a sufficiently high plastic fracture strain at room temperature and good creep properties at elevated temperatures.

Wilfried Smarsly received his Dr.rer.nat. degree in material science at Technical University Aachen. He has joined MTU in 1987 and started his career in the materials development field. He was responsible for the development of powder metallurgical processes related to aluminum, titanium and nickel superalloy aero engine components. Wilfried Smarsly was appointed Head of Advanced Materials and Designs in 1997. He is responsible as project manager for the development of light weight high temperature materials.


Romain Vert
High quality Ti-based powder production and recycling by Induction Plasma Technology

The performances of metal powder-based additive manufacturing (AM) technologies like electron-beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) greatly depend on powder characteristics such as flowability, packing density and purity. Particles exhibiting a perfectly spherical morphology largely contribute at optimizing both the flowability and the packing density of a powder. However, not all the powder manufacturing processes succeed at optimizing these critical characteristics for the AM needs since satellites, pores and/or particles of irregular morphologies are regularly observed in commercial powders. Furthermore, powder flowability, packing density and purity can be altered to different extent by the AM process and this is known to limit the recyclability of the powders.

The inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) proprietary technology developed by Tekna over the last 25 years has the capability to produce and/or recycle high quality titanium based materials. Indeed, the speroidization process allows to produce pure Titanium or titanium alloys such as Ti64, Ti6242 or TiAl for example. Moreover, the processing of used powders allows to transform particles of various shape into perfect spheres. On top of that, Tekna has developed a proprietary classification process specifically for removing ultrafine particles within a powder, allowing thereby the re-use of powders in AM processes that would otherwise be out of specification in terms of powder purity and flowability. Tekna’s ICP technology will be briefly described and case studies with powders made with different manufacturing processes will be presented.

Dr. Vert has worked for Tekna since 2012 and is in charge of the R&D activities and a part of the sales activities for Tekna in Europe. The main R&D activities are related to materials development for various industry sectors such as, ceramic industry, aerospace, automotive, medical or oil&gas industry.

Previously Dr. Vert obtained his PhD in the field of materials science and has worked in the thermal spray industry.

Presentation given by Alexandre Vassa


Guillaume SANA
Advanced Technologies for Hard Metals Forming

Titanium alloys and hard metals in general as Nickel based or Cobalt based alloys are very attractive regarding their mechanical and chemical properties (corrosion, oxidation) for aircraft parts application, either for structural or engine parts.

The main issue is the low formability of these alloys in ambient condition which do not allow to produce complex shape parts in simple way. Actually in ambient condition bending ratio or springback effect set the limit of part design and manufacturing processes. At the same time customer requirements concerning processes and parts repeatability is growing up. For those main reasons other processes must be considered.

For several decades ACB (France) and its sister company Cyril Bath (USA), have developed several processes in order to solve this customer demand and to develop and promote the use of hard metals in the aerospace industry especially titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4, Ti-6242, Beta-21S). As hydraulic press and part supplier both companies can focus on supplier and customer point of view simultaneously.

Thanks to this strategy advanced technologies can now be applied to part manufacturing with following objectives:
- To produce parts without springback
- To guarantee process repeatability and homogeneous part quality
- To provide residual stress free parts
- To improve buy-to-fly ratio

Hot Forming processes are one the best industrial response to these technical and economical requirements.

In this presentation a state of the art on Hot Forming processes will be done to show how it can match current customer needs. In addition to thin titanium parts (0.4 to 4 mm thickness) an introduction to bulk part manufacturing will be done explaining how Linear Friction Welding technology can challenge actual machining strategy.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Dmytro Kovalchuk
New Electron Beam Equipment for Additive Manufacturing of Titanium

Additive manufacturing is considered as one of the most prospective technologies for near-net-shape production of titanium parts. Among all currently available the electron beam additive manufacturing technologies look most attractive for titanium thanks to high power of an electron beam and production of parts completely in vacuum. But in spite of impressive progress in implementation of additive manufacturing into titanium industry during last few years there are still numerous technological problems caused by the imperfection of existing methods and equipment including residual porosity, non-uniform mechanical properties in different directions, residual stresses as well. In addition currently applied equipment and feedstock materials are quite expensive.

Authors will present new method of an electron beam additive manufacturing which was developed to solve the most of above mentioned problems. It is based on the concept of direct deposition of feedstock in the form of wire or powder using special low-voltage gas-discharge electron beam guns. New method can enable additive manufacturing of rather small and accurate parts as well as large scale production with high efficiency. Equipment based on new method will make additive manufacturing technology more accessible both for R&D purpose and for normal use in industry.

Pilot electron beam installation based on the said method was put into operation this year. Its technical data and technological capabilities will be presented.

Mr. Dmytro Kovalchuk is co-owner and director of JSC NVO Chervona Hvilya since Company foundation in 1997. He has 26 years of experience in development of electron beam technologies and their implementation to industrial application. Over the late 1990th and early 2000th he was involved as project manager in creation of complete production chains in Ukraine with titanium ingots and mill products. Since 2005 JSC NVO Chervona Hvilya has started activity in the field of development and manufacture of advanced electron beam equipment mainly for melting and EB-PVD application. Gas-discharge electron beam guns of own design with power up to 600 kW have been the key element of this activity. Until now electron beam equipment produced by JSC NVO Chervona Hvilya was supplied to leading companies in Ukraine, USA, Russia, Europe, China as well.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Alexander Alexandrov

Multicomponent complex VTI-4 alloy is an ortho-alloy on the basis of the Ti2NbAl compound. The composition of VTI-4 alloy comprises six alloying elements, wt. %: (10-12) Al, (38-42) Nb, (1-1,5) Zr, (0,5-1,0) Mo, (0,5-1,0) V, (0,1-0,25) Si. It is intended, in particular, for production of blades and disks of aircraft engineʼs high pressure compressor with a working temperature at a long-term usage up to 700 °C. Despite the known advantages of such alloys, any ortho-alloy still isnʼt used abroad because of complexity in metallurgical production.

JSC «Chepetsky Mechanical Plant» is mastering now the production of industrial ingots of the intermetallic VTI-4 alloy at maintenance of VIAM (Moscow) - the developer of this alloy. The present report is devoted to the manufacturing of two triple remelted ingots of VTI-4 alloy: the first – with the estimated weight of 490 kg with use of only vacuum-arc melting, the second – with the estimated weight of 630 kg with carrying out one remelting in the vacuum-arc skull furnace.

The following materials were used for smelting of VTI-4 alloyʼs ingots: titanium sponge, aluminium, silicon, zirconium and master alloys aluminum-molybdenum-vanadium-titan, vanadium-aluminum, niobium-titanium.

The briquettes from burden materials were pressed on a vertical hydraulic press and then welded into consumable electrodes in the electron-beam unit.

Smelting of ingots was carried out with use of vacuum-arc and vacuum-arc skull furnaces. The final third vacuum-arc remelting was carried out in a mold with a diameter of 360 mm.

The chemical analysis of ingots, conducted on three belts of the lateral surface, corresponded to the established requirements.

The statistical analysis of distribution of the alloying elements on the lateral surface of ingots showed that the ingot obtained with the use of skull melting has a more uniform distribution in comparison with an ingot of triple vacuum-arc remelting.


Benoit Noel
Titanium in France, Market and Actors

This presentation will examine the role of French companies involved in Titanium for the Aerospace market, their influence on the supply chain and the changes in titanium demand.

Mr. Noel has been working in the aerospace industry for the past 20 years, involved in metal forming and melting. Mr. Noel is the South Europe Sales Director and Service and distribution operations Director for TIMET for the past 6 years. Since 1950, TIMET has been leading the industry in mill and melted products, supplying nearly one-fifth of the world’s titanium demand. TIMET is the only supplier with production facilities in both the United States and Europe to support our multinational customer base.

Previously, Mr. Noel was VP Sales of the Manoir Aerospace group that has been since acquired by the Lisi group. He also lived in the USA where he was Managing Director of Manoir Special Forging. Manoir Aerospace serves the aerospace industry with Forging and castings for Engine and structure elements.

Born in the East of France, Benoit Noel has travelled since his early childhood. After some time in New-Caledonia and Africa, his family settled in Nantes. Benoit Noel graduated from the business school Audencia-Nantes and from the Institut Français de Gestion. In his professional life or in different associations, Benoit Noel likes to share his “passion of aeronautics”, he was graduated at 15 with a glider pilot license and now flies vintage and aerobatic aircrafts.

Video Proceedings:



Mohamed Bouzidi
VP, Strategic Business Unit Aeropace
Aubert et Duval

UKAD: European Titanium Actor, Close Loop to the Customers

UKAD is a JV between UKTMP from Kazakhstan and Aubert et Duval from France. UKAD has been launched in 2009, first ingot was forged in 2011.
From 2011 after the qualification phase, the ramp up has been significant and today UKAD is a big player in Europe.

UKAD is delivering billets, bars and blooms to the markets which are forgers, fasteners, machining shops and end users.

UKAD receives its ingots from UKTMP. The ingots are produced in VAR furnaces and then converted in France. Soon UKAD will be able to propose a second route from Plasma furnace. A Plasma (and VAR) furnaces will be installed next to UKAD facility in France and will enter into operation by 2018.

The goals are to create a circular economy through the recycling of scrap generated in Europe and to offer a close loop to the customers.

Mohamed Bouzidi is currently VP for the Aerospace – Energy – Defense Strategic Business Unit within AUBERT ET DUVAL. He is in the Aerospace / Titanium industry for more than 25 years. Before being for the last 15 years within A.D. where he serves several commercial and business worldwide positions, he was within SNECMA in charge of R&D for superalloys and purchasing for forgings and raw materials. He held a PhD in metallurgy and MBA for EDHEC business school.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Bernd Friedrich
Head of Institute
RWTH Aachen, IME – Institute of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling

Ceramic crucible melting of titanium alloys and intermetallics in VIM

Nowadays the recycling of Titanium Aluminum alloys gets more important due to the established use in sectors like aerospace and medicine engineering. A common way to melt Ti in a VIM is to use the so called vacuum induction skull-melting. This means that the material is molten down using a water cooled copper crucible where the strong cooling leads to formation of a solid metal “skull” protecting the copper crucible from the liquid melt.

Due to the enormous amount of cooling water needed this process is very expensive therefore the use of ceramic crucibles would be way more cost efficient.

The challenge when melting Ti-based alloys in a VIM using ceramic crucibles is to avoid any oxygen pickup. As the oxygen affinity of Ti is extremely high, most of the common crucible materials such as Al2O3 or MgO cannot be used. CaO, which is thermodynamically stable enough, is hard to handle as it is very hygroscopic and tends to react with air moisture.

In our research group a lot of investigations have been done to find a way for melting different titanium alloys in ceramic crucibles. Our research is focused on melting intermetallic TiAl alloy (GE 48-2-2) in yttria coated Al2O3-crucibles as well as melting Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo in a CaZrO3 crucible.

The results of our research show that it is possible to use these crucible materials with a reasonable oxygen pickup.

No video proceedings will be provided for this presenter.


Thierry Viguier
Mr. Viguier joined Safran in the early eighties, at the Electronic Division of Snecma. He spent 3 years in Binghamton, New York, USA in developing the Full Authority Digital Engine Control
(FADEC) of the A320 CFM56 Engine with the Partner GE (former GE-ACSD). Over the next 10 years in France, Mr. Viguier led the business development of Snecma electronics for Western Europe. Thanks to lessons learned in business development, Mr. Viguier found opportunities in the Procurement division in 2003. He took successive positions in Hispano-Suiza and Snecma, dealing with different commodities, before relocating to Safran headquarters. As a Safran Executive, Mr. Viguier is the Vice President for Safran Materials Purchases since 2015. Mr. Viguier achieved the Safran Executive Program by Duke CE, HEC Paris and AON Hewitt, has certification in Lean six sigma Green Belt (Safran), and is Certified IPMA Niveau C in Project Management (AFITEP).


Sylvain Gehler
Overview Of World Titanium Sponge Supply

Mr Gehler will present an overview of the world Ti sponge supply and analyze the trends which are affecting sponge production today.

World Ti sponge production has gradually gone into a large surplus over the last few years through either increase of capacity or over production with Ti sponge inventory today (except China) increasing to a record level of over 45,000 t in Europe, Asia and the USA. Weakening foreign currencies against the US Dollars have also decreased sponge price to a level equivalent to 6 years ago.

At the same time the demand for Ti from the industrial market has not recovered and the Aerospace industry demand could slow down if the price of oil remains at a low level.

Mr. Gehler is Managing Director of Specialty Metals Company in Brussels, Belgium and Chairman of the Board of the UST Kamenogorsk Titanium and Magnesium Plant, a leading integrated producer of titanium sponge and magnesium located in Kazakhstan.

He is a native of Strasbourg, France and holds a B.A. from Strasbourg University. He began his career in high temperature alloys recycling and held a management position in an international trading company.
Specialty Metals Company, a specialist of metals for high temperature alloys, is a majority shareholder of UKTMP and market their products worldwide.


Graham Walker
Master Alloys

This paper will focus on Masteralloys for the production of Titanium Alloys. Following a short introduction of Masteralloys regarding their production, their application and the current supplier base; the paper will discuss factors expected to influence future changes in supply and demand of Masteralloys. Additionally, the presentation will touch on some of the challenges this expected future brings to Masteralloy producers as well as to Titanium smelters – all from a European point of view.

Graham P. Walker is currently Vice President, Sales and Marketing at AMETEK Specialty Metal Products. He is responsible for all sales and marketing activities associated with the Business Unit. He is a qualified Metallurgist with a BSc from the University of Leeds (UK) and a MBA from Baldwin-Wallace College (OH).

Prior to joining Reading Alloys, he spent over twenty years in a variety of roles within the Foseco Group, specializing in product development and technical sales to the foundry and aluminum industries. His life and career include extensive foreign work and travel that provide a valuable international perspective.


Nicholas D. Corby III
Scrap Overview

This paper will focus on two main topics. The first will trace the evolution of the movement of titanium scrap from the scrap generation point back to the various users of titanium scrap, focusing on titanium producers but also including steel and ferro titanium producers. We will look at the various factors that have lead to this evolution including, technical advances, the implementation of buy back agreements, and industry consolidation. We will also explore advances that have allowed for increased use of titanium scrap within the titanium industry and opportunities moving forward that could allow the titanium industry to capture a larger percentage of the overall scrap stream.


Charles Armitage

Balancing Growth, Risk and Profit to Optimise Valuation

Charles Armitage is the Head of European Aerospace & Defense Equity Research for UBS, which serves private, institutional and corporate clients worldwide, as well as retail clients in Switzerland.

Before joining UBS, Mr. Armitage was a London-based member of the Charles River Associates’ Aerospace & Defense Practice.  Prior to joining Charles River Associates, he was a senior director with Merrill Lynch and head of their European Aerospace & Defense equity research team.  In this role, he analyzed the sector for investors with specific focus on BAE Systems, Cobham, EADS, Finmeccanica, Meggitt, QinetiQ, Rolls-Royce, Smiths, Thales, Ultra, and VT Group.  Before that, he was an equity analyst with Putnam Investments.

Mr. Armitage is a Rolls-Royce-trained engineer, and his key areas of expertise are enterprise valuation, financial forecasting, sector dynamics, and sensitivity and scenario analysis.  He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Bristol Marlborough Colleges.

Bill Bihlman
Key Considerations Beyond Supply Chain Readiness

It is well know the use of titanium in commercial aerospace has increased substantially over the past several years. Both Airbus and Boeing's composite widebody aircraft have considerably more titanium content. This, along with announced production rate increases, has placed the near-term focus on the performance of the supply chain to meet backlog commitments. Nevertheless, what are other key considerations beyond supply chain readiness? What what the medium-term issues that drive design and certification, and ultimately impact material selection? What is the likelihood of material substitution? And what product forms will be most impacted, including the trade offs between product categories, such as forgings versus machined bar/plate? What is the anticipated impact of additive manufacturing? Finally, how do these considerations vary between aerostructure, engine and components over the next decade?

Bill Bihlman founded Aerolytics in 2012. Its focus is market share enhancement for OEMs and its suppliers. He started his career in 1995 as an engineer with Raytheon Aircraft, eventually serving as Project Engineer. Subsequently, he was Senior Consultant with AeroStrategy (now part of ICF Int’l). He spent four years working in the US office. Bill led multiple engagements and was responsible for two major intellectual property initiatives, including the Aerospace Raw Materials model. This forecast is presented regularly at the industry’s premier conferences. Other areas of research include aerospace clusters, new product/market development, supply chain, and due diligence. Bill holds a BS and MS in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University, an MBA and MPA from Cornell University, and is a licensed pilot.

Video Proceedings:


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