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TITANIUM USA 2018 Proceedings
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  Henry Seiner

 Vice President – Business Strategy
 TIMET, Titanium Metals Corporation
 Topic: Engines

The engine market is especially relevant this year.  Due to recent introduction of so many new platforms simultaneous with record volumes, engines are playing a significant role in setting the pace of new airplane deliveries.  The new technologies involved with both the design and production of the engines are noteworthy and challenging as well.  

More of the headlines regarding commercial aerospace in 2018 continue to be devoted to the engine sector.  This presentation will examine the market dynamics along with the technology aspects of commercial aircraft engines and will recap and highlight recent newsworthy items.

Mr. Seiner, TIMET's Vice President of Business Strategy, oversees the Marketing, Product Management, Purchasing and Production Planning organizations for TIMET. In this role, he has responsibility for and visibility into all aspects of TIMET’s supply chain.  Henry is based in TIMET's Toronto, OH facility which is geographically and structurally located in the middle of TIMET's global supply chain. He has held various positions in Production Planning, Manufacturing, Purchasing and Marketing in his 25 year tenure at TIMET.  He currently serves as President of the ITA.  Prior to coming to TIMET, Henry spent six years at U. S. Steel Corporation in Sales, Marketing and Production Planning. His educational background includes a Masters Degree from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA and a Bachelors Degree from Duke University in Durham, NC. Henry is a native of Pittsburgh and continues to reside in Western Pennsylvania.



  Jeremy Halford

 Arconic Engineered Structures
 Topic: Structures

Jeremy Halford is President of Arconic Engineered Structures, a global leader in engineered titanium products for the aerospace, defense, and oil and gas markets. He joined the Company in January 2017.

Prior to Arconic, Jeremy served as president of Doncasters Power Systems, international manufacturer of high-precision alloy components, where he was responsible for the aerospace and industrial gas turbine businesses. While there, Jeremy improved operations and strengthened relationships with key engine manufacturers to win positions on their next-generation platforms.

Prior to Doncasters, Jeremy served from 2005 to 2012 in a progression of leadership roles at Alcoa. He led Alcoa Power and Propulsion’s Large and Aluminum Structural Castings as general manager, overseeing operations in Canada, France and the U.S. He also served as director, marketing and strategic product development in the Electrical and Electronic Solutions business unit; director, corporate strategy and mergers and acquisitions, Engineered Products and Solutions; and as director, marketing, Structural Castings and Specialty Products. Prior to 2005, he held management positions at Delphi in the areas of venture development, manufacturing, engineering, and technology.

Jeremy holds a degree in mechanical engineering from GMI Manufacturing and Engineering Institute (now Kettering University), and was awarded an MBA from Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration where he attended on a GM/Delphi fellowship.  Dealerscope, a magazine for the consumer electronics industry, named Jeremy a recipient of its 40 under 40 award in 2005.


  Albert Bruneau
  Neotiss High Performance Tube
  Topic:  Global Industrial Markets

Neotiss High Performance Tube (formerly Vallourec) headquartered in France, is the worldwide leader of titanium and stainless steel welded tubes for heat exchangers, with facilities and sales forces based in five countries on three continents: France, United States, China, India and Korea.

Prior to Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes, Albert Bruneau has held numerous senior sales & marketing management positions within Vallourec group mainly for the Oil & Gas industry, involved in Europe, South America, Africa and Middle East.

Albert Bruneau graduated from French Engineering School ESPCI and conducted one Executive MBA at the French Business School HEC.


 Martin Pike

 Director of Product Management
 ATI Specialty Materials
 Topic: Defense

Martin Pike is the Director of Product Management for ATI Specialty Materials with responsibilities which include international product management, sales, and long-term agreements with customers. Martin joined ATI in August 2001 and held several positions with increasing responsibility including Titanium Rolled Products, Product Manager and Director of Sales. Prior to joining ATI, Martin worked in manufacturing where he held various commercial positions including Regional Vice-President of Sales. His educational background includes a Bachelor’s Degree from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.


 Michael Metz

 Topic:  Russian Titanium Markets

Michael Metz joined VSMPO - Tirus, US in November 2003 as Vice President, Commercial and was named President of the organization in 2007. VSMPO is the largest producer of titanium in the world, vertically integrated from titanium sponge manufacture through melting and mill products such as plate, sheet, bar, billet, wire, and welded and seamless tubing. In addition, VSMPO supplies titanium closed die forgings for airframe and engine applications. Mike has served on the International Titanium Association Board of Directors since 2007 holding the positions of Director, Vice President and President.

He has significant experience in the titanium industry, having had held positions in sales, distribution, product management, market research and forecasting at Titanium Metals Corporation from 1986 to 2003 before joining VSMPO. Mike graduated from Hamilton College in 1981 with a BA in economics, and from Carnegie – Mellon University in 1983 with an MBA.


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Yasuaki Sugizaki

President, Member of the Board
OSAKA Titanium Technologies Co.,Ltd.
Topic:  Japan Titanium Markets

Dr. Sugizaki is a President & Member of the Board at OSAKA Titanium Technologies Co., Ltd. He is on the Board of Directors at OSAKA Titanium Technologies Co., Ltd. Mr. Sugizaki was previously employed as a Senior MD, Head-Technology & Development by Kobe Steel, Ltd.


Mohamed Bouzidi

Vice President, Aerospace – Energy – Defense Strategic Business Unit
Aubert et Duval
                Topic:  Demand Trends from a European Perspective

European demand for titanium melted products (ingots, slabs) is constantly increasing, driven by aerospace. At the same time, European Ti scrap export essentially generated by aerospace market is growing, in particular to the United States but not only. This presentation will discuss the development of European Ti melted product demand and supply and the relationship with Ti scrap market.

Mr. Bouzidi has been in the Aerospace / Titanium industry for more than 25 years. Before being for the last 15 years within A.D. where he serves several commercial and business worldwide positions, he was within SNECMA in charge of R&D for superalloys and purchasing for forgings and raw materials. He held a PhD in metallurgy and MBA for EDHEC business school.

 Jeffrey Carpenter

 Director, Aerospace Materials and Standards
 Boeing Commercial Airplanes
 Topic:  Boeing Commercial Market Outlook and Titanium Supply Chain

Jeff Carpenter currently serves as Director, Aerospace Materials and Standards – Commodities.  Before this Jeff served as Director, Supplier Management responsible for the Italian supply chain which provides major aircraft structure as well as detailed parts to 787 and 767 airplane programs.  Prior to this he led a Cost Reduction effort on the 787, working with engineering to create and move cost down projects quickly through the Boeing approval system to enable them to be incorporated on the airplane. 

Jeff joined Boeing in 1998 as a procurement agent at the company’s Supplier Management division, following a college internship in 1997.   He has held a variety of procurement assignments across the Supplier Management Division since then. In 2007, Jeff was named the senior manager for 787 supplier management PMO (Program Management Office) where he oversaw the program management function for the Vice President of the supplier management for 787. In 2009, Jeff was assigned to the integration team for the acquisition and integration of what is now Boeing South Carolina (formerly Vought).  Later in 2009, Jeff was named the senior manager for the 787 systems procurement team responsible for the power, fuel, environmental control, and protective systems.  Jeff transitioned from the 787 program in June 2011 to lead the Raw Material & Fastener Procurement and Distribution for Boeing Commercial Airplanes responsible for the purchase and sale/distribution of raw materials and fasteners (aluminum, titanium, composite, forgings, bolts, screws, nuts, collars) for all commercial airplane programs.  He came back to the 787 program in May of 2015 to lead the engineering integration portion of the 787 cost down effort.  Finally, in September of 2016 he was named Director of Supplier Management responsible for the Italian supply chain.

 Tom Captain

 Retired Vice Chairman and Global and US Aerospace & Defense Sector Leader, Deloitte LLP
 Topic:  Aerospace & Defense Sector Need for Innovation

Across almost four decades of experience in commercial aircraft program launches, defense industry technology innovation and manufacturing and engineering process improvement, Mr. Captain will discuss the state of the industry, trends, challenges and opportunities. He will address the need for disruptive innovation technologies that will meet the new requirements for faster, cheaper, autonomous and more comfortable flight experiences.

Tom Captain is the recently retired and long time leader for Deloitte’s global Aerospace and Defense sector practice. In his role, Tom was the senior leader interfacing with client executives, the media and industry organizations, while also serving on clients assignments. In his 36 years with Deloitte, Tom specialized in aircraft launch programs, operational restructuring, strategy, due diligence, cost reduction, M&A, financing, product development, engineering, operations, productivity improvement, information systems and PMO. He is one of the most cited, well known and respected experts in the sector.

In particular, he has participated in several large commercial, regional and business aircraft programs such as A380, A350XWB, B787, B777, B747-400, B737NG, MHI MRJ, Bombardier C-Series, Global 7000/8000 programs, as well as several defense program launches. He has worked with numerous aircraft aero-structures and systems suppliers to help them become more cost competitive.

He is frequently quoted by the media, e.g., Wall Street Journal, Reuters, Associated Press, Aviation Week & Space Technology,  Business Week, New York, LA and Seattle Times, and Industry Today, and presents at key industry events globally.  He served on the Board of Governors for the Aerospace Industries Association and the National Defense Industry Association. He currently serves as a trustee of the Museum of Flight. He was recently named to the “100 Most Influential People in US Defense”, by Defense News. He is an elected a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society.

Laurie Markoe
VP Energy & Additive Manufacturing


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Eric Bono
Commercial Lead of Additive Manufacturing
Carpenter Tech. Corp.


Louis Pignotti

Chief Chemist
Kolene Corporation
Topic:  Molten Salt Cleaning of Titanium and Its Alloys: From Primary Metal Manufacturing to Finished Products

Molten salt is used in a variety of industries to remove various surface contamination and coatings from metal surfaces. Titanium and its alloys possess some unique properties which present challenges for its manufacturing and fabrication. Molten salt is particularly well suited to help with the surface preparation for many manufacturing processes associated with titanium. Presented here are some case studies, as they relate to titanium manufacturing, of the application of molten salt cleaning for scale removal, paint stripping, and dry lubricant removal among others. Also covered are some basic design concepts of molten salt baths and the environmental and safety implications of their use.

Louis Pignotti has worked for Kolene since 2012, first as a senior research chemist and now currently as the Chief Chemist. His responsibilities include the development and execution of new technologies along with supporting legacy processes. Prior to Kolene, Louis worked for Peninsula Copper Industries as a hydrometallurgist. Louis received a PhD in inorganic chemistry from Michigan Technological University in 2011.


Dmytro Lazorkin

General Director
Lazorkin - Engineering, LLC
Topic:  High Performance Technology And Equipment For Forging The Ingots And Blanks Made Of Titanium Alloys And Other Special Steels And Alloys Using Four Dies In Forging Presses

Two technologies are known for forging the ingots and blanks using four dies. The first, well known one, is based on using the radial forging machines (RFM). The second one, which has emerged relatively recently, uses special four-die forging devices (FDFD) installed in the hydraulic forging presses.

For the last several years a big set of studies for the FDFD forging processes was carried out using the modern finite elements methods (FEM). The meaningful progress was achieved in the new design solutions for FDFDs and in the technologies with application of this device to obtain the forgings with round, square and rectangular cross-sections and also for production of complex-shaped forgings made of titanium and other special steels and alloys. The technologies to produce hollow forgings using FDFDs in the forging presses were also developed.

In 2015 together with Lazorkin V.A, we founded the company “Lazorkin-Engineering, LLC”, where I work to the present day as General Director. In Lazorkin-Engineering, LLC I am responsible for the development of the technologies and equipment for press-forging manufacture.  I am an owner of 17 patents and an author of 11 scientific papers.

Authors: V. Lazorkin1, A. Volodin2, D. Lazorkin3, S. Kuralekh4
1 – Technical Director, Lazorkin – Engineering, LLC
2 – General Director, JSC “Tyazhpressmash”
3 – General Director, Lazorkin – Engineering, LLC
4 – Representative in EU and North America countries, Lazorkin – Engineering, LLC


Sungwook Kim
Principal Researcher
Topic:  Friction Stir Welding of Ultra Fine Grained Titanium Plate

In recent years, studies have been made to improve the strength of titanium by refinement of the grain size as means for further enhancing the physical properties. Especially, the coarsening of grains due to fusion welding is a factor that lowers the physical properties of the welded part. Therefore, it is necessary to consider maintaining the fine grain size. FSW(friction stir welding) is a typical process of solid-state welding, and the research is ongoing to expand it to materials such as steel and titanium, including soft materials such as aluminum and copper. Process experiments were conducted to compare the weldability of UFG(ultra-fine grained) titanium and conventional titanium.  As a result, when the UFG titanium was welded by the FSW process, the size of the welds remained the same as 1㎛ of the base metal. The tensile properties of the weld were evaluated to be about 90% of the base metal.

Dr. Sungwook Kim has been working for the Metallic Materials Research Gr. at RIST(Research Institute of the Industrial Science and Technology) in South Korea. His major fields of research focus on welding, surface modifications and additive manufacturing of metallic materials. He is currently interested in welding and additive manufacturing of titanium parts.


Laurent Jara

Vice President Metallic Material Procurement
Airbus S.A.S.
Topic:  Airbus Titanium Sourcing

Mr. Jara holds a Master of Engineering graduate of the Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne (France) and of the university of Portsmouth (UK), Laurent Jara began his career in 1994 within the Steel industry as business process reengineering project manager. In 1997, he joined the Paris office of one of the “big five” consulting company to serve as consultant manager in various international industrial groups (steel, heavy turbines, household equipments, smart cards…) on mainly post-merger transformation projects. In the context of the creation of EADS, he joined Airbus in 2001 becoming manager of the post merger integration project for the domains Procurement, Manufacturing and Information systems. He was appointed Vice President Capital Investment and Maintenance procurement in 2006 for Airbus and leadbuyer for the group leading the A350XWB industrial system sourcing. 

In 2011, he became Vice President Strategy of EADS (Group) indirect procurement in the frame of the creation of the group shared service. He was appointed Vice President Metallic Detail Parts Procurement for Airbus and leadbuyer for the group in 2014 with the mission to adapt the supply base to the industrial ramp-up of Airbus aircraft programmes which took the form of the D2P (Detail Parts Partners) programme. He is appointed in January 2018 as Vice President Metallic Material Procurement for Airbus and the group to launch the IM3 (Integrated Metallic Material Management) transformation programme.


Frauke Hogue

Metallographer, Instructor
Hogue Metallography
Metallography of Titanium & Its Alloys Optional Workshop

Frauke Hogue, FASM, received her education in metallography and testing of materials in Berlin, Germany.
In 1967 she moved to the Los Angeles area and worked for Voi-Shan, a manufacturer of aerospace fasteners, in the Quality Control laboratory for 10 years. 1981 Frauke became an independent consultant in metallography, working mainly in the greater Los Angeles area, providing metallographic services to failure analysis companies.

Since 1985 she has been teaching intensive courses at ASM International and at companies throughout the United States and abroad. Frauke developed "Practical Interpretation of Microstructures" in 1998 which consists of a collection of about 300 mounts and a notebook of annotated images of various materials and conditions. This was followed by "Metallography for Fasteners" and "Metallography for Failure Analysis".


Jeffrey Orenstein
Associate, International Trade & National Security
Reed Smith LLP
Topic: Research & Analysis on Current Tariffs

Jeffrey Orenstein is a member of the International Trade & National Security team at Reed Smith LLP in Washington, D.C. His legal practice focuses on international trade and transportation issues with a special emphasis on U.S. customs, sanctions, and export controls. On matters of trade regulation, Jeff is a trusted advisor for a broad array of international clients engaged in metal production, manufacturing, and commodity trading. Jeff also routinely represents clients in administrative and enforcement matters before a wide array of federal agencies, including U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the U.S. Trade Representative, the U.S. Commerce Department, and the U.S. Treasury Department.


Gene Kulesha

Senior Director, Advanced Engineering
Topic:  3D Printing of Medical Devices A True Industrial Revolution

Gene Kulesha has been a leader in medical device technology development for 20 years.  He started his career at Stryker, in manufacturing, where he was responsible for developing, scaling and managing various materials technology production streams.  Gene was then involved in product development and commercialization of synthetic bone and allograft implant lines.  His most recent responsibilities were in leading the research, development, regulatory clearance and scale-up of various platform technologies used for fabricating advanced implants.  He led the teams at Stryker that researched, developed and transferred Additive Manufacturing technologies, now ubiquitous in their flagship implant lines.  Gene is now the Sr. Director of Advanced Engineering at Onkos Surgical, a company passionately focused on providing breakthrough technologies for oncology patients, where he is leading their anti-microbial technology development program.


Mathew Thoppil
Associate Professor
Dept of Biomedical Science, UIC School of Medicine
Topic:  Tribocorrosion Aspects of Ti-based Biomedical Implants: Current Concerns and New Directions

Ti based Biomedical Implants are commonly used in clinical management and medical practices, to replace or repair malfunctioned or failed body parts or joints. The challenge of a clinician is to have an implant which satisfies the functional requirements of the patients, and it should have minimum side effects on the patient's body. Several clinical reports and studies showed the early failure of such implants and release of the metal ions/particles to the surrounding tissues, which become a serious clinical concern. Such processes are mainly caused by the mechanical movements of the implants coupled with the effect of body environment.  The effect can be the biochemical or electrochemical response of the implant metals to the surrounding solution, which is called as corrosion. Furthermore, the combined effect of such mechanical factors and chemical and electrochemical factors is known as tribocorrosion.    This talk will address the recent progress in the tribocorrosion (sliding/fretting) studies on the Ti biomedical implants, as a function of mechanical, biochemical and biological variables.  Last 10 years, the research from our own lab, on corrosion, tribology and tribocorrosion aspects of biomedical implants will be discussed and summarized.   Surface modification or coatings may increase the surface properties, however, many concerns about its stability. Recent our studies showed that the metal oxide surface modification could enhance the biocompatibility of the metallic implants and accelerate the osteointegration process. Such method of functionalization can overcome material deficiencies while maintaining its bulk material properties. Currently used different coatings, CDC, UNCD, MAO plasma coatings and surface modifications will be included and clinical concerns will be discussed.

Dr. Mathew's major research focus is in the area of simulation of human artificial joints, biomechanics and tribocorrosion of implanted biomaterials used in dentistry and orthopedics.


Prabhu Gubbi

Technical Specialist & Scheme Manager, Orthopaedics-Dental
BSI Group Americas Inc
Topic:  Medical Device Regulatory Changes in Europe

Dr. Prabhu Gubbi has a Ph.D. in Materials Engineering from Auburn University with research experience at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and 20 years of experience in medical device industry. He is currently a Technical Specialist and Scheme Manager at BSI, a notified body in Europe, working with orthopedic and dental device industries for regulatory clearance. He was involved previously in the selection of optimal materials, characterization of materials behavior, failure analysis, formal mechanical testing of materials for medical device and other applications, and biocompatibility assessment. He has expansive knowledge in physical and mechanical metallurgy, electron microscopy analysis, mechanical testing (static & fatigue, macro-, micro-, and nanometer-scale characterization), mechanical behavior under physiological conditions, fracture and failure analyses, and microstructure-property relationship.


Art Kracke

AAK Consulting L.L.C.
Topic:  Titanium Alloy Powder: Accelerating Demand for Years to Come

The additive manufacturing industrial revolution awakened the demand for powder metals.  Virtually no alloy system is being left behind as businesses, from around the world in diverse industries, participate in the AM revolution.  Perhaps the powder alloy system seeing the greatest growth is titanium.  This is not surprising considering the demand for titanium alloy mill products and castings has grown for decades.  The growth engines of titanium powder demand are the aerospace and biomedical industries.  Other industries, such as automotive, have renewed interest in titanium parts and components made from powder.  
Additive manufacturing, enabled by powder metals, is stepping-up with innovations that lower cost while improving part performance and shortening development and production cycle-times.

This presentation will discuss the differing processes for producing titanium alloy powder metals and the size and growth rate of the titanium alloy powder market.

Titanium alloy powders, their time has come.

Video Proceedings - Not available at this time


Benedikt Blitz
Managing Director
SMR Premium GmbH
Topic:  Update on Forged Special Steels, Remelting and Powder Metallurgy

The presentation will highlight the recent developments in the world of Forged Special Steels and remelted steels (nickel alloys, stainless steel, alloy tool steel and alloy steel) as well as will give an overview about end-user demand and structures of these special steels and also summarize the actual status of installations (forging presses and remelting units) on a global scale. The speech will also focus on the production of Metal Powders and Powder Metallurgical Steels and especially its associated production technologies like HIP, MIM and AM. As they are and will become key future core technologies for a number of demanding products and thus for the usage in different associated industries. The presentation will also highlight the actual supply and demand situation of metal powders and the manufactured metal powder steels, will introduce leading manufacturers of both powders and steels, and summarizes installed capacity and new capacity that are on the way.

Benedikt BLITZ graduated from the University of Applied Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria and holds a degree in Process Technology and Environmental Technology. Benedikt started to be active in the metal industry in 1998 followed by a number of internships during his education. In 2007, he joined SMR as a Market Analyst, specializing in the field of the stainless and specialty steel industry on a global scale and became Senior Market Analyst in 2012. He primarily worked on projects with a focus on specialty industry segments, special products (forgings, remelted steels, etc.) and raw materials (STS scrap, Cr, Ni, Mo, Nb, etc.) of the stainless and specialty steel industry as well as a focus on process technology for global leading players. In April 2015, Benedikt BLITZ and Markus MOLL established a new company named SMR Premium GmbH, to grow and focus on market research for the world of High Value Metals. Benedikt BLITZ became Partner and Managing Director of SMR Premium GmbH.


Sergey Prikhodko
University of California Los Angeles
Topic:  Structure and Mechanical Behaviour of Titanium Based Multi-Layered Materilas Fabricated by Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy for Anti-Ballistic Applications

Due to the high specific strength of Ti, materials on its base are considered viable alternatives for low-weight armor. However, the feasibility of implementation is questionable when the armor parts are fabricated using traditional and pricy ingot and wrought technology. We suggest a more cost efficient process of producing armor parts using blended elemental powder metallurgy (BEPM) of Ti-base materials.  Multi-layered structures of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy and its metal-matrix composites (MMC) with 5-10% (vol.) of TiC and TiB were fabricated using BEPM of hydrogenated Ti.  Structure of materials were characterized using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction and x-ray microscopy. Mechanical behavior of the layered structures has been evaluated using tensile and 3-point flexural tests. The fracture surface of tested materials was characterized using SEM and the deformation energy was measured based on engineering stress-strain curves obtained on tensile test. We have found that during the sintering of the layered structures of Ti-64 alloy and some MMC layers can shrink at different values causing negative consequences on shape alteration and cracking of relatively large plates. However, shrinkage mismatch between layers of the alloy and its MMC can be effectively mitigated by controlling initial powder particle size and hydrogen content. Using optimized processing parameters, relatively large ML plates were made via BEPM and give superior anti-ballistic performance than similarly sized plates fabricated by traditional ingot and wrought technology.   

Sergey Prikhodko is Associate Adjunct Professor at the department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles. He is also a Director of Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory at the department. The area of his scientific expertise lays in structure characterization of materials by advanced microscopies and spectroscopies.


Nobuhiro Arimoto

General Manager, High-Performance Materials Department
Osaka Titanium Technologies Co., Ltd.
Topic:  The Superiority of Integrated Production from Titanium Sponge in Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

OTC is one of the world’s largest titanium sponge manufacturers and has a history of more than 60 years. We began the mass production of commercial pure titanium powder starting in 1994 by using an Electrode Induction Gas Atomization process and have been continuing for more than 20 years. We have also started mass production of titanium alloy powder for additive manufacturing, as it is being put into practical use in various fields such as aerospace and medical application. From the viewpoints of quality control, stable supply, being tungsten-free, oxygen control, and powder recycling, we would like to present the technical advantages of OTC, which is engaged in integrated production from titanium sponge to titanium powder for customers of our titanium alloy powder in the field of additive manufacturing.


SJ Oosthuizen

Senior Process Engineer
Topic:  Continuous Titanium Powder Production

The CSIR of South Africa has developed a process for the continuous production of crystalline titanium metal powder. Due to the unique characteristics of the process a number of unusual product morphologies have been achieved by altering process parameters. The presentation will include a discussion of the process, range of product morphologies and the current status of the project.

More than 15 year's experience as researcher in the field of low cost titanium production and processing. Active in demonstration and commercialisation of the CSIR-Ti process for potential low cost production of titanium metal powder.


Ronald Epstein

Managing Director
Aerospace & Defense | BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research
Topic:  Aerospace & Defense Market Outlook


Dr. Epstein joined Merrill Lynch in 2001 as an industry analyst in Fundamental Equity Research covering the U.S. Aerospace and Defense Sector. Currently, he is a Managing Director in Equity Research at Bank of America Merrill Lynch covering Aerospace/Defense and Multi-Industrials with large aerospace components and actively covers companies in the U.S., Canada and Brazil. In the Institutional Investor All-America Research poll, he has ranked as a top three analyst in Aerospace & Defense Electronics for the last nine years and number one for the last three years. Prior to Merrill Lynch, he was a research scientist working in the Applied Aerodynamics Technology Group at the Boeing Phantom Works in St. Louis, MO. During that time, he was also an adjunct faculty member in the Department of  Mechanical Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, teaching fluid dynamics and control systems. Mr. Epstein completed his MBA with honors from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and also holds a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Duke University and a BA with highest honors from Skidmore College.


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Christopher Olin

Vice President, Senior Research Analyst
Longbow Research
Topic:  Titanium Market Update: Real Turbulence or Just Noise? 

Chris Olin will be providing an update on key titanium industry data points for 3Q18 and sharing an updated five-year demand/supply forecast.  Within this presentation, he will focus on the latest titanium and end-market demand data points, incorporating results from his latest survey of fabricators, distributions and producers.  The titanium data and trends can be compared to similar materials like nickel-based alloys, specialty stainless steels and exotic alloys showing how titanium market could have the most upside in 2019.  Last year, Longbow shared a fairly upbeat market outlook.  However, some questions have started to arise while the aerospace suppliers struggle to meet aggressive aircraft and jet engine production schedules.

Chris Olin joined Longbow Research in 2017 as the Vice President and Senior Research Analyst focusing on the metals & mining, specialty materials, and aerospace supplier space.  He has covered the metals group since 2000, relying on a vast network of carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium, composite material, and aluminum industry contacts.  Longbow Research creates industry models and issues in-depth reports to both investors and industry participates using a “bottom-up” process that relies heavily on quarterly surveys and other market discussions or analytics.  Over the past few years, Chris and his team of associates, have been able to identify titanium market inflections through communications with a network of global contacts, often sharing his results and speaking at many conferences.  This year, Chris led the formation of a new Market Intelligence Business that can provide monthly price updates, lead times, and other important updates for companies looking for instant reads into titanium and the US economy.  When he is not talking about titanium, he finds himself to be a struggling Cleveland sport fan.


Glenn McDonald

Senior Associate
AeroDynamic Advisory
Topic:  Aerospace Supply Chain Trends: Implications for Titanium Demand

The introduction of new engine and aircraft models, coupled with an unprecedented ramp in production rates, has created tremendous stress on the supply chain. At the same time, new technologies like additive manufacturing are changing the form and function of raw material inputs like titanium. Against this backdrop, aircraft and engine OEMs are revising their supply chain strategies to reduce risk and cost. The net effect is a continued strong growth outlook for the aerospace industry broadly and for titanium in particular, albeit with some cautionary notes.

Glenn McDonald is a Senior Associate at AeroDynamic Advisory, a consultancy focused on the aerospace and aviation markets. Glenn has eight years of consulting experience at AeroDynamic Advisory, ICF International, and AeroStrategy.

During his time in consulting, Glenn has supported and managed many different projects, covering corporate strategy development and execution, acquisition search and transaction support, market analysis, cost and performance benchmarking, economic development, and regulatory analysis and development. His primary focus has been in aerospace manufacturing and raw materials, as well as Maintenance, Repair, and Operation (MRO). He graduated from the University of Michigan with both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Aerospace Engineering.


Bill Bihlman

Aerolytics LLC
Topic:  Manufacturing’s Evolution and Its Impact on Titanium

The unprecedented backlog in commercial aerospace has evoked both awe and trepidation. One of the principle concerns is the health of the supply chain. One enabler, however, is manufacturing technology. This presentation will investigate four in particular. In this context, it will endeavor to answer the following questions: Why is aerospace unique in terms of materials and manufacturing? What is the current state of aeromaterial demand? What are the key manufacturing trends for commercial aerospace? And, how will these technologies impact titanium demand?

Bill Bihlman founded Aerolytics - a management consultancy - in 2012. Its focus is marketing strategy for aerospace materials and structures firms. He is a regular conference speaker, including North America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Bill started his career in 1995 as an engineer with Raytheon Aircraft. Subsequently, he was Senior Consultant with AeroStrategy. He is currently a PhD student in Industrial Engineering at Purdue University. His research focus is additive manufacturing and the aerospace supply chain. Bill holds a BS and MS in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University, an MBA and MPA from Cornell University, and is a licensed private pilot. He is also a team member of Cumberland Highstreet Partners.


Thomas Hohne-Sparborth
Director, Economics & Analytics
Roskill Information Services
Topic:  Socio-economic Impact of Metal Industries and Implications for Titanium

Titanium generates significant socio-economic benefits throughout its entire supply chain, from mining, through to melting and milling, and through its downstream use. But the true extent of titanium’s impact is generally underappreciated. Aside from the direct impact of titanium on job creation, labour income, value addition, research and development, investment, and revenue generation through taxes and contributions, significant indirect effects are often not accounted for. Purchases in local economies, and income effects, typically double or triple the true impact. A better understanding of the true socio-economic footprint of titanium can be a major asset in discussions and negotiations on permitting, licensing, taxes, and royalties, at the community, national, and industry level. Roskill has undertaken a number of socio-economic impact assessments on chromium, nickel and cobalt, and will outline what these might teach us about the titanium market, which could also form the basis for a larger study assessing the full societal role of titanium from a socio-economic perspective.

Thomas joined Roskill in 2012 with a background in international economics. Thomas manages Roskill's economic analysis, including the development of forecasting models for prices and end use in sectors such as automotive and energy. In 2018, Thomas completed a doctoral degree at the London School of Economics and Political Science, specialising in socio-economic analysis and the impact of political and security risk on economic growth and development. In the same year, he was a finalist in the prestigious US$5M New Shape Prize through his proposal of a new mechanism to ensure broader private sector engagement on global challenges such as climate change and artificial intelligence. He now leads Roskill's analysis of the socio-economic impact of metals and mining industries, and is a specialist and regular keynote speaker on global megatrends, including automotive electrification, renewable energy, energy storage, and the circular economy.


Ernie Crist
Engineering Manager – R&D – Niles, OH
Arconic Engineered Structures
Topic:  Improvements in Oxidation Resistance: A New Titanium Alloy for Aerospace Applications

Next generation fuel-efficient jet engines are running hotter presenting a structural challenge for the exhaust systems and structures adjacent to the engines. A conventional and affordable titanium alloy with superior oxidation resistance provides significant weight reductions and end item cost savings by eliminating the need for high density material systems such as nickel-based superalloys for service temperatures in between current titanium alloys and nickel, enabling major technology advancements in high temperature aerospace applications. This presentation will provide an overview of Arconic’s patented titanium alloy Arconic-THORTM that addresses the needs of future aerospace systems.

Improvements in temperature capability of titanium alloys in the last 65 years have only been incremental. Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242), introduced commercially in 1989, with maximum service temperature capability of 1000°F remains still the state-of-the-art. Balancing alloy formulation and processing to achieve desired performance without compromising producibility and affordability has been a major challenge in the development of high temperature Ti alloys. Current temperature needs in aerospace applications are pushing beyond the available Ti alloys, driving the use of high-density materials and expensive manufacturing solutions for these applications, which increases the end product’s weight and is an underutilization of their capability.

Mr. Crist is currently the Engineering Manager for the Arconic Engineered Structures R&D team based in Niles, OH. Throughout his 29-year career at Arconic (RMI Titanium/RTI International Metals), Mr. Crist has held various process engineering and technical management positions, and has served in his present role since 2010. Mr. Crist’s titanium experience is predominantly in thermo-mechanical processing and characterization of titanium alloys. He manages the team responsible for titanium alloy development, and is also heavily engaged in manufacturing titanium aluminide alloys used in aerospace applications.


Keith Fleming
VP Sales and New Business Development, Feinguss Blank USA
Co-Author & Presenter:  Dominik Roth, Manufacturing Process Development-Feinguss Blank USA
Topic:  Feinguss Blank, Our Approach of Know-How and Know-Why for Producing TiAl Applications

The cost reduction of parts and processes is always a big issue for every company. Also environment protection and resource saving is more important than ever. In the past, the investment casting industry satisfied the customer needs with their know-how by casting whatever the customer wanted. Now the customer can come with a problem and gets different casting solutions with the use of the digital twin. This is a simulation loop consisting of material-, casting-, FEM-, and topology- simulation. With this, you can try different part options simultaneous without wasting real resources and reduce the time and costs of development through simulation. Once the part geometry is fixed, you can simulate and optimize a lot of the investment casting process steps and also the steps of the following postprocessing, including all sorts of the machining and assembly process. After this complete digitalization of the value added chain, you have the know-why of the product and your process. With this predictability of the process, you can increase the part quality and process stability. This means a maximum security and stability for the customer through the complete process. The next generation alloys like TiAl require more advanced wax and ceramic materials. By means of using the Blank Digital Twin, we do more and more testing and development in this area. Through this we have a deeper process control & material understanding. With this information, the investment casting industry can raise their know-how. The more testing and development you do, the more relations between the parameters you get. The moment, when you have all your links and relations, you have the necessary know-why of all your processes.

Keith Fleming has over 20 years experience in different capacities from managing defense contractors to, most recently, managing a German investment casting US startup. His passion for customer interaction and business development started in a Western Pennsylvania family owned and operated pizza shop at the age of 16.


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Daniel Finkeldei

Scientific Assistant
Topic:  Analysis of Chip Formation in Machining Nickel Based and Gamma Titanium Alloys

Nickel based alloys and gamma titanium aluminides are well studied advanced materials applied in aerospace engines and turbines. It is known that tool wear is increased due to the high cutting temperatures and cutting forces and in milling due to the intermittent contact and the discontinuous cut. Chip formation is a primary indicator to analyze the surface quality of machined workpieces. Short chips with little segmentation lead to a better workpiece surface. While chip formation and surface quality are discussed in several studies in machining nickel based alloys, only a few investigations have been made in machining brittle hard gamma titanium aluminides. In previous literature, it can be seen that micron-sized chips are produced inside the shear zone during the machining process. In the following paper, such chip formation will be examined by using a high speed camera while turning the above mentioned materials.

I was born in Dortmund, Germany in 1987. While I was studying industrial engineering at the TU Dortmund with the special topic of mechanical engineering, I decided to specify in machining technology of difficult-to-cut materials like nickel based and titanium alloys. My special topic is about the investigation of the machining behavior of nickel based and gamma titanium alloys. At this moment I am one of the scientific member at the TU Wien, so I am writing my PHD thesis about this topic that I've mentioned.


Mark Tomlinson
Managing Director
Metalysis Ltd
Topic:  Metalysis: Chapter One

Metalysis: Chapter One When a solid-state electrolysis process was discovered at Cambridge University in 1997, it marked the genesis of a scientific breakthrough known today as The Metalysis Process.  Since Metalysis was established in 2005, the technology has been developed from a promising proof-of-concept to a true industrial process.  The commercial reality of this technology is known as the Company's Generation plant is up and running in the UK. What began as a lightbulb moment of scientific curiosity has been steadily grown into an economically and environmentally compelling modular production method, ready to deliver 100s-1000s of tonnes of high value advanced alloy combinations. The Titanium family's represents an important avenue for launch materials. While Metalysis process is simple in concept, in reality it is a new feat of electrochemical engineering at scale. In simple terms, electrons are used to remove oxygen from a range of metal oxides to generate metals, alloys or intermetallics; products which present structural, thermal, electronic, magnetic and chemical properties of huge demand to a wide range of end-user applications including the industries of aerospace, automotive and advanced manufacturing. This presentation will explain what it really takes to develop a promising laboratory experiment into a commercial reality. It will explain our latest technology and products, including but not limited to Titanium, and offer insights ahead of the next chapter in Metalysis' story.

Mark was appointed Managing Director for Metalysis in 2016. Mark's role at Metalysis is to establish and manage industrial scale operations at the Wath Upon Dearne Facility, providing a significant increase in production volumes.  Mark has a background in metallurgy across a range of industrial metals from aluminium and steel to nickel and titanium. Mark has held technical and operational and commercial positions with British Steel, ATI Allvac and Sheffield Forgemasters.  He is a chartered engineer; a Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals, and Mining; and a past president of the Electric Steel Maker's Guild and the Sheffield Metallurgical and Engineering Association.


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Charles Young
Business Development Manager / Metallurgist
Tricor Metals
Topic: Titanium and Tricor Metals go to the SUN

Since 2011, Tricor Metals has been working with Johns Hopkins University – Applied Physics Lab in Laurel, MD to design and built the Truss Structure Assembly (TSA) for the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) program. The final TSA flight unit was fabricated by Tricor in late 2015 and the program has come to fruition with the launch of the PSP spacecraft at 3:31 AM on August 12, 2018.

The initial design proposed by JHU-APL used both Titanium Grade 9 and Grade 5 for the Assembly. However, after discussions between Tricor and JHU-APL, this was quickly changed to using Titanium Grade 5 for all components, due to weight and strength requirements. Weight was so critical that some of the components (the tubing structural supports) also required chemical milling to reduce thickness and weight. The overall dimensions of the Assembly were also very critical and required the use of a sophisticated fixture system and precise welding by Tricor welders.

Throughout the program, which included the fabrication of 2 pre-flight units and the final flight unit, Tricor Metals engineers worked closely with JHU-APL engineers to ensure the on-time delivery of the TSA’s and the overall success of the program. The final flight unit was shipped in August 2015 and underwent rigorous testing before (and during) the assembly of the instrument packages, heat shield and other devices onto the TSA to complete the Parker Solar Probe satellite.

Tricor Metals is proud to have been a small but absolutely critical part of this novel scientific mission in conjunction with Johns Hopkins University – Applied Physics Lab and NASA.

Charles Young, Metallurgist & Business Development Manager, Tricor Metals
Brandon Clark, Project & Design Manager, Tricor Metals
Timothy J. Cole, Lead Mechanical Engineer, Johns Hopkins University – Applied Physics Lab


Thierry Viguier

Vice President
Safran Materials Purchasing
Topic: Titanium’s Evolving Role in Modern Aircraft Engines

Mr. Viguier joined Safran in the early eighties, at the Electronic Division of Snecma. He spent 3 years in Binghamton, New York, USA in developing the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) of the A320 CFM56 Engine with the Partner GE (former GE-ACSD). Over the next 10 years in France, Mr. Viguier led the business development of Snecma electronics for Western Europe. Thanks to lessons learned in business development, Mr. Viguier found opportunities in the Procurement division in 2003. He took successive positions in Hispano-Suiza and Snecma, dealing with different commodities, before relocating to Safran headquarters. As a Safran Executive, Mr. Viguier is the Vice President for Safran Materials Purchases since 2015. Mr. Viguier achieved the Safran Executive Program by Duke CE, HEC Paris and AON Hewitt, has certification in Lean six sigma Green Belt (Safran), and is Certified IPMA Niveau C in Project Management (AFITEP).


David McCoy

Executive Chairman
TZ Minerals International Pty Ltd
Topic:  High grade titanium feedstocks supply under pressure

High grade titanium feedstocks (TiO2 content of greater than 86%) are used by the titanium metal industry in the manufacture of titanium sponge. Supply of certain of these products has be problematic in 2017 and 2018 due to mine grade declines and negative operational events.

The speaker will analyse the current market conditions and provide a view on the implications for the global titanium metal sector:

  1. Overview of high grade feedstock supply & demand (focus on rutile, synthetic rutile and titanium slag)
  2. Where could new supply come from? What are the issues with these new projects?
  3. What is the impact to the metal supply chain?

David McCoy is the Director of TZMI and is an experienced consultant to the global TiO2 & titanium sponge sectors. Mr McCoy regularly advises industry participants from miners through to global consumers on supply/demand, pricing, competitive landscape and strategic issues. Mr McCoy has executed numerous due diligence programs on titanium feedstock, TiO2 pigment and sponge producers around the globe. He provides regular industry updates to the global financial community.


Terry Perles

TTP Squared, Inc.
Topic:  Master Alloy Market Trends & Analysis

This presentation will cover historical data and projections regarding vanadium and molybdenum production, consumption and market balance. Details regarding current sources of raw materials and production by country are outlined. The critical value added propositions that master alloy producers can bring to the titanium alloy industry are discussed.

Terry Perles has 37 years of experience in the metals industry in roles including engineering, construction management, sales, marketing and senior management.  

Mr. Perles holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Virginia and an MBA from the University of Pittsburgh.  He served as a member of the International Titanium Association board of directors from 2005 to 2009.  He has a member of the Vanadium International Technical Committee (VANITEC) since 2004 and served as Chairman of the VANITEC Market Development Committee from 2012-2014.


Peter Baumeister

Director Business Unit Alloys
GfE Metalle und Materialien GmbH
Topic:  Production and Applications of Master Alloys and Influences on Future Supply

Master Alloys are used in the titanium alloy industry as alloying elements to improve the mechanical properties of final alloys such as anti-corrosion and heat resistance. After introduction to the topic of Master Alloys and their applications the presentation will focus on the production methods and the used raw materials. Furthermore it will discuss factors expected to influence future supply and challenges.

Peter Baumeister, director of GfE’s business unit Alloys, has the responsibility for production, sales, engineering and the supply chain of this business.  Peter joined GfE in the beginning of 2017 and holds a degree in mechanical engineering from Technical University of Munich. In his career he held different positions in the area of engineering, technology, division and plant management in the field of innovative lightweight applications for the transportation industry.

AMG, GfE Metalle und Materialien GmbH, No Video proceedings are available for this speaker


Sylvain Gehler

Managing Director
Specialty Metals Company
Topic:  World Titanium Sponge Supply Trends

The presentation will look at the new developments affecting the Ti sponge market, tightening of feedstock supply because of high demand for pigments, increased demand for Ti in Asia and decrease of inventory worldwide.   It will be followed by a review of sponge production worldwide , US imports ,Ti sponge production vs existing capacity as well as a review of Ti sponge inventory worldwide.

Mr. Gehler is Managing Director of Specialty Metals Company in Brussels, Belgium and Chairman of the Board of the UST Kamenogorsk Titanium and Magnesium Plant, a leading integrated producer of titanium sponge and magnesium located in Kazakhstan.

He is a native of Strasbourg, France and holds a B.A. from Strasbourg University.   He began his career in high temperature alloys recycling and held a management position in an international trading company.
Specialty Metals Company, a specialist of metals for high temperature alloys, is a majority shareholder of UKTMP and market their products worldwide.


Edward Newman

Senior Vice President
United Alloys & Metals, Inc.
Topic:  Titanium Scrap-More Questions than Answers

It’s an exciting time in the titanium scrap industry.  Record airplane builds are resulting in record amounts of scrap being generated and growing demand for this key raw material. Melters are simultaneously increasing their melting volumes while at the same time attempting to increase the percentage of scrap used to make their products.  Forecasting what’s coming however is more of a challenge than ever as many current unknowns are converging to make the future difficult to predict.   Where is the sponge supply headed?  How will the current master alloy situation affect scrap demand and pricing?  With the boom in U.S. domestic steel production and the corresponding increase in demand for ferro titanium, will scrap demand for ferro-titanium affect the market as it has in previous cycles? Changes in buy to fly ratios, powder and additive manufacturing, and potential changes in where scrap is generated and consumed will all effect scrap availability. Finally, what affect will the current world trade situation have on scrap movement around the globe? Lots to discuss!


Edward Newman is the current Senior Vice President at United Alloys & Metals, Inc., a subsidiary of Cronimet USA.  Mr. Newman has been involved in the titanium recycling industry for the past forty years. He previously held various positions related to the purchasing, processing, and marketing or titanium and high temperature alloy scrap. He has spoken at various metals conferences on subjects related to the recycling of titanium and various other aerospace metals.  He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration.  Mr. Newman is a current member of the International Titanium Association’s Board of Directors.


Jessica Roberts

Manager - Battery & Technology Materials
Roskill Information Services
Topic:  Outlook for the Titanium Metal Market to 2028

The titanium metal market, and in particular titanium mill products, continues to be heavily influenced by the fluctuating demands of the aerospace industry in Europe and the USA and the rapid growth in industrial production in China. As the world market for titanium metal is relatively small in volume, the cyclical nature of the global aerospace industry means that the pattern of demand changes significantly from year to year. Roskill will present a 10-year outlook for the titanium metal market, outlining how we expect supply and demand trends to evolve during the period to 2028.

Jessica has been researching minerals and metals for the last 10 years, following a Masters degree in Geology from the University of Leicester, UK. In 2008 she joined the leading trade publication Industrial Minerals, where she specialised in fluorspar and refractory minerals research, later joining Roskill in 2012. Jessica manages Roskill's Battery & Technology Materials division, and is also the author of Roskill's latest reports on titanium metal, tungsten, and fluorspar. In addition to multi-client reports, she has worked on a range of bespoke consultancy studies covering magnesia, graphite, lithium, chromium and zirconium.


TITANIUM USA 2018 Poster Presentations

Wyatt McNeill

Graduate Research Assistant
University of Utah

Abstract Powder metallurgy as a whole is typically used as a cheaper option to producing metallic components when compared with wrought processing. Traditionally, the disadvantage to powder metallurgy titanium is its lower mechanical properties due to its residual density and coarse microstructures in the as-sintered states. Hydrogen sintering and phase transformation (HSPT) is a blended elemental powder metallurgy process to produce low cost titanium alloy with good mechanical properties. HSPT takes advantage of phase transformations in titanium alloy, particularly Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with existence of hydrogen to simultaneously obtain ultrafine microstructure in as-sintered status. In this study, titanium-6Al-4V produced with HSPT was produced and mechanically tested, to show how these samples could be done without thermal treatments. Following this production of material, these materials underwent simple heat treatments without thermomechanical processing to produce “wrought-like” microstructures (e.g bi-modal and globuralized microstructures) for potentially different applications. Fatigue properties of HSPT processed Ti-6Al-4V with different microstructures were tested and were compared with wrought materials. The results showed that with HSPT as a processing option, a range of different microstructures can be produced for PM Ti-6Al-4V to allow this material to compete with wrought in regards to both tensile and fatigue properties.


Fan Meng
PhD Candidate
Northwestern University Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and toughening has been thoroughly studied in ferrous systems, leading to the success of various TRIP steels. Novel near-α titanium alloys for structural applications with both high strength and fracture toughness are computationally designed using the same concept of TRIP steels. In order to obtain peak transformation toughening effects, the β phase composition is adjusted to have the characteristic Msσ at the crack tip stress state around room temperature. Mechanistic models describing the thermodynamics and kinetics of martensitic transformation in titanium alloys were applied to calculate Msσ (ct). β phase composition evolution of prototype alloy Ti-8111Fe annealed at 865C were experimentally validated. The results show that morphology and size of β phase affect its composition due to capillarity effects. Deformation induced martensitic transformation from β to α” are validated by tensile tests. Ongoing work is experimentally investigating the relationship between β phase stability and uniform ductility/fracture toughness with commercial alloys such as Ti-64. The alloy composition, annealing temperature and cooling rate will then be redesigned to optimize β phase stability and achieve design goals of mechanical properties.


Dinh Nguyen
PhD Student
Michigan State University

The light-weight metals have many applications in various areas like: aviation, automotive, biomedical and chemical industries in order to boost the fuel economy and reduce the carbon dioxide emission. Among the light-weight metals, Titanium alloy is an ideal candidate due to their excellent properties like: high strength/weight ratio, fraction resistance, corrosion resistance and high operating temperature. However, Titanium alloys, they have a poor machinability because it has low thermal conductivity and really mechanical reactive. To improve the machinability, there are two regular resolutions, they are, firstly, apply the CVD or PVD coatings on carbide inserts which has successful in machining ferrous alloys but do not significantly improve for Titanium alloys. Secondly, the flood cooling is usually applied on the machining process of Ti alloy to provide sufficient cooling. Although the flood cooling improved the surface finish and tool life, the health/environmental concerns and the eventual disposal cost of cutting fluid are known to be the main practical issues in industries. To resolve these issues, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) was proposed as an ecological machining solution. This study evaluates the performances of dry, MQL and MQL with nanofluid in turning the most common titanium (Ti) alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, in a solution treated and aged (STA) microstructure. In particular, the nanofluid evaluated here is vegetable oil (rapeseed) mixed with a small concentration of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP). The focus of this study is on turning process because it poses a challenging condition to apply oil droplets directly onto the tribological surfaces of a cutting tool due to the continuous engagement of tool and work material. A series of turning experiments was conducted with uncoated carbide inserts while measuring the cutting forces with the dynamometer under various conditions. The inserts are retrieved to measure flank and crater wear using confocal microscopy. This preliminary experimental result shows that the use of MQL and nanofluid is effective in improving the machinability of Ti alloys under turning process.


Sunghun Park
PhD Student
Kyungpook National University School of Materials Science Engineering

A Feasibility of Hydrogen Reduction of Titanium Tetrachloride by Inductively Coupled RF Plasma

Presently, while a high-grade titanium sponge can be produced by Kroll process, it performs in the batch nature which needs high energy costs and has a low production yield. Besides, many of the subsequent process steps required to produce titanium metal such as melt processing, mill processing and multiple conditioning steps which makes yield loss and cost of product much higher. Accordingly, if a lot of process steps could be reduced, it would lower the cost of titanium products. Thus, there were many attempts to develop process to produce ingot or powder directly from titanium tetrachloride(TiCl₄). In this study, synthesis of titanium powder via hydrogen reduction of titanium tetrachloride by inductively coupled rf plasma was examined. While TiCl₄ is hard to be reduced by hydrogen thermodynamically, dissociated hydrogen radical which formed from hydrogen gas passing through the plasma can react with TiCl₄ to form HCl and subsequently produce titanium. The RF frequency of generator used in this experiment is 13.56 MHz and input power was varied. The reactor and plasma torch tube was made from quartz to observe the reaction in real-time. The effects of various parameters(RF power, gas flow rate and etc.) on powder size, size distribution and phase composition of the powder were investigated and the characteristics of the powder such as powder size, size distribution, and phases were analyzed with XRD, SEM, EDS and TEM. The hydrogen gas was supplied into reactor in which an Ar-plasma is floated, and then TiCl₄ was injected by Ar carrier gas. When the TiCl₄ fed into the reactor, the plasma had flashed and become more brighter. The produced titanium powder were deposited on the inner-wall of quartz reactor, silicon stopper and titanium rod. Deposited height of titanium powders, after 2 minutes reaction, were 4.004 μm and loosely attached that could be easily removed. However, the powder was identified as amorphous and it is considered that the powder was chilled enough to be amorphous by natural heat losses from the quartz reactor wall. Most of the powders were mainly composed of Ti and the average diameter of powders was 100 nm. The size of the powder and particle agglomeration depended on the flow rate of plasma gas and the length of plasma.


Sharoo Shrestha
PhD Candidate
Oregon State University School of Civil and Construction Engineering

Development of Seismic Retrofits for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Using Titanium Alloy Bars

Most buildings and bridges in service at present were not constructed to modern seismic design standards. As a result, these structures perform poorly during large earthquakes. Many older bridges in the US and around the world are supported on seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) columns. The most common deficiencies in these columns are lap-splices located in the plastic hinge region above the footing, insufficient lap-splice length, and inadequate transverse reinforcement which cannot confine the core concrete. These three features result in non-ductile response of the columns and can lead to collapse of the supported structure during an earthquake.

To improve the seismic performance of existing RC bridges, a novel retrofit method was developed, applied to full-scale column specimens with vintage details, and tested in the laboratory. The retrofit uses titanium alloy bars (TiABs) (Ti-6Al-4V) combined with conventional concrete. TiABs provide well-defined material properties, excellent corrosion resistance, and ease of fabrication. Continuous TiABs spirals were used to provide confinement and supplemental longitudinal TiABs were added to provide a load path that is able to resist earthquake induced forces. TiABs were installed using conventional construction industry practices to provide an effective and economical retrofit solution.

The specimens with TiAB retrofits produced seismic performance that was as good as or even better than modern designs. The ability to achieve high seismic performance from older existing structures provides significant savings by minimizing the need for replacement. In addition, the TiAB retrofit solution allows visual inspection of the column after an earthquake to assess damage, a benefit not available from other alternatives.


Amanda Slawinski
Master of Science in Civil Engineering Student
Oregon State University

Integration of Structural Strengthening and Cathodic Protection with Ti-6Al-4V Bars

Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most widely used construction material in the world. RC structures most commonly combine concrete with conventional carbon steel reinforcing bars to resist applied loads and can remain in service over long periods of time. Generally, concrete provides a passive environment that serves to protect the embedded steel from corrosion, but over time and environmental exposure, the steel can corrode. Corrosion decreases the cross sectional area of steel and damages the concrete by producing cracks and spalling. When a RC structure is compromised due to corrosion, the owner must make decisions regarding replacement, restoration, or restricting loads. Due to limited resources, most owners cannot afford to replace their inventory, and thus restoration or retrofitting are commonly used to restore the strength of the deteriorated structure.

Titanium alloy bars (Ti-6Al-4V) (TiABs) have recently been developed to strengthen existing RC structures, both for gravity loads and to resist earthquakes. The TiABs use a surface pattern to allow the bars to be bonded with structural epoxy to the concrete substrate. This application has been shown to increase strength, deformation capacity, and energy dissipation. While at present, TiABs have been applied only considering their contribution to structural performance, this study considers using them as a multi-functional material that uses their attributes for both immediate strengthening and long-term preservation of the embedded carbon steel from further corrosion. To achieve this goal, TiABs are integrated into a cathodic protection system. Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) systems in RC structures often use titanium mesh as the second metal for the reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reaction. In an ICCP system, current is applied such that instead of the steel, the titanium corrodes, but at a much slower and less significant rate. By deploying TiABs structurally and in an ICCP system, TiABs can provide immediate and long-term benefits for owners, and this combined attribute cannot be achieved with alternatives. The research is underway and will be completed in June of 2019.


Pei Sun
Research Assistant Professor, PhD
University of Utah

Microstructural Refinement of Ti-6Al-4V During Hydrogen Sintering and Phase Transformation (HSPT)

The hydrogen sintering and phase transformation (HSPT) process is a novel powder metallurgy method for producing Ti alloys, particularly the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with ultra-fine microstructure in the as-sintered state. The ultra-fine microstructure can be also modified to wrought-like Bimodal or globularized microstructure via simple heat treatments (without hot working). HSPT is a multi-step pressureless sintering process, in which Ti hydride or Ti powder is blended with alloying powders and sintered under a hydrogen atmosphere. After sintering, residual hydrogen is removed by annealing under vacuum or inert gas. In this paper, a pseudo-binary phase diagram of (Ti-6Al-4V)-H was determined by using in situ synchrotron XRD and TGA/DSC techniques. Aided by this phase diagram, the series of phase transformations during the entire HSPT process were investigated. Using experimental techniques, including in situ synchrotron XRD, SEM, EBSD and TEM, the microstructural refinement was found to be the result of: (1) the precipitation of ultra-fine α/α2 homogeneously within coarse β grains during an isothermal hold at intermediate temperatures, and (2) the eutectoid transformation of β→α+δ.


Yang Xia
Research Associate
University of Utah

Hydrogen assisted magnesiothermic reduction (HAMR) of TiO2 for an energy efficient production of low cost Ti powder

The development of low cost titanium metal production processes has challenged the Ti research and industrial communities around the world for decades. The strong affinity of titanium to oxygen dictates that it is very difficult to produce low-oxygen Ti metal, including that by direction reduction of TiO2. A hydrogen assisted magnesiothermic reduction (HAMR) process for producing Ti metal powder from TiO2 powder at relatively low temperatures (⩽750 °C) has been developed. The overall approach is based on the thermodynamic tuning of the relative stability of MgO versus that of Ti-O solid solutions by temporarily alloying the system with hydrogen. It is shown that Ti-H-O solid solutions are less stable than their corresponding Ti-O solid solutions, which changes the reaction of Mg with Ti-O from being thermodynamically unfavorable to being favorable. The key steps for producing pure Ti metal powder from TiO2 involve Mg reduction of TiO2 in a hydrogen atmosphere which produces porous TiH2, a heat treatment procedure to consolidate the powder and reduce specific surface area of the powder, and the final step to deoxygenate the powder using Mg in a hydrogen atmosphere to further reduce the oxygen content. This approach can indeed produce Ti metal powder that has high purity, low oxygen, and meets the specifications by ASTM for general purpose Ti sponge, directly from commercial TiO2 or upgrade Ti slag without the high temperature chlorination step. The produced powder is dense and its morphology is close to that of HDH powder. The processing energy of HAMR process has ~75 % reduction compared to the Kroll process. Preliminary sintering of HAMR powder showed that the mechanical properties meet the ASTM standard specification ( ASTM B 348). This is a promising technology that has the potential to drastically alter the Ti market and increase the range of applications for high performance, lightweight Ti parts. Status on the research: Right now HAMR process is under pilot production, all research results to show are in hand.


Lei Xu
Post Doctoral
University of Utah

In this paper, a new deoxygenation process for the Ti powder is presented. With the assistant of H2, the O content in Ti powder could be reduced to be less than 0.1 to 0.2 % after reaction with Mg at 700-800oC for 3-6 hours (with starting O content at 0.3%-1.0%); the final O content was highly depending on the powder morphology and size range. Leaching process was followed to remove the residual MgO and salt. No significant composition or morphology change was found in the powder after this process. As a result, this deoxygenation routing is an efficient way to lower the O content, and therefore, to achieve the goal of recovery high O content Ti powder or scrap.


So-Yeong Lee
Master's Student
Kyungpook National University School of Materials Science and Engineering

Pore Characteristics of Synthetic Rutile Produced by Selective Chlorination of Ilmenite

Porous synthetic rutile produced by the chlorination reaction of the ilmenite has been used in the chloride process to produce the titanium tetrachloride. It is known that the porous structure of the synthetic rutile improve the reaction rates of subsequent chlorination reaction. However, there has been no report focusing on the pore characteristics of the synthetic rutile.
In this study, the synthetic rutile was produced by selective chlorination of iron from the ilmenite in the fixed bed. And pore characteristics of the selective chlorination reaction products were determined by BET, porosimeter, and SEM analysis. The characteristics of pores, such as the pore size distribution, porosity, and surface area of the particles were investigated on various reaction conditions. Furthermore, kinetic model of gas-solid reaction was applied to identify the effects of pore characteristics on the chlorination reaction rate.
The pores, derived from the removal of iron oxides, were distributed in each single particle. During the chlorination reaction, the chlorine gas diffused into the pores to reach the reaction interface. As the chlorination reaction progresses, a porous product layer was accumulated around the reaction interface and the unreacted core shrinks in size. However, the pore size was independent of reaction time, while it was increased with the reaction temperature. Both the pore size and reaction temperature affect the rate of chlorine gas diffusion through the product layer. When the reaction temperature was 1023 K, the diffusion coefficient was 0.089 cm2/s at which measured average pore diameter was 53 nm. At 1173 K, the diffusion coefficient at the pore size of 198 nm was 0.302 cm2/s, which is about 3.4 times larger than that of at 1023 K. In addition, the diffusion of reaction gas could be hindered by the complex form of pores, so-called tortuosity. As the reaction temperature increases, the tortuosity factor becomes significantly smaller, thus increasing the effective diffusion coefficient.


TITANIUM USA 2018 - Professional Development Segment

Monica Beck

Managing Legal Counsel
The Fierberg National Law Group
Topic: WiT Professional Development Day - All TITANIUM Delegates Invited

Sunday October 7
Start Time: 02:00
Meeting Room: Michelangelo

#NotHere - Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
Workplace sexual harassment has captured the national spotlight, and there is a call to action for businesses to reexamine their own practices and cultures. This training will provide the basics on the legal standards, including what constitutes sexual harassment, and steps your company can take to prevent sex- and gender-based misconduct, ensure that it is reported when it does occur, and that reports and complaints are responded to in a manner that minimizes the potential devastating consequences of sexual harassment on individuals and businesses.

Monica Beck is Managing Legal Counsel for the firm, overseeing the attorneys and legal strategies employed by the firm. Ms. Beck is a civil litigator who has over a decade of experience handling transactions and complex state and federal litigation, including class actions and lawsuits involving serious personal injuries, alleged antitrust violations and other commercial claims.  Ms. Beck has extensive experience litigating against schools, school personnel, and athletic staff for claims of sexual abuse against K-12 students, using state law, federal law, and Title IX claims to pursue compensation for victims.


Lisa M. Vidacs

Senior Vice President, Corporate Communications and Engagement
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
WiT Professional Development Day - All TITANIUM Delegates Invited
Topic: Fact and Fiction about the Federal Reserve
Sunday October 7
Start Time: 03:45
Meeting Room: Michelangelo

Lisa M. Vidacs is this year’s WiT keynote speaker. She will share some of the challenges she’s faced in her career, as well as more information about the Federal Reserve and the monetary picture and impact on business and the economy. Ms. Vidacs is the senior vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, overseeing the Corporate Communications and Engagement Department. After joining the bank in 1987, she held management positions in both the cash and check departments before being appointed assistant vice president in 2003. She was appointed vice president in 2005 and served as chair of the Bank Management Committee. In 2007, Ms. Vidacs was appointed senior vice president. She currently sits on the bank’s Executive Leadership Team and serves as chair of the Federal Reserve System’s Subcommittee on Public Information. Outside the Cleveland Fed, she serves as president of the board of the Cleveland Furniture Bank. Ms. Vidacs earned a BBA in finance from Kent State University. She is a graduate of Leadership Cleveland and of the BAI Graduate School of Bank Operations and Technology conducted by BAI and Vanderbilt University.


VidacsLisaTiUSA2018_WomenInTitanium (.pdf 950KB)


ISBN# 0-935297-66-9

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