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TITANIUM Europe 2013
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TITANIUM Europe 2013


Barnes,John E. (March 2013)'E-Beam and Cold Spray Advances in Additive Manufacturing ' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


CSIRO has been researching multiple paths to providing near net shapes for high value added materials such as titanium. Building off of Australia’s mineral wealth of titanium bearing ore, CSIRO has developed novel production methods to manufacture titanium metal. Because this output is a particulate, it offers renewed industry hope to a path for more net shape manufacturing in titanium. To that end, CSIRO has been deploying scientists in concert with industry partners, to develop means to enhance these technologies.

This presentation will focus on advances and unique capability that CSIRO has developed around the Sciaky Direct Manufacturing process, the Arcam EBM process and Cold Spray as a bulk, near net shape deposition process. Specifically, we are working to understand and then manage the distortion in the Sciaky process. Effectively managing the distortion will improve the overall manufacturing process. For the Arcam process we are taking our fundamental understanding of powder characteristics to apply it in a powder bed context. And finally, we have taken a similar approach in cold spray to provide unique capability in continuous production.




Behnke,Michael (March 2013)'Supply chain challenges for specialty metals and forging producers' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Abstract Unavailable


Danovich,Alexandr (March 2013)'SEAMLESS TUBE PRODUCTION AND THE RECENT ADVANCES OF VAR AND EB FOR CP TITANIUM ALLOY PRODUCTION' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany

The OSCAR Tube Production Group is a leading Ukrainian manufacturer of seamless cold-worked tubes of Titanium and Superalloys. Oscar-tube emerged out of former Nikopol YuzhnoTrubny Plant (NYTP), providing tubes in variable sizes of more than 1000 specifications with diameters of 0,3 mm up to 133 mm wall thickness of o.08 mm and ratio of up to 285.Oscar-tube is producing multi-layered (up to 12 layers), ribbed and scratchless-extruded tubes as well.  




Dussart,Gilles (March 2013)'Global Trends in Industrial Markets' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Power generation, Process and Desalination markets are different angles of the industrial applications which are consuming significant volume of Titanium every year. Thanks to its long and worldwide presence, Valtimet has a unique understanding of the dynamics and trends of Titanium usage by these complex markets.




Erdel , Bert P. (March 2013)'Innovative Material Management' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


The attributes of Light, Small, Simple, Fast, Strong and Smart permeate practically all of Manufacturing- for Process and Product alike.

Aerospace and Defense seek to build for optimum weight and speed characteristics and reduced fuel consumption. Aircraft designs are for economic, efficient, safe and environmental-friendly flying. At the core of it all are Advanced Performance Materials, of which Titanium is a big part.

A lot of attention has been given to its exploration and conversion from mineral to metal as well as its productive and cost-effective machining.

The ever increasing demand for titanium, its supply shortages and high market prices and apparent shrinkages within its cycle of usage have manufacturing companies look for managing this material with a defined, reliable, beneficial and smart process.

The new, innovative Metalinx Material Management System is the game changer the industry has been looking for. Known as the M3S, it embraces all facets of pre-processing, processing and post-processing of scrapped parts, chips and swarf. The M3S secures precise collection, accurate monitoring, timely disposition and smart asset management within the recycling process.

This self-contained, autonomous system ensures complete visibility, maximizes recycled value, guarantees best market price at any time and accommodates the mandates of "Green” and "Blue”- Manufacturing.




Flinspach,Jochen (March 2013)'New Advanced Cold Hearth Melting Technology' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Following market demand for lower production cost and improved product quality several improvements have been implemented in furnace technology in the recent years, for example: compact furnace design with hearth cart, minimizing down times between campaigns and featuring excellent maintenance capabilities hearth design allowing advanced power distribution for reduced power consumption and minimum evaporation loss with no concession of product quality Inline weighing and blending system with advanced drum feeder, eliminating the need of intensive pre-compacting of feed stock, avoiding cost and risk of contamination Double strand slab withdrawal technology, capable of producing thin straight slabs at reasonable production rate eliminating the need of pre-forging or blooming prior hot rolling. With in-house manufacturing of the furnace, EB-guns and auxiliary systems plus mainly with required process technology available, ALD will describe in this presentation the possible improvement of your production by implementing such features.




Freeman,Richard (March 2013)'Developments In The Welding Of Titanium' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


This presentation will review the recent welding developments at TWI concerned with improving productivity when welding titanium alloys without a loss of product quality. This will include TWI’s work in the area of linear friction welding, high brightness laser welding and novel TIG and MIG welding techniques, on Ti-6-4. The linear friction welding will concentrate on the developments in the technique to weld preforms to reduce the machining of titanium. This work has been conducted with a major aerospace Original Equipment Manufacturer, and aims to produce parts that were previously produced by machining large amounts of material from forgings. This has a major impact on the buy to fly ratio by substantially reducing raw material and machining costs. TWI has also been very active with its customer base in supporting R&D work in the development of blisks, and some reference will be made to this work.




Gehler,Sylvain (March 2013)'Titanium Sponge Production In Kazakhstan, Russia, And Ukraine' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


The speaker will analyze the consequence of the collapse of ti demand on titanium sponge production of these countries the consequences on future world sponge supply and planned capital investments.




Güther,Volker (March 2013)'Progress in the Industrialisation of Titanium Aluminides' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Intermetallic Titanium Aluminide alloys have been considered as promising candidates to replace heavy Ni based superalloy in the last stage(s) of the low pressure turbine in aircraft engines for more than 20 years. Whereas the alloy development resulted in alloys exhibiting well balanced materials properties, the lack of industrialized materials manufacturing and processing technologies was a major draw-back for any commercial applications except high class race sports applications. The increasing pressure on the improvement of aircraft engine efficiency forced the engine manufacturer to re-consider the use of Titanium Aluminides in the low pressure turbine. At least General Electric has successfully pioneered -TiAl LPT blades in the GEnx engine series which are powering the B787 Dreamliner and the B747-8 for now more than 2 years. Other aircraft engine manufacturers are going to follow.




Guntlin ,Robert (March 2013)'Titanium Aluminide components Challenges and Risks for the industrialization' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Today we are at the threshold of a new realm for TiAl components. New Aero Engine developments require the introduction of TiAl Low Pressure Turbine blades to match the ACARE goals set by the European Commission. At the same time downsizing concepts for new car engines require turbocharger wheels of TiAl to maintain engine performance.

Different technologies including melting, shaping, heat treatment, machining and coating have been looked at. The common goal was to determine the path to a robust, commercially viable process chain.

However, only very few components have found their way into serial production up to now. Many of the mentioned technologies achieved Technology Readiness Level 5. However, to successfully industrialize TiAl, Technology Readiness Level 6 must be passed. At this point many approaches unfortunately fail. The considerable challenge to reach TRL6 is twofold encompassing technological and financial risks. One of the key success criteria is to have enough financial means to invest in industrial equipment against the background of a technology level yet to be matched.

Access has pursued the near-net-shape casting process both for aero engine and automotive applications. In a unique effort sophisticated component designs have been realized. The presentation will highlight these results and report on the next steps towards a large scale serial production.




André ,Hempel (March 2013)'Challenges for a Distributor in Medical Titanium Market' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


The medical titanium market has with less than 5% a relatively small market share of the total worldwide titanium market which represents today approx. 100’000mt annual consumption. The titanium needs of the medical industry are split in various different forms and material specifications, including ASTM, ISO and others, depending on the end use of the semi-product for e.g. dental implants, bone and joint replacements, surgical instruments and others. The end user market is fragmented but dominated by large multinational OEMs which have individual requirements concerning the microstructure, tolerances or surfaces of the material as well as the quality control systems of their supply chain. The OEMs ask for just-in-time deliveries to various sites and qualified subcontractors in different countries. At the same time the companies are under pressure to improve the control system of the supply chain to guarantee the strict quality of their products. Product lifecycle management systems should reduce the cost of the end product where logistics are a key factor. These high-demanding requests of the end-users and the possibilities a producer of titanium can offer these days in a global market are conflicting.

The titanium producers need volumes and standardization in order to be efficient with their production to gain competitiveness in a global titanium market which is not dominated by the medical market at all. On top of it, mergers, innovation, fluctuation and regulations are a constant threat that the supply chain is disrupted. These challenges in the medical market give the distributors of titanium several opportunities. If the distributors can offer solutions to the pains of the OEMs, then there is a good business model. In order to be in such a position the distributor needs to have strategic partnerships with first class titanium producers, a good infrastructure, know-how, a sound capital basis and a philosophy which stands for continuity, reliability and quality.




Henson,Rob (March 2013)'Titanium Gaining Favor In Seawater Service' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Titanium is extraordinarily resistant to corrosion in a variety of process environments including mineral acids, organic acids, water and seawater to temperatures reaching 260 degrees Celsius. Discovered in 1791 titanium was not commercialized until the 1950’s and has developed a wide application base over the last 60 years. Applications for titanium include:

Aerospace applications due to low density and high strength at temperature

Industrial applications due to corrosion resistance include chemical and petrochemical manufacturing, power generation, desalination, production and transport of LNG

Biomedical applications due to titanium’s compatibility with the human body

The industrial market for titanium products has shown increasing growth rate since becoming a significant portion of the titanium industry in the early 1990's. To gain insight into how and why titanium is applied to seawater service the inherent characteristics such as corrosion resistance, density, strength, availability, longevity and relative cost will be compared with materials historically used in seawater service.

A wide range of titanium products are applied to seawater service including plate heat exchangers, welded and seamless tubes, welded and seamless pipe, pressure vessels, cast or forged pumps and valves. These products all demonstrate equal corrosion performance of the base metal, weld bead or heat affected zones (HAZ) in ambient to high temperature seawater.




Kiese,Jürgen (March 2013)'Electron Beam Cold Hearth Remelting of Titanium and Titanium Alloys' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Hearth melting of titanium and its alloys become more and more important. The original reason was to eliminate any inclusions from titanium alloys particularly used in critical rotating parts. Nowadays, environmental and economic aspects are becoming increasingly important. As the main reason may be mentioned here, protecting the world's resources by using the high volume of the existing titanium scrap.

In 2008 Outokumpu VDM has installed a brand new facility, namely an Electron Beam Cold Hearth Remelting (EBCHR) furnace. Its maximum capacity is 5,000 metric tons/year. The supplier was ALD. The facility features six EB guns. The cold hearth melting includes the melt section, the refining and crystallization. The facility is equipped with two ingot withdrawal system. The feeding is performed by three drum feeders. The feeding material could be sponge or scrap in form of feedstock, compacts of chips and cobbles as well as any mixture of sponge and scrap, master alloys and microcomponents. The feeding facility is equipped with automatic weighing and mixing systems. The melting process is controlled by an automatic beam power distribution control program. The process is observed by a visual viewing system.

Typical products are rectangular and round ingots. The products reach lengths up to 5.5 meters weighing up to 16 metric tons. The produced alloys to this date are cp grades 1 and 2 as well as Ti-6Al-4V and its ELI grade. The round ingots especially made of Ti-6Al-4V can be taken for an additional melting in the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnace (EB+VAR). At the production site of Outokumpu VDM there are three VARs available.




Klemenc,Jaka (March 2013)'The Impact Of Material On Exhaust System Technical Features (Titanium Alloy vs. Stainless Steel)' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


There are specific benefits of using titanium alloy in exhaust systems instead of steel – most known are mass reduction and corrosion resistance. In this article an impact of material on exhaust system technical features has been studied. Heat transfer, vibrations and sound of two dimensionally equivalent but materially different (titanium alloy and stainless steel) exhaust systems have been measured and compared. Measurements have been made on actual vehicle in controlled environment. Results have been discussed and presented, as also main differences, advantages and disadvantages of using titanium exhaust systems.







Lopatin,Nikolay (March 2013)'Mechanical properties and creep resistance of VT18Y, Vt25Y and ST6 alloys manufactured by P/M' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


The high waste and machining cost of titanium alloys processing stimulate the development of a near-net-shape technology including spraying and sintering of the alloys. In spite of high laboriousness of this process and high cost of titanium alloys powder in comparison with the wrought alloys, the large drafted surfaces and machining allowances of the forging reduces production efficiency of metalworking process when the complex parts are manufactured. These parts are produced from alpha/beta titanium alloys which are widely used for aerospace applications due to their high specific strength, excellent corrosion resistance, and high-temperature properties. For example, Ti-6Al-4Zr-0.5Nb-0.8Mo-3Sn-0.3Si (VT18Y), Ti-6Al-4Zr-4Mo-2Sn-1W-0.1Si (VT25Y) alloys have been used for Russian jet engine because of their superior creep resistance and higher service temperature. Another alloy being used in the same area is Ti-6Al-4Zr-6W (ST6) which has perspective for rocket engine parts undergoing a load at high temperature. Thus the microstructure and mechanical behavior of the alloys should be carefully studied at ambient and elevated temperatures.

The billets were machined from high temperature isostatic pressed powders at temperature of 940C. After cooling the microstructure of billets were studied by electron backscattering diffraction method. The phase transformations of the alloys were analyzed based on DSC data. The tension test at room and elevated temperature up to 800C were performed. The short-time creep tests were made at temperature ranged from 550 to 800C.




McCoy,David (March 2013)'Titanium mineral supply: A new paradigm, not a short-term change' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


The market for titanium minerals has been relatively unexciting during the last 20 years. However,short-term undersupply for TiO2 pigment, which claims approximately 92% of all titanium units mined, has led to significant price increases in the last 24 months. Presently, feedstock producers are also asking for the entire supply chain to be supported to allow for future growth.

Titanium sponge producers, which account for around 6% of 2012 mined feedstock units, are entering a new supply paradigm. Rutile, nature’s highest quality TiO2 mineral, is a significant cost when making a tonne of sponge. So does this mean a shift to lower quality titanium feedstocks or a rise in the importance of scrap?




Metz,Michael G. (March 2013)'Overview of Russian Market for Titanium Mill Products' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.




Millot,Thierry (March 2013)'Titanium Applications for Innovative Sea Energy Power Generation. DCNS Outlook of Emerging Solutions' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Abstract Unavailable




O’Connell,Patricia (March 2013)'Commercial Aerostructure Update' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


The commercial aerospace industry, including its titanium aerostructure suppliers, faces a more competitive, global market than even a few years ago. New single-aisle competition progress from producers in Canada, Russia, and China, prompted both Airbus and Boeing to accelerate launches of their single-aisle jets and re-evaluate their supply chains in today’s post-duopoly commercial environment. Record backlogs for these more efficient single-aisles and twin-aisles have exploded, placing a premium on supply chain execution and capacity. Manufacturing locations are also shifting to make producers more globally competitive: Witness Airbus’ recent announcement to build its first U.S. assembly plant in Mobile, Alabama and its new assembly plant in Tianjin, China. Are titanium suppliers prepared to support these projected record production levels? What titanium aerostructure capabilities are critical to winning in today’s market? Are the projected delivery levels real relative to likely production? Can all these planes get financed? How might the European economic crisis and fragile U.S. recovery impact demand projections?

Ms. O’Connell will provide insight and analysis into the key drivers in titanium demand since her last commercial aerospace update in 2010, and also put this recent activity into perspective relative to other industry cycles. She will also inform the audience on the current state of the commercial aerospace aerostructure segment and the anticipated demand for aerostructure titanium in the future.




Okano,Masayuki (March 2013)'Outlook for Japan Titanium Industry' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


In 2012, the Japan Titanium Society celebrated its 60th anniversary. Mr. Okano, vice president of the Japan Titanium Society will present the history of Japan’s titanium industry and the current outlook of Japan’s titanium industry specifically about titanium sponge and mill shipments.




Pauly,Stephane (March 2013)'Titanium Clad – A Cost Effective Solution For Industrial Applications' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Abstract Unavailable




Pedeferri ,MariaPia (March 2013)'Anodic Spark Deposition To Improve Corrosion Resistance And Tribomechanical Properties Of Ti6al4v' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


A wide variety of titanium alloys has been developed for marine, aerospace, automotive, offshore, food and other industrial applications, owing to their superior combination of corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratio, high working temperature and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys present a major drawback, that is, their tribological behaviour. In fact, these alloys are characterized by low hardness, poor resistance to wear and limited load bearing capacity, which are ascribed to a low resistance to plastic shearing and limited work hardening behaviour. Another critical issue is represented by the fact that titanium alloys are usually characterized by a high friction coefficient during dry sliding wear, either against a metal or ceramic counterpart, which obviously increase the surface shear and tensile stress components, thus involving a strong tendency to galling for these materials. Previous works report the efficiency of some anodic oxidation treatments in increasing the resistance of Ti6Al4V to corrosion in general, and specifically to fretting-fatigue phenomena. In this direction, the treatments which find most relevant applications are high voltage anodizing processes (Anodic Spark Deposition, ASD).




Ricci,Yves-Charles (March 2013)'UKAD A New European Titanium Integrated Company' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Abstract Unavailable





Royer,Mike (March 2013)'MASTER ALLOYS – GETTING READY FOR TAKEOFF?' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


As the demand for newer titanium intensive aircraft continues, titanium ingot manufacturers will see increased requirements for alloyed metal. Over time, the need for titanium sponge, scrap, and master alloys will increase. Ametek - Reading Alloys is the leading supplier of master alloys to the global Ti industry. As the titanium industry’s requirement for aerospace products increases, the supply of master alloys must keep pace. This presentation will review the manufacturing process for master alloys focusing on the raw material supply chain and the key processing steps necessary to ensure sufficient supply of high quality products suitable for the most demanding aerospace applications. A general overview of demand trands for master alloys will be discussed in the context of supporting growth expectations of the titanium industry.




Schmidt,Christina (March 2013)'Microstructural Mechanisms During Hot Working Of Ti-6al-4v' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo are primarily used in the aerospace industry. Applications include airframes applications, hydraulic systems and structural parts and highly-stressed high temperature rotating parts such as turbine disks and blades. Further uses include components for gas turbines, surgical implants, automotive and marine applications. Particularly in the area of rotating turbine components the requirements on the materials properties are constantly increasing. In this case the dependence of materials properties on the microstructure plays a major role. Inhomogenities and defects of microstructure have to be excluded to guarantee the reliability of the component. For this purpose the need for specific structural development increases and microstructural processes are expected to be derived from process parameters.

VDM together with Neue Materialien Fürth examines the microstructural processes during forging of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in hot compression tests with varying parameters which cover the real forging process. A temperature range of 800°C to 1200°C, a strain rate range of 10-2 s-1 to 5 s-1 and a maximum deformation degree of 0.8 has been chosen. Tests were carried out on a Gleeble® 3500 using Rastegaev specimens. Compression test specimens are examined with regard to the microstructure to develop a microstructural model. On the basis of flow stress data and microstructural analysis of the above mentioned compression tests the microstructural transformation during single forging steps can be described and simulated according to the deformation parameters.




von Stromberg,Nils (March 2013)'Strategic Role of Scrap Recycling' Titanium Europe 2013, Grand Elysee Hotel, Hamburg, Germany


Fluctuating prices for Titanium sponge and limited availability due to political instability, economic crisis or natural disaster strengthens the importance of scrap materials as alternative means of raw material supply.

The recycling of internal scrap volumes and retaining the scrap in the production cycle serves several purposes for the Titanium industry. Cost savings can be generated through stable raw material prices and a lower energy input. The raw material supply can be secured and the environmental impact can be minimized.

This presentation addresses the challenges of the supply with raw materials for the Titanium industry and the need to recognise the strategic and economic value of internal scrap. It reviews short term and mid term fluctuations for the titanium market growth and its impact on supply strategies. Vertical integration of scrap management between melting, forging and manufacturing, scrap supply strategies for the melting and the obstacle of a generally low recognition of value and importance of scrap recycling and processing by the generating companies will be discussed.

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