2018 MAP Conference & Expo
Clad Metal Consulting, Inc.
John Banker holds a BSc in Metallurgical Engineering from the University of Tennessee. John worked in the explosion cladding industry for DMC and its legacy companies for 40 years. He began as a member the original DuPont Detaclad research team that launched the global explosion cladding industry in the 1960’s. He has held management positions in R&D, manufacturing, sales, marketing and new business development. Following retirement from DMC in 2012, he established Clad Metal Consulting and provides technical support, primarily to the User Community. He holds 11 patents and has published over 100 papers on explosion cladding technology and related product applications.
Maintaining Aging Titanium Clad Equipment
Reactive metal clad, primarily titanium/steel, is used extensively in the modern Chemical Process Industries for construction of pressure vessels, columns, heat exchangers and similar stationary equipment. When properly designed, constructed and operated this equipment is highly robust and is typically demonstrating problem-free performance for 25 to 50 years. Over time there is often a need to make modifications or to make repairs due to conditions which were originally unintended or unanticipated. The two more common situations which eventually require management are 1) maintaining the corrosion resistant cladding layer from thinning due to corrosion, erosion or mechanical damage and 2) assuring that the structural features of the base metal component are not compromised. A less common but critical occurrence is disbonding, either due to undetected manufacture or design issues or later in the equipment life due to unanticipated environmental factors. The presentation focuses on developing and implementing a Risk Based inspection program and on established practices for maintenance/repair of conditions which can potentially compromise the safety and/or service life of the equipment. Examples of clad equipment failures are discussed, some related to unanticipated operational conditions others related to original design or equipment manufacture issues.
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Alex Orr is a Welding Engineer at Tricor Metals, an ASME Certified Code Shop which specializes in code equipment for the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, mining, aerospace, and bio-medical industries. He holds a Bachelor’s of Science in Welding Engineering from The Ohio State University College of Engineering. He has experience involving manufacturing R&D, the automotive industry and the Oil and Gas Industry.
Clad Metal Repairs – How thin is too thin?
Titanium clad vessels and titanium clad tubesheets have been used for a long time to help reduce the initial cost of Chemical Process Industry equipment while utilizing the excellent corrosion resistance of titanium. As this equipment ages, it is sometimes necessary to repair portions of the cladding to maximize the overall life of the equipment. This involves welding of patches or batten strips/covers directly to the titanium part of the clad and can lead to issues of contamination and poor welds, especially when parts are repaired over and over again. The batten strip technique of repair will be reviewed to give an understanding of the weld geometry that is of concern.
To be helpful in determining when rewelding titanium clad can cause issues and may need to have the entire vessel or section be replaced, Tricor Metals’ welding engineer conducted a series of welding tests looking to determine a “minimum” thickness of clad that could be successfully welded to a batten strip.
The titanium portion of the clad was machined to various thicknesses in the range of .028” to 0.098” thick and then welds were performed under controlled parameters. The welds were then analyzed for weld quality and the potential for defects.
The author will present the findings, including cross sections of welds, welding parameters and conclusions as to how thin a clad titanium layer can be, before the possibility of defective welds becomes an issue. A recommendation will be discussed and put forth for the audience to discuss and evaluate for themselves.
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Dr. Richard R. Chromik
RICHARD CHROMIK is an Associate Professor of Materials Engineering with over 20 years of research experience in the field of surface engineering, with most of his work the past 12 years being devoted to coatings tribology. He is the principal investigator for the recently funded CFI-8 project “Surface Engineering Solutions for Aerospace: Terrestrial and Space Applications.” In the past 5 years, he has published 36 papers on mechanical properties and tribology of coatings manufactured by cold spray, CVD, PVD and electrodeposition. This has led to 20 invited talks, most notably at the 2015 International Thin Film Conference in Taiwan and North American Cold Spray Conferences in 2014 and 2013. Prof. Chromik has an excellent record of training, with over 40 students and post-docs trained in his group since 2011.
Utilization of Cold Sprayed Reactive Metal Alloys for Titanium Equipment Repair
Titanium Gr 12 is used in the extractive metals sector for components within metallurgical reactors (autoclaves) operating at elevated temperature and pressure. Examples of such components include: agitator impellers, internal walls and baffles, dip pipes, and metal seated quarter turn ball valves for isolation. Many of these components suffer accelerated metal loss due to solids abrasion and corrosion, and must be replaced annually with new components. One of the potential alternatives is repair of components by restoring the lost metal through cold gas dynamic spray deposition of metal powder, or cold-spray technology. Hatch is an industrial sponsor of a Canadian network of universities for Green Surface Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (Green SEAM). One of the projects being conducted by the Network is the repair of reactive metal substrates using Cold Spray technology. This presentation outlines the potential applications and challenges that must be overcome and the research work performed to date by McGill University in this field.
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Options to Replace an old Pressure Vessel
The author will discuss various options to replace Pressure Vessels which are at the end of their life cycle. Do you replace in kind or look at design and material alternatives that have become available since the initial installation?
Perhaps the best approach would be to look at redesign of the vessel to match existing process conditions and use existing, modern codes and newer materials of construction. This could result in a new vessel that will give many more years of service at the best possible cost.
The author will discuss how this type of decisions were made on a process vessel that was originally built 50 years ago and was now in the final stages of life. This vessel was a titanium clad vessel and could have been replaced with a new titanium clad vessel. Titanium was required as a corrosion barrier and the clad was used to reduce the cost of the vessel in the 1960’s.
However, when current materials and code options were evaluated to determine if the clad could be replaced by a solid titanium structure, it was determined that this solid titanium would be the most cost effective option. More modern titanium alloys were evaluated as were the options given in the most current ASME Code. Potential changes in the operating conditions in the last 50 years were also reviewed. This allowed for the potential use of solid Ti Grade 2H or Grade 12 with a design according to ASME Code Section VIII Division 2.
The author will discuss how all of these questions and discussions led to the correct decision to replace the clad vessel with a solid one in this case and how this analysis can be applicable for other equipment and other Corrosion Resistant Alloys.
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Professor Christopher Higgins
Oregon State University
Professor Christopher Higgins is the Cecil and Sally Drinkward Professor of Structural Engineering in the School of Civil and Construction Engineering in the College of Engineering at Oregon State University. His field is structural engineering and he created and directs the Structural Engineering Research Laboratory at OSU. He holds a B.S.C.E. from Marquette University, M.S. from The University of Texas at Austin, and Ph.D. from Lehigh University. He is a registered Professional Engineer.
Dr. Higgins teaches graduate and undergraduate courses, mentors students, and conducts research in Structural, Bridge, and Earthquake Engineering. He has received numerous teaching and research awards including the 2015 Titanium Applications Development Award.
Renewal of Aging and Deteriorated Infrastructure Using Titanium Alloy Bars
Many old and aging reinforced concrete (RC) structures remain in service across the world. These structures are sometimes found to be deficient and lack adequate strength or ductility to resist modern demands. Common deficiencies include inadequate amounts of reinforcing steel, poor reinforcing details, or changes in use. To prevent the need for expensive replacement, it is desirable to extend their service life by strengthening them. Strengthening approaches must be both structurally efficient and cost-effective. Titanium alloy bars (TiABs) offer a new opportunity to strengthen such existing structures. While there is an initial perception of high material cost, TiABs offer a combination of strength, ductility, durability, and ability to form mechanical anchorages that are essential for effective repair and retrofit applications and are advantageous over competing materials such as steel and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) products. Round TiABs with unique deformation patterns were specially developed for strengthening RC structural members. Research using the TiABs to strengthen RC beams and columns in both flexure and shear was undertaken in the laboratory through full-scale tests. Realistic specimens were constructed, instrumented, and tested to failure. The specimens mimicked the in situ materials, loading interactions, and geometry of typical mid-20th century RC designs that were widely used in the US and around the world. Using these findings, a design guide was produced and an ASTM standard is being developed. In addition, several strengthening projects have been completed using TiABs. The first ever application of TiABs to a reinforced concrete bridge was completed at a 30% cost savings compared to an alternative design.
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Titanium Tubular Consultants
Mr. Schumerth is Principal and Owner of Titanium Tubular Consultants and has more than 45 years of technical and managerial service role accomplishments within the Electric Power Generation business.
He is an acknowledged industry spokesperson and featured author publishing & presenting technical papers and symposia to professional society audiences around the world relating to titanium materials.
Mr. Schumerth is a current and/or past member of ASTM, HEI, ITA, SAE, NACE and has been recently elected as a Fellow in the ASME.
Corrosion Failures and Mitigation In Hydrided Environments
Embrittlement or hydriding of titanium and ferritic (super) stainless steel heat exchanger tubing can occur when solubility limits of nascent hydrogen are exceeded. Other susceptible materials include aluminum, carbon steel and to a lesser extent, yellow metals. The results of such a hydrogen excursion can, in the case of titanium, induce the formation of brittle hydrides or, in the case of ferritic stainless steels, which typically do not form stable hydrides, result in reduced ductility and subsequent fracture attack. In either case, both corrosion events can ultimately lead to a loss of structural integrity of the material.
Having noted the above susceptibility, the heat exchanger tube/tubesheet interface is often times passivated by circulating cooling water and as long as the operating temperatures remain relatively low, the solubility limit of hydrogen is rarely threatened. Conversely, industrial processes which expose the heat exchanger to elevated temperatures, pH extremes and high levels of hydrogen charging without the benefit of passivation have reported hydrogen embrittlement damage.
The type and quality of the heat exchanger cooling water plays a significant role ultimately determining whether or not a galvanic couple exists. As expected, much of the hydrogen absorption occurs in high conductivity, sea or brackish water conditions. In these environments, hydrogen can be produced at the cathode by galvanic coupling to a dissimilar metal such as zinc or aluminum which are very active (low) in the galvanic series.
The Paper will identify and research multiple case studies associated with hydrogen embrittlement. An in-depth investigation of each will provide a practical benchmark for future lessons learned operating experience and provide insight for owner / operators when evaluating the performance of existing and ageing infrastructure utilizing best practices inspection and remediation models.
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Maria Maksheeva is a development engineer at ClampOn AS. ClampOn AS was established in 1994 and has grown to be the world’s largest supplier of ultrasonic intelligent sensors.
Ms. Maksheeva finished her master degree in engineering design in 2010 and since then has been working as a project, mechanical, and development engineer. Her responsibilities include material assessments; quality control of materials, welding and NDT documentation; and qualification and internal testing of equipment.
Experience with Titanium Grade 2 for High Temperature Subsea Applications in Oil and Gas Industry
Titanium is widely used for Subsea Application in Oil and Gas Industry and is in general considered to be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen absorption results in the formation of titanium hybrids which leads to hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen uptake can normally be avoided by the design improvements and control of operating conditions.
Mechanical parts of ClampOn Subsea Sensors are made of Titanium Grade 2. These parts are exposed to seawater and sensor front is in mechanical contact with Cathodic Protection of pipe. Measured flowing process temperature is 75 – 90 oC, design temperature is 110 oC.
The ClampOn Acoustic Sand Detector (ASD) was ordered as a trial for Snorre B installation in 2006. Unit was removed after several years of operation in a Subsea environment. The unit was disassembled and several different parts were tested for hydrogen content. The hydrogen results were compared against the original mill test certificates to determine if there was any significant level of hydrogen absorption.
Visual inspection of the ASD unit revealed no significant evidence of corrosion, and Titanium parts was sent out for further analyses. The Titanium components of ClampOn’s ASD had an insignificant amount of hydrogen absorption after several years of service.
This presentation provides background information about ClampOn's Subsea equipment, an explanation of the material selection philosophy for Subsea applications, Titanium grade 2 corrosion considerations, and presents the results of testing for hydrogen content after several years in operation.
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Craig Thomas has over 25 years of experience in applications engineering with shell and tube heat exchangers. He is a member of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, The Materials Technology Institute, Heat Transfer Research Inc., and The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. He is currently Director of Technical Sales for NEOTISS – High Performance Tube, a manufacturer of welded heat exchanger tubing, and enhanced surface heat transfer tubing, with manufacturing sites in the USA, France, China, India and Korea. Craig has a degree in Engineering Science from Loyola University Maryland. He currently resides in Nashville TN.
Heat Exchanger Retrofit Solutions with Low Fin Tube
Retrofitting shell and tube heat exchangers in aging plants involves an interdisciplinary team of engineers working together not only to extend the life of the unit, but to also explore ways of improving overall performance, thereby taking full advantage of the necessary change out to create new value for the process stream. Low-fin tubing is available in many corrosion resistant alloys such as duplex stainless steels and titanium, and can provide up to 250% increase in shell-side surface area without having to modify the shell size or piping layout. This presentation will review some of the key design considerations involved in an alloy upgrade with low fin tubing. A specific refinery case study will be presented that combines a tube material upgrade from Cu-Ni to Titanium Grade 16, with a tube surface upgrade from smooth to low-fin, and a baffle design upgrade from perpendicular to helical to achieve the multiple goals of increased life span, increased operating capacity, reduced fouling and longer run time.
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