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TITANIUM 2005 - 2009
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Cain,Kevin (September2009)'Industrial and Corrosion Applications and Markets' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

The global economy is pulling out of its deepest recession in a generation. The opinion on the pace of the recovery is varied; some expect a powerful recovery, and others expect a slow climb over the next few years. Some economists believe we’ll have an abbreviated rebound followed by another slump. Regardless of what shape this recovery is taking, it’s apparent that two broad market influences have taken shape within the industrial sector. This presentation will review the influences that consumer demand and infrastructure requirements will have on the recovery of the industrial titanium market sector.


Churley,John(September 2009)'Global Market Assessment for Titanium Scrap' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

Titanium scrap has once again played the role of friend and foe during the current "up” cycle which has lasted close to 4 years. The industry has found itself in what may someday be considered the best run ever. This run successfully funded much needed capital investments to ensure ample raw material production, scrap processing and product manufacturing capability/capacity to allow for the future growth of our industry.
It is always interesting to reflect on the availability and supply side of Titanium scrap since the start of the cycle but one must not lose sight of what appears to be ahead. My presentation is an attempt to summarize what the supply and demand scenario for Titanium scrap is as we move forward.


Clouser, Sid (September 2009)'Selective Plating on Titanium Alloys' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

A selective electroplating process was researched which produces adherent coatings on titanium alloys. The inherent difficulty caused by the oxide film with plating a coating onto titanium alloys was overcome by the use of a selective electroplating process. The surface of titanium 6Al-4V was electrochemically treated to increase surface area, reduce the oxide film, and immediately apply an adherent metallic coating by brush plating. The anodic pretreatment etched and microroughened the surface while the cathodic pretreatment reduced the oxide. Rinsing between steps was avoided to prevent reoxidation. A nickel strike electrolyte was applied directly into the anode – cathode gap to displace the pretreatment solution while the titanium surface was maintained under cathodic potential control. The thin nickel strike layer plated on the titanium 6-4 surface had good adhesion and provided a substrate for subsequent deposits. The adhesion of the coatings to titanium 6Al-4V was verified by passing bend, chisel, heat-quench, scribe, and tape tests and demonstrating > 6,000 psi tensile adhesion. The non-hydrogen embrittlement nature of the process was demonstrated by static loading at 85% yield strength without fracture. The coatings can improve the wear, galling, conductivity, and lubricity of the Ti 6Al-4V surface and are useful in brazing, resizing and repair applications


Courpron, Henri(September 2009)'The World is Flat: From GDP Forecast to AerospaceOutlook' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

The recent economic turmoil has been the worst global downturn since the deregulation of commercial aviation. To cope initially with rampant fuel prices in 2008, airlines announced plans to slash capacity in order to maintain profitability. The cost pressure of high fuel promptly disappeared, replaced by a far worse concern: evaporating demand. Passenger numbers and fares (particularly premium class) both rapidly declined, and cargo revenues were extremely had hit. Fortunately the actions taken to combat high fuel prices were the same required to deal with declining demand, and airlines continued to reduce capacity. Signs are appearing that the economy is now stabilizing, but the question for airlines remains: How long will it take for demand and fares to return? How rapidly will an economic recovery translate into an air travel recovery?
Aerospace companies face an even greater challenge. Production cuts and new program delays have severely hurt most players, with cash flows required to offset the huge non-recurring R&D costs of new programs not materializing, and inventory building up. Concurrently, the aircraft being pulled from service by airlines or reductions in utilization of in-service aircraft drive a decline in aftermarket revenues. A recovery in air travel is critical to both new aircraft production and restoration of aftermarket revenues, leading aerospace companies to ask: How long after air travel recovers will we see stabilization of our commercial revenues?
Seabury has built proprietary methodologies to understand and forecast these relationships and help the aviation industry better predict and understand the links between economic factors and revenues, as well as the timing of a recovery. Understanding each aspect – GDP, personal consumption, fuel, airline demand, airline profitability, financing, retirements, production, and utilization – enables Seabury to forecast realistic base, downside and upside scenarios for industry participants.


Dalton,Hunter(September 2009)'Outlook for Commercial Aerospace Market and TitaniumDemand' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Mr. Dalton will present a current view of the commercial aerospace market, a fundamental driver in the demand for titanium. Titanium is used extensively in new airframe designs and the jet engines that power them. OEMs adopt titanium for its excellent strength to weight ratios, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance. His presentation will outline historic and forecasted commercial airframe build rates, and an estimate of titanium metal demand. This presentation will depict key challenges that face the titanium industry to sustain and increase growth as commercial aerospace expands in the coming decade.


Dippel, Jim (September2009)'Making Competitively-Priced Titanium Components For Commercial/Industrial Markets Using Low-Cost Manufacturing Methods' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

The words "low cost” and "titanium” are rarely used in the same sentence. As a material developed for the aerospace industry, titanium has been relegated to expensive, highly engineered components. The unique properties of titanium are rarely found in every day products that can benefit from its high strength to weight, excellent corrosion resistance, superior heat transfer characteristics and general popularity as an exotic metal. Low cost manufacturing processes for consumer products in steel and aluminum are mature and stable; however it wasn’t until the golf industry discovered its benefits that titanium became more of a commodity. Now, methods like lean manufacturing with just-in-time delivery are used to lower the price of titanium components. Rapid prototyping and concurrent engineering are frequently used to assure the shortest possible cycle time from design to market. Proprietary methods to reduce raw material costs have been developed. Processes such as chemical milling and heat treatment can be eliminated in most cases when there is no added benefit to the function of commercial components.


Disegi, John(September 2009)'Ti-15Mo for Trauma Applications' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

Commercially pure (CP) titanium and a + b titanium alloys represent a major class of materials that have been used for a multitude of orthopaedic trauma applications. These titanium materials have a successful track record as the material of choice for a wide array of implant products. Ti-15Mo represents a newer generation of beta titanium alloys that have been developed to take advantage of desirable alloy attributes such as low modulus of elasticity, improved bending properties, and enhanced fatigue life. The ability to tailor Ti-15Mo heat treatments to provide either a beta or an alpha + beta microstructure offers many design opportunities.
This presentation briefly describes alloy design history and includes modifications to the binary alloy that were proposed to overcome thermal handling difficulties and microstructure instability. Notch tensile strengths and notch strength ratios are compared for beta annealed Ti-15Mo and conventional titanium implant alloys. Smooth and notched corrosion fatigue data in DI water and Ringer’s solution is documented for Ti-15Mo, TAV ELI, and CP Grade 4. Improved reverse bending and bending fatigue properties are compiled for small maxillofacial plates. Bending stiffness, yield, and displacement are compared for Ti-15Mo and CP Grade 4 Distal Radius Plates that are used primarily to stabilize complex intra- and extra-articular fractures of the wrist.


Du, Yuxuan (September2009)'Investigation to a Ti45Nb Alloy for Rivets' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

A Ti45Nb alloy is widely used for fasteners in aeronautics and space applications. It is characterized by relatively good tensile strength (490MPa) and shear strength (365MPa) and excellent plasticity (elongation of 10%, reduction of area of 50%). And compared with other materials, the specific strength of Ti45Nb alloys is higher. Therefore, it is applicable to connection of composite connecting structures. In present investigation, a large scale of?620 ingot was manufactured with VAR() and combination of titanium sponge and Nb bars. By means of precise control of chemical composition, optimization of forming processing and heat treatment, a Ti45Nb of uniform chemical composition and good mechanical properties was produced i.e. tensile strength is 550MPa, shear strength is 365MPa, elongation is 20% and reduction of area is 50%.


Duz, Vlodymyr A. (September 2009)'Powder Metallurgy ofTitanium' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Titanium alloys possess a unique combination of high strength, low density and good corrosion resistance which makes them very attractive for many structural applications. However the cost of titanium produced by conventional ingot technology is high compare to competing materials. A powder metallurgy (P/M) is an attractive method to reduce the cost of titanium components under the stipulation that a low cost powder supply can be developed. ADMA has a patented process to produce a low cost hydrogenated titanium powder via a modified magnesium reduction method. The process produces a powder that reduces manufacturing costs to make strip, plate, or structural components. A low cost blended elemental (BE) approach in which hydrogenated titanium powder was alloyed with a master alloy to achieve the required chemistry was used in this study. Consolidation at room temperature may be performed by conventional P/M processes such as die-pressing, cold isostatic pressing, or direct powder rolling. Utilization of hydrogenated titanium powder instead of traditional titanium powder significantly improves the sintering providing higher sintered density (up to 99%) and better homogeneity of synthesized alloys. Ti-6Al-4V as well as some other compositions were successfully processed with such approach. The compacts were evaluated for microstructural homogeneity, residual hydrogen, mechanical properties and uniformity of density. Room temperature consolidation to form the near net-shapes and subsequent vacuum sintering produced near full density titanium alloys with optimized microstructures and mechanical properties equivalent to those of the ingot metallurgy.


Faller, Kurt(September 2009)'New Fuel Efficiency Standards Provide Large-Volume Titanium Opportunities' , Titanium 2009,Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

A confluence of circumstances brings tremendous large-volume opportunities to the titanium industry: 1) US consumers are finally sensitized to fuel economy, 2) US federal emissions and CAFE standards have tightened, and 3) the global titanium industry has excess capacity, well-matched for the opportunities.
Fuel price peaks in 2008 increased US demand for small cars and hybrids, but true demand remains for larger vehicles, now with heightened interest for better fuel economy. In addition, the Obama administration recently passed the first major change to US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards and emissions testing in 25 years. Phased in between now and vehicle model year 2016, the global auto industry urgently needs to implement technologies to meet the new standards.
The most cost-effective means for large vehicles to deliver better fuel efficiency is through light-weighting and turbocharging. Titanium is ideally suited to achieving both of these goals, with 35-70 kg per vehicle weight-savings through use of titanium springs and exhaust, and certain of titanium’s unique properties making it the best choice for turbochargers. Previous titanium development programs, carried out in the late 1990’s were "put on the shelf” out of concerns for titanium industry capacity and pending CAFE changes.
Since that time, the titanium industry has dramatically expanded sponge and melt capacity, while aerospace production delays and the weakening global economy have left the industry underutilized. Compounding the titanium industry’s dilemmas is that much of the new capacity won’t be qualified for aerospace use for a number of years. Automotive applications present large-volume opportunities that once established have relatively little annual volume volatility. The timing is right for large-volume titanium for the auto industry.


Fletcher, Albert R. (September 2009)'The Future of TitaniumBar and Billet Inspection for the Commercial Aerospace Industry' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

Due to requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration, titanium bar and billet manufacturers have been required to tighten inspection criteria on such material.
Due to the inherent nature of sonic material noise in titanium billet, increasing testing sensitivity presents a potential problem. There is existing technology to accomplish this inspection but it is limited to a single source of equipment and technology. The current goal is to provide an alternate more economically sensible approach utilizing equipment that is now available and test probes specially designed for the inspection process.
West Penn Testing Group is working with a group in a cooperative activity involving OEM and suppliers with the intent to implement and refine this alternative approach to the current methods. West Penn will act as the test bed for the technology, this experimentation is under way, and results should follow shortly. The testing technology would be applied to rotor grade bar stock and could prove to be a valuable tool for the inspection of large diameter titanium bar and billet at a higher level of inspection sensitivity.


Foltz, Greg (September2009)'Titanium and Metalworking Fluids', Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

In machining operations on titanium, metalworking fluids are an important and essential component in dissipating the heat and providing lubricity. The types of fluids available, as well as their functions, requirements and testing will be reviewed. Some basic laboratory tests that are used to design these products will be discussed along with tests that are specific to companies that evaluate a fluid’s performance and qualify it for use on titanium. A new metalworking fluid will also be introduced that has been developed by Milacron Global Industrial Fluids that has shown superior performance in titanium machining.


Friedrich, Bernd(September 2009)'Recycling of Titanium-Aluminide Scrap' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

Due to high scrap generation during the manufacturing of semi-finished and final products made from titanium and titanium alloys, recycling shows a great potential to substitute titanium sponge, economize the titanium market and to apply secondary low cost titanium in new applications. This article deals with the development of a new recycling process for Titanium-Aluminide scrap, which is presently downgraded as a deoxidation agent in steel production. This process is an innovative combination of industrialized processes like Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM), Metallothermic Desoxidation, Pressure Electro Slag Remelting (PESR) and Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR).
The preliminary melting of scrap is done by VIM using specialized ceramic linings and includes pre-deoxidization by metallothermic reactions. The second process step is final deoxidization by Pressure ESR using a continuously activated Ca-reactive slag. Finally VAR removes small slag inclusions as well as dissolved Ca and allows for hydrogen degassing. For each step the special equipment requirements, the metallurgical challenges as well as opportunities are described. Thermochemical modeling on refractory reactions in contact with liquid titanium alloys, on the involved deoxidization by calcium metal, on the chemistry of deoxidation by active slags and on the removal of excess Ca and H in VAR are presented in the fundamentals section.
The paper will show, as a significant innovation for the Titanium industry, the results of semi-pilot scale experiments at IME for the production of 30 kg VIM-PESR-VAR-ingots from 100 % scrap regarding process window definition and material characterisation. The presentation will close with a cost benchmark estimation against primary TiAl  production.


Fu, Baoquan (September 2009) 'Fabrication High Homogeneous Ti30mo Alloy For Titanium Master Alloy In Aerospace Application' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

β-titanium alloy has good elevated temperature properties and resistance to oxidation, it widely used to aerospace application. Molybdenum is usually added to β alloy (such as Ti-10Mo-8V-1Fe-3.5AI (Ti-1023), Ti-15Mo-10.7Nb-3AI-0.2SiB-21S) and Ti-3.0-.6V-5.0Mo (BT16) as a stabilized β-phase element. But molybdenum has very high melting point than titanium. It is very difficult to add in titanium alloys which have relatively high molybdenum content. The normal AI-60Mo alloys cannot satisfie these alloys requirement for high molybdenum content. It is necessary to produce high homogeneous Ti-30Mo alloy as titanium master alloy. The common melting method for Ti-Mo alloy is combination method of skull furnace and VAR furnace or power metallurgy method. The rates of final products are usually very low and the chemical elements are also very difficult to control for combination method. The power metallurgy method is easy lead in oxidized impurity elements. This paper reports a new method to fabricate high homogeneous Ti-30Mo alloy. Triple VAR method is used and gets a very high homogeneous ingot. The SEM and X-RAY are used to analysis the homogeneous of Ti-30Mo alloy. The difference of molybdenum element is smaller than 2%. It can be satisfied the requirement for special β-titanium alloy.


Gaiani ,Silvia(September 2009)'Investment Casting Of Titanium Alloys' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

During last year, Akrapovic Company established inside its plant of Ivancna Gorica, Slovenia, an investment casting facilities (lost wax process) dedicated to titanium and reactive alloys.
The reasons for acquiring this new technology are multiple, as affirm the company in consolidating experience and technical knowledge in titanium alloys transformation, and furthermore allow the production of components with dedicated shapes and reduced thickness to be used in our exhaust systems production.
Another important aspect to take in to account concerning this process is the possibility to make use of titanium scrap originated by other technological processes (tube production, bending, deep drawing, welding ...) as initial raw material for casting operation.
In order to develop our specific knowledge about different casting materials, a considerable amount of characterization test has been performed, with the aim to observe the mechanical, physical and metallurgical properties of different types of titanium alloys.
For the specific application of casted parts in our exhaust systems, good thermal properties and improved oxidation resistance is obviously required. In order to inspect this specific field of application, wide ranges of oxidation tests at different temperatures have been performed in cooperation with Material Engineering Department of Modena University, in Italy.
This contribution will present and discuss the main results obtained after more than six months of tests. Moreover, some ideas and methods concerning how these results can be implemented and became profitable for production will be also displayed as well.
All the research work and development activities performed in the field of titanium casting have been considered also with the clear objective to gain a high level of specific knowledge, which can allow Akrapovic Company to consolidate its own business also in different fields of application than automotive industry.


Gau, Francois(September 2009)'Effective and Efficient Titanium Machining' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

Kennametal delivers productivity to its customers by providing materials expertise and application knowledge. Kennametal is constantly investing to improve the costs and leadtime associated with shaping components made of various titanium alloys. Kennametal presentation will focus on best practices and will give a glimpse on some of the newest technologies available on the market to make this material more affordable to many industries through machining breakthroughs. Typical savings can range upward of 30% on total part costs and 60% on leadtime. You will be amongst the first to learn more about Kennametal's CoolTekh technologies that aim to extend tool life and improve material removal rates significantly in Titanium machining. Kennametal is the leading tooling supplier to most of the titanium parts manufacturers around the world. Our brands such as Kennametal and Hanita are well known in the Aerospace market. Also, our subsidiary International Specialty Alloy supplies most of the casting and forging suppliers with high purity alloys.


Gehler, Sylvain(September 2009)'Titanium Sponge Production In Kazakhstan, Russia, AndUkraine' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Mr. Gehler will review Titanium ilmenite mining and sponge production in Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The speaker will analyze the consequence of the collapse of ti demand on titanium sponge production of these countries the consequences on future world sponge supply and planned capital investments.


Gooch, William (September2009) 'The Design and Application of Titanium Alloys to U.S. ArmyPlatforms' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Titanium alloys have long been used for reducing system weight in airframe structure and jet engine components. The high cost of titanium, however, has historically prevented the application to military ground vehicles. In recent years, the cost of titanium has fallen relative to the cost of composite and ceramic armors and titanium is now a valid option for some Army applications, whether for weight reduction or improved ballistic performance. The distinct advantages of low density, high strength, a large competitive industrial base, and well established forming and shaping techniques establishes titanium as an excellent material for many military applications. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has invested significant research efforts in understanding the material processing requirements for ground versus aerospace applications and this paper will provide an overview of that research. A major concurrent effort has been the amending existing military specifications to allow the use of lower cost, higher oxygen content titanium alloys that meet specific ground applications. The paper will end with a review of some of the current applications of titanium in use worldwide.


Hickton, Dawne S (September 2009)'Military Aerospace andArmor Demand' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Ms. Hickton will provide insight and analysis on the proposed overhaul of defense budgetary priorities and review important titanium-related programs like the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, F-22 Raptor, the tanker replacement, V-22 Osprey, tactical vehicles, and other armor weapons. Near-term and long-term outlooks for military titanium will also be presented to assist attendees in business planning.


Hill, Robert(September 2009)'The Future of Thermally Processing Titanium In A VacuumFurnace' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

A brief historical background on the development of the vacuum furnace and its importance to the early emerging titanium industry will be given. From the early laboratory scale furnaces of the past century, to today’s large capacity car bottom designed vacuum furnace, we will discuss the numerous improvements that have been made in this field of vacuum technology.


Holder, Cornel A (September 2009) 'DNSC Expands Mission...Building a Better Defense' , Titanium2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The National Defense Stockpile (NDS) was created in 1939 to preclude dependence upon foreign sources of supply in times of national emergency, Over the years, the National Defense Stockpile fell under the auspices of different agencies for administration and management. Between 1949 and 1988, the General Services Administration and Federal Emergency Management Agency were responsible for the NDS. In 1988, the responsibility for the program was delegated to the Secretary of Defense. The management and overall policy responsibilities for the NDS rest with the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisitions, Technology and Logistics as the Stockpile Manager. Program management was assigned to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC) was established within DLA to manage the program.
The requirements for materials in the NDS were based on military and national security scenarios which resulted in build-up and reduction phases. In 1992, the requirements determination process concluded most of the materials held in the stockpile were excess to defense industrial and essential civilian needs. Congress authorized the sale of the excess materials. There were 90 commodities stored in 85 locations then and today there are 24 commodities stored in 11 locations. The remaining inventory is valued at about $1.4 billion.
Concerns regarding the global availability of strategic and critical materials by both DoD and Congress resulted in a re-examination of the need for a reconfiguration of the NDS. Congress, subsequently, passed legislation and directed DoD to review the current NDS program and assess the need to reconfigure the NDS to meet current and future strategic and critical material needs. The National Materials Advistory Board of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was commissioned to conduct an independent study to assess the effectiveness of the NDS to respond to current needs and threats. The NAS study addressed two areas: (1) the need for a new NDS strategy to satisfy materials needs of DoD and (2) creation of a new system for managing the supply of materials. In 2008, the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Industrial Policy chartered a working group, comprised of representatives from the military services, other DoD agencies, Dept. of Commerce and the USGS, to respond to the congressional concerns. The consensus of the group was that the NDS should be reconfigured to be more responsive to DoD and essential civilian material requirements, particularly in light of the U. S. manufacturing growing dependence on the global marketplace. A report outlining the working group’s findings was forwarded to Congress in April 2009. Mr. Cornel Holder, Administrator of DNSC, testified before the House Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Readiness, to discuss the proposed reconfiguration. This information was favorably received.
The reconfiguration will result in the transformation of the NDS into the Strategic Materials Security Program (SMSP) to enable the Nation to more quickly adapt to current world market conditions and ensure the future availability of materials required for defense and national security needs. The SMSP will include a broader internal DoD profile with a reduced footprint for actual stockpiling activities, an expanded interface with other federal agencies, greater latitude in entering and exiting markets and flexibility to develop risk-based value propositions. The proposed reengineered program will be more properly align to sense and respond to today’s military material needs in scenarios ranging from non-conflict to full mobilization. Today’s military must respond to asymmetric national security threats wherever and whenever they occur – frequently on several simultaneous fronts.
The DNSC plans to mobilize its organization to address an expanded mission to meet the needs of DoD and essential civilian agencies. The expanded mission will include the following support: provide constant surveillance of global marketplace to assess changes in market conditions, geo-political issues, economic trends, reduced access to foreign sourced material and loss of access due to natural/man-made disasters; impacts of MERIT and REACH that could jeopardize the availability of materials and determine potential risk to existing supply chains. DNSC would recommend a strategy to minimize any identified supply disruptions ranging from executing strategic sourcing contracts, traditional stockpiling contracts and partnering with foreign nations to potentially reduce lead times and ensure material availability to meet specified requirements at predictable/steady prices.


Honnart, Alain(September 2009)'Innovative Process To Manufacture Tailor-Made Titanium Products' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Present processes to manufacture titanium long products are hindered by a long supply chain implying plants often located far apart and are practically limited to the use of standard specifications and alloys which are available in relatively large lots of at least a few tonnes. A group of European companies has conducted a research project aimed at developing a "fast track” supply chain with high flexibility allowing to manufacture small quantities of tailor made alloys in record time (down to a few weeks) and at strongly reduced costs.
The process has been developed for the production of extruded tubing and profiles, which the involved companies can deliver machined and bent to customers’ specification.
Patents are pending and trial orders have already been manufactured on industrial equipment. The originality is both in the process itself which is being patented, but also in the cooperative R&D performed between nearby companies belonging to 2 industrial groups:
-PFW Aerospace AG in Speyer Germany: a tier-one supplier of Tubing, Ducting, Cargo Loading Systems and Structure to Airbus, Boeing and other aerospace constructors. PFW is a subsidiary of Safeguard International.
-GFE Metalle une Materialien Gmbh in Nuremberg Germany, a manufacturer of master alloys and other special products (powder, aluminides, etc..). GFE belongs to AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV of which Safeguard International is a major shareholder.
-Cefival in Persan –France: a specialist of the hot extrusion of titanium tubing and profiles, with a long experience of supplying the aerospace industry and other titanium consuming industries. Cefival is controlled by the Italian Group Calvi.


Honnart, Alain(September 2009)'A New Process To Manufacture Titanium Near NetShapes' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Reducing the buy-to-fly ratio is a major concern for the aerospace industry. A number of development programs are aiming at reducing this ratio.
METEC Powder Metal AB has developed a technology which allows to manufacture near-net shape parts up to 6 lbs (limitation only linked to the present equipment not to the process).
The process starts from aerospace quality gas atomized powder which is agglomerated and compacted under a proprietary multistage process. 98% density have already been achieved after sintering giving already properties comparable to forged products. 99,5% to 100% density is under development giving the products better qualities than any conventional process (homogeneity, low impurity content, mechanical properties).
It is extremely economical due to the huge energy and material saving and to the high productivity which is achievable. It uses only environmentally friendly components.


Keener, Steven(September 2009)'Improved Properties of Lower-cost Titanium-alloyMaterials for Aerospace Fastener Applications', Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

This paper summarizes the preliminary results of the macrostructures, microstructures, chemistries, and mechanical properties achieved via this cryogenic processing approach. Initial results for commercially-pure titanium material will be presented, that show near-nanometer size nitride particles formed in-situ during processing, and increased temperature stability of the alloy into the 925°F temperature range.


Khanna, Gautham(September 2009)'Aerospace Market Data', Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

This presentation will evaluate current aerospace market data, including a review of the backlog at Boeing and Airbus, and assess how this data informs our thesis on aftermarket trends, along with original equipment orders and deliveries over the next two years. In addition, the defense budget for FY 2010 and future trends in overall defense procurement will be examined along with an in-depth look at the Joint Strike Fighter program.


Koike, Mari (September2009)'Electron Beam Melting for Rapid Prototyping of One-Component BiomimeticDental Implants' , Titanium 2009, HiltonWaikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Currently, endosteal dental implants are made of titanium alloys which consist of the root-form fixture and transmucosal abutment. Traditional implants are placed in the jawbone after a socket hole is drilled to accept endosteal implants. With the advent of electron beam melting (EBM), we developed the method for micro-CT scanning of teeth in need of extraction and rapid prototyping of one-component biomimetic implants that fit within the existing root socket. In view of potential applications of these products, we characterized some properties relevant to dentistry of Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens prepared using EBM equipment (Arcam A2, Arcam, Sweden). We tested tensile properties, hardness, grindability and corrosion resistance. We also examined specimens implanted in rabbits. We will summarize these results in the presentation.


Lee,Jung Wen (September 2009)'A New Independent Titanium Sponge Producer In China' , Titanium2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Sponge production has been historically a quasi-monopoly of Japan, USA and former CIS countries. China has emerged a few years ago with a few national suppliers. Most of those sponge manufacturing companies are still belonging to State non-ferrous Institutes (the main one being Sunyi) or to big State controlled group such as Chinalco (who took recently the control of Fushun). Due to the booming prices paid for titanium sponge in the last few years, a number of projects appeared in China and small companies involved in titanium tetrachloride emerged as spot suppliers of titanium sponge. One company escapes to this model and has set the ground to becoming one of the leading world players: Tianhe Titanium. The company is original in many respects: it is privately owned with a small portion of the shares quoted at the Hong Kong stock exchange. It is a fully integrated sponge producer, located on the sea side, with ample electricity supply (2 nearby power plants), a chorine supply through pipe line from the chemical plant located a few hundred meters away and with a magnesium electrolysis plant under erection in 2009. All the steps of the process are in a compact plant entirely new with a capacity of up to 15000 tonnes per year. (Pictures to be shown)
Knowing that investment costs are 4 times lower in China compared to Western countries, and knowing the part of depreciation in the cost of titanium sponge, this gives a significant cost advantage to Tianhe. The relatively dry environment and good insulation of the building guarantees a low oxygen content in the sponge. A state of the art laboratory is guaranteeing a superior quality as shown in the analysis.
With no downstream production (no melting shop), Tianhe ambitions to be a partner of all independent titanium manufacturer looking for a competitive and reliable source of sponge non-competing with its own customers.


Linger, David(September 2009)'Titanium Utilization And Vision For The Next Decade: AGas Turbine OEM Perspective' , Titanium2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Aviation OEM’s seek to optimize product performance, such as strength to weight ratios and fuel efficiency with cost. This balancing act becomes even more difficult with raw material price volatility. In fact, in the last few years the aviation gas turbine industry has been replacing titanium with heavier but lower cost iron and nickel-based materials.
Today, titanium is being reintroduced onto aviation gas turbine products thanks to novel manufacturing, joining, and powdered metal consolidation technologies. This trend will not only continue but will accelerate as these low cost, high yield, or near net shape technologies mature and become certified for use. Further, titanium’s value will reach entitlement when the various novel, cost-effective titanium production processes that synthesize Ti alloy powders by direct reduction (Meltless Ti) are combined with these complementary manufacturing and powder consolidation techniques.
The Meltless Ti alloy powders can be consolidated into mill products that will benefit from the same emerging machining and joining technologies, or the powder will be directly manufactured into near-net shape components. For this vision to happen, a coordinated supply chain will need to be established similar to that created for the plastic industry in the 1960’s.
It is anticipated that early qualification and use of Meltless Ti alloy materials by the aerospace industry will lead to an accelerated adoption of the technology by other markets, leading to an expansion in overall titanium use.


Metz, Michael G. (September 2009)'World Demand Trends OutlookSummary' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Mr. Metz will provide a summary of the panel presentations, creating a market overview from each of the various pieces discussed by the panelists so the attendees have a complete picture of the total demand for titanium worldwide.


Michaels, Kevin(September 2009)'Aerospace Design And Advanced Material Trends:Implications For The Titanium Market' ,Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Midgett, Steve(September 2009)'The Cutting Edge', Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Three hundred and fifty years ago a Japanese swordsmith invented the metal lamination technique of Mokume Gane (wood grain metal). The technique was used to adorn Samurai swords which are widely recognized as some of the most remarkable metal objects of all time. Renowned not only for their great beauty and functionality, these swords represented mans highest metallurgical achievements. Until modern times, the techniques used to create them have been tightly guarded secrets. Through tireless research and experimentation a handful of western metalsmiths have unlocked those secrets and continue to innovate new processes for the production of patterned metal laminates. The latest, most cutting edge technology makes possible the manufacture of exotic metal laminates that the swordsmiths of old could not even have imagined. This presentation will show examples of historical Japanese and modern western work as well as the latest high-tech incarnations of the technique.


Miranda, Paul(September 2009)'Free-Form Production Of Complex, Net Shape TitaniumParts' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

High quality, metal parts are being produced using rapid prototyping techniques at the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP). Various metals are being used with titanium one of the two principle metals being investigated. Complex, free-form net shape parts are produced that have variable porosity and mechanical properties. Part distortion is minimal, even with small extremely complex pieces. Advanced three-dimensional printing creates the initial part followed by sintering and if required, secondary infiltration to control density. The method holds promise not only for industrial pats but also for medical parts.


Moeller, Claudia(September 2009)'Molten salt electrolysis of Titanium using a TiO2-Ccomposite anode in halide electrolytes', Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The currently used Kroll process for Titanium production has many techno-economical disadvantages, that even the inventor thought his process would be substituted within a few years. But even today no alternative has succeeded in implementation. However today’s increasing demand for Titanium requires a cheaper and quicker production process more than ever. Since all commercial light metals are produced by molten salt electrolysis due to their ignoble character this process seems to be the promising way for the production of titanium as well. Hence many electrochemical approaches have being tested in the past and at the moment, but none of them has reached a stable production state until now.
At RWTH Aachen University investigations are ongoing in order to establish a molten salt electrolysis of titanium using a TiO2/C composite powder anode. The main challenge of this electrochemical process is to dissolve the right titanium ions below 600 °C. The main idea of the invented process is based on the following principle. In a titanium halide (Hal) enriched and, halide based electrolyte, TiHalx is split into Tix+ and xHal- by a defined potential (current density). Subsequently Tix+ is deposited at the cathode and Hal-atoms form at the anode. In "statu nascendi” the Hal-atoms react with the components of the composite anode consisting of TiO2 and C. TiHalx is formed again, which is dissolved in the electrolyte.
To investigate the technical feasibility of this process, a research group at IME develops the concept of this composite anode in a lab scale molten salt electrolysis cell since 2003. A suitable electrolyte with a melting point below 550 °C has been determined and the process window is set by electrochemical methods. The paper will give an detailed overview of the individual projects tasks and will show that the process invented in Aachen is applicable for the synthesis of titanium.


Moody, Lauren(September 2009)'Forging and Heat Treating 5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti5553)' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr is currently being utilized for a number of structural and landing gear forgings for the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner program. Weber Metals performed production studies on a variety of forging (alpha-beta and beta) and heat treating (BASCA-160 and STA-180) practices in multiple die forging configurations in accordance with Boeing specification requirements. This presentation will be a summary of the work done in these studies. In addition, forgeability comparisons with Ti-6-4 and Ti-6-6-2 will be presented.


Morrissey, Erin (September 2009)'Boeing’s Scrap Revert Program' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The Boeing Revert Program is designed to increase the recoverability of titanium scrap for aerospace applications. Boeing is developing a "closed loop” revert program to secure our supply of titanium while reducing the impact of price volatility which in effect is physical hedging. The expected challenges are ensuring the aerospace quality of scrap from our supplier to the contracted mills. The program is designed to reduce these challenges and minimize the logistic costs as well as incorporating best practices throughout Boeing’s supply chain. of some of the treatment variables were determined, along with some of the characteristics of the optimised ceramic layer.


Motyka, Maciej(September 2009)'The Effect of Microstructure on Hot Plasticity of a+bTitanium Alloys' , Titanium 2009, HiltonWaikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Hot deformation behaviour of two-phase titanium alloys is determined by the type of microstructure developed in heat treatment and plastic deformation processes. The influence of initial and final heat treatment parameters and degree of plastic deformation on hot plasticity of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Mo-2Cr alloys is discussed in the paper. Tested alloys were hot deformed at the temperature range of 1123÷1323K and at the strain rate from 0.01 to 0.5 s-1 strain rate range (including superplastic conditions). Microstructural investigations were carried out using light microscopy and TEM techniques. Stereological parameters of microstructure before and after hot deformation were determined. Evaluation of their influence on hot plasticity (maximum flow stress spm and relative strain e) of two-phase titanium alloys was performed.


Nowotnik, Andrzej(September 2009)'Laser Surface Alloying of Titanium Alloy with BoronNitrides' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

The intention of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the research on surface layer modification of Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy using laser alloying technique. Therefore the samples coated by graphite and BN powders were treated by laser beam in stream of nitrogen in order to form martensitic ?’ phase, titanium nitrides, titanium carbides and borides that form as a consequence of the laser irradiation. Topography of the surface of laser melted layer was investigated. The laser melted zone was examined and its microstructure and phase composition were determined. Microstructural analyses were carried out using Epiphot 300 optical microscope and Novascan 30 scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS X-ray detector for compositional analysis. The phases were identified by X-ray diffractometry (Philips) with CuKa radiation. The Vickers microhardness under the load of 1.96 N and thermo-electric power was measured on the cross-sections of treated surface.


Oberwinkler, Bernd (September 2009)'Light Weight Design of Ti-6Al-4V Forgings' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Two different forgings (open and closed die forgings, respectively) and two feedstock bars were used for this research work. Additional varying thermomechanical treatments were performed on these forgings to achieve a high diversity of microstructure. High cycle fatigue tests and crack propagation tests were done for characterization of the fatigue behavior in regard of microstructure. A Hall-Petch relationship was used for linking fatigue limit and primary alpha grain size. The influence of bimodality of microstructure on the endurance limit is also considered in the model. The finite life region was linked with grain size and alpha lamellae width. So it is possible to generate local microstructural-based S/N-curves for linking the local microstructure with fatigue strength. For lifetime prediction further influences have to be taken into account. Therefore the influence of relative stress gradient on the fatigue behavior was evaluated with unnotched and notched specimens. The mean stress sensitivity was determined with tension/compression tests on unnotched hourglass specimens. A model for linking local stress intensity threshold and microstructure was developed, too. So it is possible to calculate the local maximum allowed crack size with the El Haddad-model. This research work provides a holistic basis for purpose-aimed forging and heat treatment process layout and finally for light weight design of Ti-6Al-4V forgings.


Ogawa, Michiharu(September 2009)'Non-toxic and Good Cold Formability Titanium Alloys forMedical Applications' , Titanium 2009,Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Ti-6Al-4V ELI and Ti-6Al-7Nb was widely applied to medical application because of their high strength and high corrosion resistance. However these materials have not good cold formability, so it is difficult to apply for cold drowning wire. Recently beta titanium alloy, Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr was developed for biomedical application. This material has non-toxic and good cold formability. But its contain high melting point metals such as Niobium and Tantalum, so it is required to attention to manufacturability. In order to supply more economical and stable price alloy, we developed new beta alloy Ti-Nb-Cr-Sn which was composed of non-toxic and non-allergic elements like Niobium, Chromium and Tin. This New Ti-Nb-Cr-Sn alloy has non-toxic, low elastic modulus and good cold formability.


Okamoto, Akio(September 2009)'Kobe Steel Develops Pre-coated Titanium with ExcellentPress-Formability' , Titanium 2009,Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

As new applications expand in various markets, titanium sheet with good press-formability is growing in important. Kobe Steel, Ltd. has developed a pre-coated titanium sheet with excellent press-formability properties. This material provides excellent press-formability without using conventional lubricants. In addition, it enables higher strength material to be pressed. Pre-coated titanium is suitable for mass production, because the coating layer can be easily removed by an alkaline cleaning line.


Pasmore, Jim(September 2009)'Recent Developments In Handheld X-Ray FluoresenceInstrumentation' , Titanium 2009, HiltonWaikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Handheld x-ray fluorescence (HHXRF) analyzers have become the standard for non-destructive quality control testing of finished titanium alloy products. These systems are routinely utilized for rapid quality control inspection and analysis to ensure product chemistry specifications are met. Like most scientific technologies, XRF instruments have evolved dramatically over the last forty years to harness miniaturization and computer advancements and to meet increasing demands from the industry.
Most recently, the introduction of new proprietary large area silicon drift detectors (SDD) into HHXRF instruments has produced significant performance improvements over traditional XRF capabilities. Known as GOLDD (Geometrically Optimized Large area Drift Detector) technology, these systems process much higher count rates, with excellent resolution and shaping time, to produce up to three times better limits of detection than traditional SDD systems, and up to 10 times better sensitivities over conventional silicon PIN detector instruments. As a result, a handheld XRF can now be used for the analysis of tramp elements in production facilities and ultralow residual element detection in specialized inspection work.
Coupled with a high output, 50kV, miniaturized x-ray tube, the GOLDD system can also perform light element analysis work without vacuum or helium purge, something considered impossible with a handheld instrument as recently as one year ago. Aluminum, sulfur, magnesium, phosphorous, silicon and other light elements can be measured in titanium alloy materials directly, with little if any sample preparation necessary. When optimal sensitivities are necessary, the GOLDD system can be combined with a portable helium purging mechanism to produce two times better limits of detection for light elements than without the purge.
This paper will offer an explanation of the XRF technique and the evolution of HHXRF systems. It will also offer an in-depth discussion of new silicon drift detector technology. Performance considerations and specific applications will be explored.


Pastushan, Nick(September 2009)'Health Of The Global Aircraft Financing Markets' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii,USA

This presentation will focus on the health of the global aircraft financing markets. This will include the aircraft lessors, and the implications to them of the financial crisis, as they are a large part of the aircraft backlog as well as buyers through sale leaseback transactions. We will explore the linkage of the financing market to the delivery forecasts as the health of the airline purchasers.


Pickup, Simon (September 2009)'Airbus Global Market Forecast' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The Airbus Global Market Forecast (GMF) gives a detailed analysis of world air transport developments, covering nearly 300 passenger and freight traffic flows, as well as a year-by-year fleet evolution of the world’s aircraft operators, through fleet analysis of nearly 700 passenger airlines and 177 freighter operators.
Highlights include a review of significant developments that have influenced passengers and airlines, affecting the shape and direction of the aviation industry, as well as determining the level of future demand around the world.
The GMF takes into consideration international travel, equipment trends, load factors and frequencies, the demand for more fuel and eco-efficient airliners, plus the need to replace older generation aircraft.
Network evolution, in response to population growth and resulting air traffic congestion is discussed, as is the role of hub and secondary operations. Airport infrastructure challenges, environmental constraints and the needs of emerging and potentially emerging nations are considered.
All of these factors result in a projected demand, by number and dollar value, for new aircraft, by region, nation and size, from very large to small single-aisle aircraft.
Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS based in France, produces about half of the world’s jet airliners. Mr. Pickup has over 16 years of experience in airline marketing, primarily helping airlines analyze aircraft performance, economics and fleet planning.


Quijano, Delfin (September 2009)'New Titanium Add-On Armor Provides Enhanced Soldier Protection in a Lightweight Solution' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The dynamic nature of current U.S. military ground force operations in Iraq and Afghanistan has put increased emphasis on the need for lighter weight, add-on armor solutions to a number of vehicle platforms. The U.S. Army Armament, Research and Development Center (ARDEC) is the Army center of excellence for lightweight and novel armor solutions. ARDEC has numerous titanium innovations around emerging welding and continuous-melt furnace technologies, as well as advanced, production-ready manufacturing processes to rapidly and intelligently design titanium solutions currently being used in Stryker, Abrams, and Bradley combat vehicle systems.
Based on the titanium-based Gunner Protection Kit (GPK) that ARDEC successfully designed, developed, and deployed, the Special Operations Command (SOCOM) asked ARDEC to do the same for a lightweight titanium seat for the SOCOM Humvee (Ground Maneuver Vehicle – GMV). The titanium armor seat increases the level of personal protection for the driver and passengers with increased ergonomics. In addition to the GMV, the new titanium armor seat is also being developed with application for most of the U.S. Army’s Humvee variants, including the M1114, M1152, and others.
ARDEC was able to leverage the design, material technologies, and processes developed for the titanium SOCOM GPK to rapidly produce these GMV titanium seats and enable accelerated delivery to the warfighter at a drastically reduced cost, ensuring long-term producibility and availability. This presentation will discuss how the role of titanium in add-on armor protection continues to expand; will highlight the titanium seat as well as prior solution successes as well as plans to develop a modular crew capsule.


Rakhman, Turgyn(September 2009)'Chinese Titanium Market in 2008' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

In the past year, Chinese titanium industry experienced a very high speed of growth. Strong demand from both domestic and overseas provided China with a golden opportunity for the industry. China has started its engine transforming from a country whose demand largely rely on export, to domestic market; from a country which could only produce primitive products to big mills, to a possible supplier for airspace, shipbuilding, chemical industries.
In 2008, China’s total titanium sponge capacity reached 71,000Mt (No.1 in the world), over 11% compare to the previous year. Output volume reached about 50,000t (No.1 in the world), over 10% increase compare with 2007. The number of sponge actual producer increased to more than 10, and eights of them with a capacity more then 5000t a year. At the same time, mill products also showed a big step forward to about 28,000t (No.1 in the world) near 17.3% increase compared with 2007 According to the customs statistics, in 2008, sponge export was 6292t and import was 1221t, a net export was 5071t, this is more then 12% of total sponge production.. Mill product export was 8570t and import was 6387t, a net export was 2183t, this is more then 30.9% of total mill product production.
Global tight supply situation of titanium since 2005 has encouraged Chinese titanium production. Now china has become the No.1 country on titanium sponge capacity, real production, titanium mill product production. One of the reason of titanium sponge price down is over increase of Chinese sponge production. As the other metals, the major world sponge makers have started to receive influence of Chinese low sponge price. We should notice that grade 0 and grade 1 is about 70% of total sponge production. The quality of Chinese titanium sponge has been improved.
But Chinese titanium producers need some time to compete with other major titanium manufactures. Chinese titanium market has been increased. China has become a big titanium country.


Reitz, Friedrich J. (September 2009)'Tracing Ca and F during Remelting of Titanium-Aluminides in ESR and VAR' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Pressure Electroslag remelting (PESR) of titanium and its alloys under a Ca-CaF2-CaO slag has been under investigation as a suitable means for the refining and de-oxidation of scraps and intermediates from alternative titanium winning processes. Little is known on the effect of Ca and F on the properties of the remelted materials, yet assumptions are that these elements would proof to act disadvantageous on me-chanical properties. On the other hand, recent research on titanium aluminides has shown positive effects of fluorine surface treatment on high temperature corrosion behaviour.
A first modelling of calcium and fluorine activities in CaF2-based slags suggest that a solution of Ca and F in the melt can be expected in the ppm range during PESR of titanium and titanium aluminide alloys. Thus the concentration of the elements should be analysed and tracked precisely when evaluating the suitability of alternative remelting processes for recycling purposes and also with regard to the properties of titanium material obtained by these processes. This paper presents a review of the analytical techniques presently applied to analyse traces of Ca and F in titanium and titanium aluminides. Samples of titanium aluminides have been prepared by ESR ,VAR subsequent combination of the two processes in order to demonstrate the concentration changes of these elements before and after the remelting and highlight analytical possibilities and challenges.


Robison, James (September 2009)'Molybdenum, 2009' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

After eight decades of stable prices and supplies that met or exceeded demand, molybdenum this decade has exhibited rapid growth in both demand and supply, with long periods of demand exceeding short-term supply. This led to unprecedented volatility and elevated prices in the molybdenum market. In this presentation we examine the broad applications of molybdenum and its more narrow applications in titanium; sources of molybdenum; market changes which contribute to its recent volatility; the relative size of the molybdenum and titanium markets; and fluctuations in the molybdenum market over the past twelve months.
Since 2003 the rapid expansion of steelmaking in emerging economies, along with increased production of more sophisticated end products (automobiles, appliances) led to corresponding demand for molybdenum. Increasing copper production helped supply by-product molybdenum to meet this demand, but a "tight supply” situation persisted for almost five years, with corresponding elevated prices. Changes in governmental policies on imports and exports contributed to price fluctuations during this period. With the sudden drop in economic activity in October of 2008, molybdenum was again in oversupply, with prices falling abruptly but still well above historical levels. The recent increase in steel production, particularly in China and India, has led to price increases amid concern some suppliers might be holding back stock waiting for still higher prices.
Since 2003 the rapid expansion of steelmaking in emerging economies, along with increased production of more sophisticated end products (automobiles, appliances) led to corresponding demand for molybdenum. Increasing copper production helped supply by-product molybdenum to meet this demand, but a "tight supply” situation persisted for almost five years, with corresponding elevated prices. Changes in governmental policies on imports and exports contributed to price fluctuations during this period. With the sudden drop in economic activity in October of 2008, molybdenum was again in oversupply, with prices falling abruptly but still well above historical levels. The recent increase in steel production, particularly in China and India, has led to price increases amid concern some suppliers might be holding back stock waiting for still higher prices. The molybdenum market is experiencing historic changes. This presentation attempts to present current information as well as thoughts on what might be expected in the coming year.


Rosenberg, Edward(September 2009)'The Production and Sale of Consumer Products In AGlobal Recession' , Titanium 2009,Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The extraordinary economic events of this past year have drastically reshaped history and significantly altered the way society thinks and lives. With few exceptions, this global recession has dramatically impacted nearly every industry and market segment. Among those most severely affected were companies involved in the production and sale of consumer products. What further exacerbated the dilemma were the persistent government warnings against any form of "discretionary spending”.   As retail sales plummeted in all sectors, icons of industry fell in dramatic numbers causing a ripple that further perpetuated downward spiral to their support systems and vendors. This recession clearly demonstrated the delicate balance and connectivity of our industries. What started at the retail counter impacted the manufacturers, and then the material suppliers.
Yet those with vision and fortitude often find that nestled within great challenges, there are abundant benefits and opportunities. It is events like these which force us to reevaluate conventional wisdom and business practices to see if they are still viable or need to be radically changed to meet the new environment. This event should be thought of as an evolutionary process. It will prove to be a chapter in the history of industrial development and as such should evoke an even greater sense of urgency to create our way to the future.
Being that this presentation is directed at the consumer product industry, we will use that context to demonstrate the value of innovation.
Today’s consumers are better educated, more aware, and have greater access to information than ever before. Their expectation and appetite for new and improved products, technologies, and visual appeal is constant and continually elevating. If we are to build sustainable businesses and be successful long term we must meet those needs. It is that philosophy, innovative products and services coupled with a commitment to exceeding consumer expectancies that has enabled companies like Apple, IBM, Wal-Mart, Skype, Enterprise, South West Airlines and others to perpetuate growth and consumer equity. If it wasn’t clear until now, consumers drive our economies.
This panel is representative of our industry’s commitment to development and growth of consumer products. In the jewelry industry titanium has pioneered the way to the dominance of the new category defined as "contemporary metals”. In less than 25 years it has secured well over a 25% market share in the wedding band category world wide. It has journeyed from obscurity to the cover page of renowned international publications and featured in 30 minute segments on major networks throughout America, Europe, and Asia. The model works. Th consumer is waiting for innovation in all categories. Our time has come.


Scharvogel, Matthias(September 2009)'Metal Injection Molding of Titanium and itsAlloys' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

The development of our process started well over ten years ago with the focus to offer an alternative manufacturing method for the medical device industry. Today, we have several products that are being implanted in Europe. We expect to have products with Asian an USA FDA approval by the end of this year. We do operate as an OEM and do not offer medical devices as TiJet, but still we are certified to ISO 13485.  The mechanical properties of our Titanium MIM components are tailored to the application. But we can manufacture CP Titanium with an elongation of well over 20%. The Ti6Al/4V components reach tensile strength of over 930 MPa and elongation over 15%.
We are in the process of writing ASTM standards in order to help the medical device industry in the usage of our technology.
We are also working on complementing Titanium powder manufacturing processes for Titanium and its alloys that we would like to introduce in our presentation as well. These technologies are mainly for manufacturing Titanium sheets and porous Titanium products.


Schumerth, Dennis J (September 2009)'The Big, Green, Clean Machine – A Nuclear Renaissance Update for the Titanium Industry', Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Notwithstanding the current world economic downturn, continuing instability in global oil prices and a real and unprecedented decline in domestic electric energy load capacity, the nuclear power sector faces burgeoning and continuing challenges. Industry banter including green power, carbon capture, cap and trade, wind power, photovoltaic, biomass, solar and other noble, yet largely unsustainable compass points are often used to identify the new energy de jour. Purported methods by the administrative pundits to increase energy independence and stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system have taken front page headlines. The Renaissance gestation period has ended and a new era has begun begging the question as to when the nuclear phoenix will eventually rise.
As noted above, it is also clear the continued use of fossil fuels for electric power generation remains the bane of the PowerGen Industry. Indeed, new coal-fired power plants, currently generating some 50% of the U.S. domestic power needs, have been largely abandoned as long-term grid additions leaving renewables and solar as the only current political options. Paraphrasing the Obama administration rhetoric and the application of their own political stimulus package to the energy industry – of course coal-fired generation power plants can be built – it’s just that you will not be able to afford them.
Currently, the US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) is moving through the legal, technical, commercial and political conundrum of evaluating 17 COL’s (Combined Construction & Operating License) representing 26 new nukes in the US. Similarly, it is predicted that the world may add an additional 160 units over the next 15 years. Loan Guarantees, as proposed by the Bush Administration (Energy Policy Act) remain precariously in place and noted to cover only the first 19 plants. Design licensing constraints still tug at the bureaucratic shirttails slowing the progress of these COL’s through the approval process. Strict adherence to NRC licensing policy, red tape, continuing pressures on the credit markets and the predicted demise of Yucca Mountain leaving the spent fuel question to future technology/generations has kept both lawyers and utility personnel alike begging the question – "Who’s on first?”.
However, continuing positive signs lie in the committed action principally taken by China and Western Europe in expanding their nuclear horizons. Even several domestic utilities and NSSS suppliers have ordered long lead time items recognizing that both from a political and purely practical position, the first in line will reap the rewards. In the midst of this turmoil, this author will attempt a reevaluation of the "Nuclear Renaissance” in progress. Globally, the solutions remain classically technical. In the U.S., prophetic answers unfortunately lie in a future political agenda. This paper charts a course through the practical and political landscape of each and suggests a revised impact on the world titanium industry.


Schutz, Jeffrey (September 2009)'Novel Processing Technique for Titanium Weld Wire' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

As the military services, especially the U.S. Army, move toward transformation, titanium has become vital to meeting transportability, maneuverability and survivability requirements. Welding and prototype fabrication are playing an increasing role towards the implementation of titanium into future weapon systems. Cost continues to be a barrier to entry for insertion of titanium. To help mitigate some of the cost burden, all aspects of the supply chain are examined for potential savings. A recent feasibility study has demonstrated the technology to produce titanium weld wire in a more efficient and cost effective manner, resulting in savings in both dollars and logistics lead-times for the DoD. The key to the success of this program relies on the ability to directly roll a cast titanium structure as opposed to the more conventional method that hot forges very large diameter ingots. Present technology incorporates a process of many forging and rolling operations of ingots with starting diameters up to 31 inches. The proposed process significantly reduces the number of operations (deformation steps) required by reducing the starting diameter to less than 4 inches. The presentation will discuss the results of the project, which demonstrated that 4-inch diameter cast material can be processed by hot rolling and wire drawing to final sizes of 0.060”, 0.045” and 0.035” inch diameter wire.


Seiner, Henry(September 2009)'Global Sponge Capacity Developments' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

During the conference last year, the World Industry Supply Trends panel presented various aggressive sponge capacity expansion plans from all around the globe. Unfortunate developments both within the consuming markets for titanium and from external market forces have dramatically reduced near-term demand for titanium sponge. Uncertainty as to the timing and magnitude of recovery continues as 2010 approaches. So what is the status of both existing and expanding capacities?
This presentation attempts to update the situation at many of the global producers highlighting changes which have occurred or are occurring in contrast to the situation 12 months ago. The scrap market and its relationship to sponge demand will also be reviewed.


Swale, William(September 2009)'Superplastic Forming – Cost Effective?' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

When Superplastic Forming (SPF) was offered as a production process it became the panacea of all processes for products designed to be made from Titanium and Aluminium materials. The claims were (1) Reduced part count (2) Reduced assembly time (3) Weight reduction (4) Monolithic parts and (5) Stronger structures.
Following Pearson’s work in the mid 30’s with Lead-Tin and Bismuth-Tin alloys, showing higher than 1000% elongation without failure, the Aluminium industry developed SPF alloys and launched into numerous commercial applications. Other research facilities focused on the potential of achieving superplasticity in Titanium alloys. This was demonstrated in the late 60’s using the now well established Ti 6 Aluminium 4 Vanadium alloy. Considerable funding was allocated, both in the USA & UK specifically for the development of the process. The USA focused on the Military Programmes and the UK on the Civil Aircraft (Concorde) and some Military Aircraft. Success in these programmes and the claims made, resulted with a production process. Companies invested in suitable plant and equipment and designers grasped the process potential and applied SPF to their sheet metal designs expecting to reap the claimed benefits.
The claims are valid if applied to correctly chosen components. All too often the SPF manufacturing choice did not deliver its claims. In many cases cost of material, need to chemical mill and higher energy costs were either not envisaged or taken into account.
Today all processes, material cost and alternative material types have to be assessed before the manufacturing method is chosen. The aerospace industry is attacking the Buy-Fly ratio, and energy and labour cost are at a premium and these have caused the SPF and Hot Forming community to examine ways of producing products (a) from less material (b) by Hot Forming (eliminating the need to apply chemical milling to remove the Alpha Case) (c) questioning the material choice (CP instead of Ti6/4) and (d) by applying modern fabrication methods.
This paper will illustrate this change in philosophy; shows today’s choices and demonstrates how the SPF process can be cost effective and in fact does have a major role to play in producing Airframe and Engine Structures in titanium.


Tanabe, Akemi (September 2009)'Examples of New Titanium Consumer Products Produced by Coloring and Etching Technologies' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Titanium and its alloys are traditionally used for aerospace and corrosion resistance applications. Over the last twenty years, however, titanium’s applications for consumer goods such as golf club heads, sporting goods, architecture, cookware, jewelry, house ware, office ware and motorcycle mufflers have increased significantly. Horie Corporation has developed many kinds of new titanium consumer goods by using new technologies such as anodized oxidation coloring, etching, grain size control by recrystalization, and Horie’s proprietary surface treatment. The main approach of Horie is to produce specialized high value titanium consumer goods which can utilize the unique characteristics of titanium such as photo-catalysis and biocompatibility to humans. This presentation will show many examples of Horie’s new products. The technical approach for developing these new products will also be discussed.


Tozaki, Yasuyuki(September 2009)'Titanium Industry Outlook in Japan' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

After Japan’s titanium industry recovered from the slump caused by the impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2003, it has steadily recovered to the extent of achieving the record highs in production of both sponge and mill products in 2008.
Dr. Tozaki will provide an overview of the Japanese titanium industry: current conditions, how the recent economic recession affected the industry; and influence that demand for different applications is having in production (seen through shipments), as well as trends in exports and imports. After introducing the activities of the Japan Titanium Society (JTS), which have contributed to the development of the world titanium industry, and the applications characteristic of Japan’s domestic market, Dr. Tozaki will make some proposals for the world titanium industry’s further development.


Trzcinski, Michael(September 2009)'Armor Plate Using 100% Titanium Scrap Solids Evaluatedby ARDEC' , Titanium 2009, Hilton WaikoloaVillage- Hawaii, USA

The US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at the Picatinny Arsenal has been able to justify the use of titanium by using life cycle costs and the need for increased performance for some battlefield systems. A larger amount of titanium can be used if other applications can meet similar requirements or if the cost of titanium can be reduced. The Defense Metals Technology Center (DMTC) commissioned a project to evaluate the use of scrap titanium solids in armor plate for potential cost reductions. In addition, economic comparisons were developed using historical prices of five types of scrap and sponge.
Titanium plates, made from 100% Ti-6Al-4V scrap solids, have passed major milestones that could enable ARDEC to reduce their cost of titanium for armor applications. The presentation will report on the material properties, ballistic performance, and how and when 100% scrap solids prove more favorable than traditional methods. When the Army purchased ½” plate in 2008, it was determined that they could have achieved a savings of $4.72 per pound if the plates were made from 100 % scrap solids.
Part of the initiative was to organize a team of small manufacturing companies and organizations: Mega Metals, MetalWerks, the Picatinny Arsenal, DSN Innovations, Truefit Solutions and CostVision. These companies offered their expertise in project management, scrap acquisition, melting, supply chain management, manufacturing cost models, and economic research to build the business case for taking this alternative approach to sourcing titanium.


Walker, Scott (September 2009)'Machine Tool Design Elements for Machining Triple Nickel Titanium' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

This encompass’ work that began with Boeing Auburn R&D personnel in 2006. Mitsui Seiki built a machine specifically for machining new titanium materials that are to be used in the new Boeing 787 and it was on loan to them for over a year for testing purposes. These materials are classified as "Triple Nickel” titanium materials. From this test machine we built a group of machines (4 and 5 axes machines) for manufacturing the rear engine mounts for the 787.


Wang, Hanchen (September 2009)'Overview of the China Titanium Industry' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

Introduces the capacity, production, shipment as well as the import and export of titanium sponge and titanium mill products in China. Presents the development plan of the titanium industry and application prospect of titanium in China.


Withers, James(September 2009)'Novel Processing To Produce Ti And Ti Alloy Powders OnA Continuous Basis' , Titanium 2009,Hilton Waikoloa Village- Hawaii, USA

The Kroll process that produces titanium is a multistage sporadic complex heterogeneous slow-speed, uncontrolled, labor intensive, high energy and cost intensive batch process that has defied well over a half century of investigations to simplify into a continuous process. Even with modern engineering current productivity is barely over 1 ton/day per reactor that produces an iron contaminated lumpy sponge product that is formed at the reactor wall interface which limits the capability for continuous operation. Serious environmental issues are prevalent in spite of controlled circulation of Mg, Cl2, MgCl2 and electrolysis of the MgCl2. An innovative approach has been demonstrated to metallothermically produce titanium continuously in a powder morphology in a single reactor that in-situ produces the reductant metal and TiCl4 without environmental issues. The feed to the reactor is a carbothermically refined TiO2/ore that provides the source for the in-situ formed TiCl4. The metal reductant can be magnesium or other alkali earth or alkali metals. The concurrent addition of other metal chlorides produces titanium alloy powders. The powders can be used for powder metallurgy processing for meltless manufacturing, as well as rapid manufacturing technology to produce components.


Woodfield, Andy(September 2009)'Meltless Ti for Aerospace Applications' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

Recent advances in synthesis of Ti alloy powders by direct reduction methods (meltless Ti) have led to new opportunities to produce Ti alloys with enhanced capabilities. The meltless Ti alloy powders can be consolidated into mill products, or used to manufacture near-net shape components. A vision will be outlined for creation of a new supply chain producing meltless Ti alloy powders, leading to the production and application of innovative turbine engine components. This paper will highlight the benefits of meltless Ti alloys, detail GEA’s current assessment of meltless Ti alloy technology, and outline the remaining challenges before the new supply chain can be fully established.
Examples of the benefits of the meltless Ti alloy technology will be presented, including (i) overall energy efficiencies and carbon footprint reductions related to the production of meltless Ti alloy mill products, (ii) microstructural refinement and associated increases in fatigue strength, (iii) improvements in inspectability, and (iv) novel alloys/microstructures that cannot be produced by conventional cast and wrought technology.
Progress aimed at addressing some of the remaining challenges will be highlighted, such as (i) separation of the meltless Ti alloy powders from the reaction by-products, (ii) consolidation of the typically spongy powders coming from the reduction reaction, and (iii) considerations relating to minimizing/managing extrinsic defects.
The supply chain vision outline for meltless Ti alloy mill products will include a number of options for producing a variety of products such as billet and bar. Targeted areas for further work to accelerate the formation of the new supply chain will be highlighted.


Zenkevich,Kenneth(September 2009)'VANADIUM: Recession, Rebalance & Resilience' , Titanium 2009, Hilton Waikoloa Village-Hawaii, USA

The current economic recession has had a major impact on all commodities, including Vanadium, a key component of many critical titanium alloys. After a five-year period which saw unprecedented growth, both the demand and supply of vanadium have dropped sharply since October 2008. Because the demand has dropped more sharply than supply, prices have fallen by more than half since mid-2008, with recent re-balancing of supply and demand resulting in price recovery from near-term lows.
The presentation will examine the impact of the most severe demand shock to the Vanadium supply chain in industry history, its relation to the steel industry, producer response and the potential risks and opportunities that lie ahead as the global economy recovers. These risks highlight the importance of long-term relationships between vanadium suppliers and the titanium industry."






Abkowitz,Stanley (October 2008)'The Reinvention of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy (From Low Cost Turnings to Component Shape)' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is the most commonly used titanium alloy of the titanium industry (70% of all alloys) and generates a considerable annual volume of scrap machining turnings (over 30 million pounds globally). These machine turnings currently find application as partial additions to the titanium ingot melting operations or as alloy additives to steel melts. Although useful, the value of these turnings in such applications is limited. The recycle of machined turnings directly to titanium alloy prime billet or to component shape will offer significant cost reduction.
This presentation will review the technical work underway at Dynamet Technology under Marine Corps. sponsorship to produce a cast shape from innovative casting feedstock composed primarily of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machining turnings. These are specially processed to purify the material of contaminants and uniquely consolidated to high density casting electrodes (feedstock). Chemical analysis, microstructure and the impressive mechanical properties achieved with cast material will be discussed along with the potential for significant cost savings.
This innovative process, in addition to producing low cost titanium components represents the green manufacturing of titanium offering significant energy savings along with highly desirable environmental benefits.


Baril ,Eric (October 2008)'Titanium Foams Based On A Powder Metallurgy Approach Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. ,Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Metallic foams offer a combination of attractive properties such as low density, good specific mechanical properties, fluid permeability, high surface area, good thermal resistance, high electric conductivity, high energy absorption characteristics, etc. These materials have already been considered or used in various applications including structures, biomedical implants, high specific surface electrodes or catalysts, fluid control device, cryogenic gas storage applications, thermal protection systems, etc.
This paper presents the properties of titanium foam structures produced using a powder metallurgy approach. A metallic powder, a solid polymeric binder and a foaming agent are dry-mixed and molded into the desired shape. The molded powder is then heat-treated to foam, debind and sinter the material. Porous titanium structures with porosity between 50 and 70% were produced using this approach. This porous titanium manufacturing process offers significant production flexibility for the development of various applications. The foams can be easily machined, used as a coating on dense structures or coated with dense material. This paper presents the evolution of the structure during the process and the properties (structure, chemical composition, density, permeability, specific surface area, compression behavior) of titanium foams produced under different conditions. Prototypes (orthopedic and dental implants) produced using this process are also presented.


Brown,Irvin (October 2008)'GLOBAL MARKET ASSESSMENT FOR TITANIUM SCRAP' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. ,Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium scrap has once again played the role of friend and foe during the current "up” cycle which has lasted close to 4 years. The industry has found itself in what may someday be considered the best run ever. This run successfully funded much needed capital investments to ensure ample raw material production, scrap processing and product manufacturing capability/capacity to allow for the future growth of our industry.


Bucar,Tomaz (October 2008)'Lightweight and high performance titanium exhaust systems for Porsche sports cars' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Automotive applications of titanium follow logically from the high strength, high temperature durability and unique density of titanium and its alloys, and their excellent resistance to corrosion and wear. Exhaust systems represent an attractive entry point for titanium into the automotive market. There has been a significant growth in the application of titanium and its alloys to automotive exhaust systems over the last years. However, the use of titanium has been limited to racing cars and a few top-of-the-range road models, mainly because of cost and temperature capability. But with the recent improvements of high-temperature properties of titanium with alloy modifications, the application of titanium and its alloys to original-equipment manufacturers' (OEM) automotive exhaust systems will be able to grow dramatically in the next years. This paper presents an example of the commercial challenges of working with a new OEM automotive company not familiar with titanium.


Buch,James M. (October 2008)'Changing Engine Design &Impact on Titanium' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. ,Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Several market and technology forces are impacting the design and demand for civil and military engines. This presentation will cover how these forces are likely to influence the future of titanium in this sector.


Burkins, Matthew(October 2008)'TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR ARMOR APPLICATIONS' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium alloys have long been used for reducing system weight in aerospace components. The high cost of titanium, however, has historically prevented the application to military ground vehicles. In recent years, the cost of titanium has fallen relative to the cost of composite and ceramic armors and titanium is now a valid option for some Army systems. The advantages of low density, high strength, a large competitive industrial base, and mature forming and shaping techniques make titanium an excellent choice for many military applications. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has invested significant research efforts in understanding the material processing requirements for ground applications and this paper will provide an overview of that research. Major efforts have been investigating alternative alloys and amending existing military specifications to allow the use of alternative and lower cost alloys that meet specific ground applications.


Coracides,Mario(October 2008)'Next Generation Product Family' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Dalton,Hunter (October 2008)'A Review of Titanium’s Emerging Markets' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Davis,Carrie (October 2008)'Productivity Enhancements for GMAW of Titanium Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

While titanium has been used extensively in seawater cooling systems on US Navy surface ships, increased use of the material is limited by high material and fabrication costs. Welding costs in titanium are driven by labor intensive precautions relating to cleanliness and shielding required for sound welds and the productivity limitations of the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) offers productivity benefits over conventional GTAW, but it is not used because it has historically been associated with lower weld quality from arc turbulence and exposure of the droplets to impurities in the arc atmosphere. This effort is focused on enhancing the titanium GMAW process to allow broader use of titanium within the Navy and establishing GMAW as a viable alternative to GTAW for titanium use. The research associated with this effort includes optimizing pulse waveforms, determining the effect of gas composition on bead shape, and evaluating commercially available products for GMAW.


de Monicault ,Jean-Michel (October 2008)'Issues and Progresses in Manufacturing of Aero Titanium Parts' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium alloys are strategic materials for components applications in aeronautic and space equipment developed and manufactured by SAFRAN Group companies :
-Commercial and military aircraft aero turbo-engines, helicopter engines, rocket aerospace turbo-pumps and components engine as nacelles, operating from cryogenic (20K) up to high (900K) temperatures.
-Landing gears for the new Boeing and Airbus aircrafts requiring high strength and fracture toughness titanium alloys. The titanium alloys enable significant weight saving in those parts and reduce maintenance for the airlines. Two alloys are competing : Ti5553 and Ti1023 for which economical and technical criteria are to be taken into account


Dziekonski,Mitchell (October 2008)'The Influence of Titanium Properties on the Design and Application of Downhole Oil & Gas Equipment'Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium alloys have successfully been used in the oil industry for a variety of applications. Some of the applications are both offshore and downhole and consist of titanium stress joints, riser systems, drill pipe, logging and drilling tools, safety valves, packers, and tubing hangers. Titanium was chosen for its corrosion resistance, strength, and low density for the aforementioned systems.
As the search for oil and gas encounters significant aggressive downhole environments, a new category of hydro carbon reserves are being identified as high pressure, high temperature (HPHT). These environments can exceed 30,000 PSI and temperatures of 450°F with an excessive amount of H2S sour gas, CO2 and chloride levels. One must carefully review titanium’s unique physical and mechanical property characteristics for the evaluation and design of HPHT components. Historically, many oilfield components are substituted with titanium using prints based on nickel, stainless or steel alloys systems.
Titanium’s characteristics require design engineers to consider things such as mechanical property degradation at high temperatures, low thermal expansion, and its unique stress-strain curve compared to other alloys. Tensile residual stresses generated by a variety of manufacturing methods can have a major impact on the performance of a downhole titanium component. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is highly recommended as a design method in order to incorporate titanium’s unique property characteristics.


El-Soudani,Sami M. (October 2008) 'Canless Extrusion Process Development for Blended Elemental Powder-Based Titanium Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The feasibility of canless extrusion in ambient environment of hydride/dehydride blended elemental Ti-6AL-4V ADMA-processed powder previously direct-consolidated by cold isostatic pressing (CIP), followed by vacuum sintering has been successfully demonstrated. Extrusion process trials of these billets were conducted at both RTI International Metals, Inc. and Plymouth Engineered Shapes, Inc. whereby the extrusion processing sequence and parameters were derived separately based on prior extrusion experience at both RTI and Plymouth Engineered Shapes, but were found to be essentially similar to those used for billets prepared from wrought ingot-based Ti-6AL-4V material. Using the results of a workability study program conducted at RTI, the elevated temperature workability tests of powder-based elevated temperature compression specimens showed that powder-based consolidated billets of similar baseline composition as for wrought ingot-based Ti-6AL-4V billets will require slightly lower extrusion pressures at same extrusion temperatures and strain rates. Laboratory analysis showed that the canless powder-based billet extrusion processing step conducted in air added no more than 200 ppm oxygen to the as-vacuum-sintered billet oxygen content. Preliminary tensile properties of the blended-elemental ADMA powder-based extrusions of a Ti-6AL-4V composition processed both in the beta or alpha-beta ranges of extrusion temperatures showed equivalent or superior tensile properties as compared to identically processed wrought, ingot-based and extruded Ti-6AL-4V billet materials. Additionally, in the blended elemental powder-based extrusions both nitrogen and carbon contents were within specification limits for Ti-6AL-4V alloy, while any excessive residual hydrogen was successfully vacuum degassed after extrusion to within specification limits. Further optimization for fracture toughness, stress-corrosion resistance and fatigue properties will build on these encouraging results, while monitoring and controlling the only remaining powder-based interstitial element, namely oxygen uptake during pre-extrusion powder-consolidation processing steps.


Faizulla, Furkhat (October 2008)'China Titanium Sponge Industry and Foreign Trade Trends Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

In the past year, Chinese titanium industry experienced a very high speed of growth. Strong demand from both domestic and overseas provided China with a golden opportunity for the industry. China has started its engine transforming from a country whose demand largely rely on export, to domestic market; from a country which could only produce primitive products to big mills, to a possible supplier for airspace, shipbuilding, chemical industries. In 2007, China’s total titanium sponge capacity comes to near 60,000t, output volume reached about 45,000mt, over 150% increase compare to the previous year. The number of sponge actual producer increased to more than 10, and sevens of them with a capacity more then 5000t a year. At the same time, mill products also showed a big step forward to about 24,000mt, near 85% increase compared with 2006. Backed up by output increase, foreign trade reached a historical level. According to the customs statistics, in 2007, sponge export was 5584 and import was 1133t, a net 4450t export, this is less then 10% of total sponge production.
The good aspect is that the development of China’s titanium sponge industry definitely relieved global tight supply situation since 2005 and encouraging titanium consumers all around the world to keep on using this material and R&D people to dig out more applications for this magic material. Of course, not all people happy with a possible over supply of titanium sponge and causing price downward or instability in the industry. We should notice that about 53% of sponge production comes from private company, basically Chinese sponge production is free market needs orientated. Chinese sponge manufacturers still needs some time to compete with other major sponge manufacturers in the world on quality and productivity matters. Chinese sponge export increase may take some market share from existing players, but we should also realize that Chinese sponge production cost is not an advantage for them in the competition at all and this is a fare game. Raw material price increasing and government environmental restriction are already started to increasing the cost for them obviously.
Chinese domestic titanium related market is growing faster; mills are planning to produce coil, welded tube and Big Aircraft Production Project was announced. We believe most of the sponge productions will continually consuming domestically in China. In coming years, we will see aliened sponge manufacturers in the world will manage to keep their orders; and new Chinese sponge manufacturers will face a hard competition domestically and worldwide as well.


Fanning,John (October 2008)'Advantages of Titanium for Ballistic Applications' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Fehlauer, Ulrich (October 2008)'TITANIUM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES' Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Ulrich Fehlauer will introduce GEA Group AG and its spectrum of products, that includes its global Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) business first. Secondly he will provide a comprehensive general overview of the global market of PHE, in specific gasketed and welded types of PHE. He will of course focus on the role the titanium industry plays in the support and continued growth of the titanium PHE business. Space will be given to the industrial applications in particular to the marine- and petrochemical- application where titanium is the preferred material when it comes to seawater-cooling. The presentation will have an actual and future approach and will end with a message to the titanium industry.


Gaiani, Silvia (October 2008) 'MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAT RESISTANT TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

In the last five years, the use of titanium alloys for exhaust systems manufacturing in automotive industry has increased significantly. Due to this reason, also the variety of heat resistant alloys available on the market is raised considerably. In order to better evaluate the characteristics of this wide range of products, Akrapovič d.d. developed a classification method which can be used to check incoming materials and compare properties between different alloys. Because of the strongly anisotropic behavior of titanium, to obtain a comprehensive overview of the plastic performance, a testing approach based on biaxial tensile trials has been used.


Gehler, Sylvain (October 2008)'TITANIUM SPONGE PRODUCTION IN KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA AND UKRAINE Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium sponge production in Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine is stable backed up by a regular flow of titanium feedstock. Nevertheless Mg supply is still very tight and would limit any increase of Ti sponge production if required. Kazakhstan and Ukraine by not adding production capacity did the right thing since the Ti market has slowed down and is not expected to pick up for a while. Russia who has a need for additional sponge has found alternative sources of supply. CIS producers are now concentrating their efforts in downstream development.


Gleason, Bill (October 2008)'Corrosion Resistant Titanium Alloys For Medical Tools and Implants Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Griffiths, John B. (October 2008)'High Fuel Prices and the Airline Industry: Disruption,Restructuring, & Return to Trend Growth Paper Presented on Titanium 2008 Conference Proceedings. , Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The airline industry is uniquely exposed to the impacts of high oil prices, especially in a slowing global economy. As the price of jet fuel has spiked to unprecedented levels in the first half of 2008, airlines have been forced to adapt their operations in a variety of ways. This presentation examines evolving airline strategies and assesses the prospects of the industry as it deals with the fuel price shock. It then addresses how the industry may emerge from the near term period of adjustment, restructured for long term viability, and able to return to trend growth rates.


Hanchen, Wang (October 2008)'The Rapid Development of Chinese Titanium Industry Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Chinese have a biggest titanium resource which ranks the world No.1, and titanium resource should be 350 billion tons (statistic by TiO2) which share the half of the total of the world. The capacity of titanium sponge and mill product increased rapidly after 45 years development, the capacity of titanium sponge and mill product are 60,000t/a and over 40,000t/a respectively. The output of titanium sponge and mill product are 45,000 tons and 24,000 tons respectively which increased by 149.5% and 87.4% compared with the year of 2006, and the output of titanium ranks the world No.1.
For the first time, the aero application of titanium share over 10% domestic titanium market in 2007, but the biggest share is still chemical industry which share 43.6% titanium market, the third place is sports and leisure. The net export titanium product reached 4,083 tons.
As the biggest titanium enterprise in China, the titanium products of Baoti Group Ltd. have been widely used in a variety fields such as aero, petro-chemical, metallurgical, salt making, alkaline making, over-sea exploring, ship, sports and leisure and other areas which shares over 95% market in the domestic aero. Baoti has had a rapid development in these years, from year of 2004 to 2007, the output value increased from 1 billion to nearly 5 billions, and the output increase year by year.   Compared with 2006, the investment focus has changed from the titanium sponge in 2006 to titanium mill product, and this tendency will continue for years. The titanium industry should be the hot spot of investment in China in the near future, and we may say that Chinese titanium industry should has a big leap development in year 2010.


Hickton, Dawne S. (October 2008)'2008 World Industry Demand Trends' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Hirashia, Kenji (October 2008)'Consumer Applications in JAPAN Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

n Japan titanium has been almost used for consumer application over 50 years. Kitchenware, watch, eyeglass, sports, leisure, automobile, chemical tank, architecture, power generation, desalination, our life are supported by titanium.
In this exploitation history of consumer application, Associate Committee of the Japan Titanium Society performed big role.


Hoffman, Stuart G. (October 2008)'Shallow U.S. Recession in 2008 Muted Global Growth in 2009'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable



Hofmann, Tom (October 2008)'The Art and Science of Milling Titanium. Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

This presentation will review various ways to increase machining capability and capacity through a better understanding of how to more effectively machine titanium alloys. This is accomplished thru the technology of the tooling as well as how the part is processed on the machine, however, component rigidity, fixturing, coolant, cutting tooling and machining strategy are all factors that need to be balanced for the best result. One additional key factor of this optimization is a thorough knowledge of the inherent structures of the materials which allows one to design the optimum cutting tool system. For example cutting tool manufacturers have improved the capability of their tools by increasing the density of the substrates and developing new coating technologies to manage the heat generated in the machining of aerospace alloys. Heat is one of the main reasons for premature failure of cutting tools when machining the various titanium alloys.


Holz, Markus (October2008)'The Global Titanium Market and the European Challenge'Caesar’sPalace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Dr. Holz will provide an overview of the European Titanium industry as a vibrant global marketplace. His focus on industrial applications will address those major market segments where the business (plates and tube), though erratic, is mostly concentrated – power generation (strong need for construction/revamping of energy plants), PHE (booming market) and desalination (fast‐growing demand worldwide).  Emphasis will be placed on the number of projects that are supplied by European fabricators.
The presentation will also address military and civil aerospace ‐ where Europe is well represented by Airbus with the A400M and A380 respectively ‐ which appear a most challenging business (continuing to boom)as well as a very sensitive barometer of the world economic development that gages the excellence the titanium industry is successfully pursuing


Hulswitt, Charles (October 2008)'TITANIUM FOR OIL & GAS& CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES: A FABRICATORSPERSPECTIVE'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium provides resistance to attack of: sea-water; moist chlorine; metallic chloride; chlorite and hypochlorite solutions; nitric and chromic acids; sulphides; organic acids; and many industrial gaseous environments. This makes titanium the ideal material for the construction of a wide range of chemical equipment. TiFab has a long history in this in this market sector. The following are the specific products fabricated in Titanium or Titanium clad which are supplied:
* Vessels


Itsumi, Yoshio (October 2008)'A Newly Developed Press-Formable High-Strength Titanium Alloy.'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The quantity of cp titanium sheet products shipment has been increasing over the last 10 years. Now a day, plate type heat exchanger (PHE) has become major application. At present, though the highest press-formability of cp titanium (that is the softest: ASTM Gr.1) is required in manufacturing "plates" parts, PHE users request higher working pressure for higher performance in some cases. In other words, titanium sheet itself must have higher strength without deterioration of press-formability. In this paper, in order to satisfy this demand, we have proposed a newly Ti-1.5Fe alpha-beta alloy, which has superior combination of high tensile strength over 500MPa and excellent press-formability, comparing ASTM Gr.2 sheet. These characteristics have been achieved by adding appropriate Iron content to obtain higher strength and maintaining alpha-beta dual phase microstructure, consequently refining microstructure and suppressing Oxygen content in order to maintain higher ductility / press-formability.


Klenz, Eric (October 2008) 'Economic Outlook'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The discussion will review the economic factors influencing the significant rises in commodity prices and their impact on producers and consumers of titanium and related metals.
Starting with introductory remarks on the titanium industry, the major producers, and end markets, the discussion elaborates on global growth expectations and demand forecasts for key end markets and/or geographies. Subsequently, the recent price movement of titanium is compared with that of various commodities, including critical natural gas, fuel oil, and other raw materials used by titanium producers, as well as with price increases for carbon and specialty steel, alloy metals, and aluminum. Global supply and demand issues that have contributed to recent run-ups in these metal commodities are also noted.
Macroeconomic effects, such as increases in Producer Price Index (PPI) and Consumer Price Index (CPI), changes in manufacturer profitability, liquidity requirements and employment, are studied in light of the recent run up in commodity prices.
Furthermore, the discussion touches upon the performance and outlook for some of the major titanium manufacturers and/or fabricators serving the aerospace, defense, and construction markets. Publicly announced capacity expansions, and potential industry consolidation are also discussed. Finally, public company valuation metrics and those from recent mergers and acquisitions in the titanium space are also presented to complement the comments on industry momentum and near-term outlook.


Koike, Marie (October 2008)'Cast Titanium Alloys for Dental Applications Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

In view of the proven, excellent biocompatibility of titanium, this metal has been considered as a potential metal for biomedical applications. A research group at Baylor College of Dentistry has formulated experimental titanium alloys to evaluate various characteristics in search of good candidate alloys for dental prosthetic use. By adapting applicable technologies from the titanium casting industry, the evolution of casting the casting machines and investment materials specifically made for dental casting has greatly advanced during last 20 years. It appears that dental titanium casting has now almost reached the stage where its practical applications should seriously be assessed. This presentation reports our on-going research project in which we have tested the casting performance, mechanical properties, grindability, wear resistance, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility. The alloys we tested were biocompatible experimental titanium alloys with a low fusion temperature and also some industrial titanium alloys as well.


Kostadinova, Elena (October 2008)'The Impact of REACH on Your Business Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Koyanagi, Yoshihiko(October 2008)'Development of new gamma TiAl for turbo charger application Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Gamma TiAl has a great potential for use in aircraft engine and automobile engine components. Since we demonstrated the potential of gamma TiAl as a turbocharger turbine wheel in 1987, a great effort has been paid in order to put the gamma TiAl turbine wheel to practical use. Through successful development of gamma TiAl alloy and of processes of casting and joining between the turbine wheel and an alloy steel shaft, we got into mass production of TiAl turbine rotors of turbocharger for passenger car application in 2003. Currently, heat resistance required for turbine wheels has become severe, because of the rise of exhaust gas along with development of fuel saving technologies to reduce CO2 emission. Therefore, the new gamma TiAl was developed based on a conventional gamma TiAl under mass production. The new gamma TiAl showed high creep and oxidation resistant than the conventional gamma TiAl. In addition, it was confirmed that the new gamma TiAl has equal manufacturability to the conventional gamma TiAl.


Kramer L.S. (October 2008)'Low Cost Titanium Pipe for NavalApplications Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


Kurshima, Takeshi (October 2008)'UPDATE OF TITANIUM INDUSTRY IN JAPAN Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Japanese Titanium Industry celebrates another record year of 2007 regarding its shipments of both mill products and titanium sponge. Mr. Kurushima is going to update the situation of the Japanese titanium industry including the capacity expansion of titanium sponge production and melting. He is also to touch upon JTS’s activities to boost the titanium industry and show some of new non-aerospace applications explored in Japan.


Latham, Gary (October 2008)'Titanium in the Automotive Racing Industry' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

In racing, weight is everything. Designers are constantly looking to shave a few extra grams of weight from their design and material choice plays very large part of the design equation. The discussion will focus on the use of titanium in the automotive racing industry. Several examples of titanium’s use in race cars include springs, transmission cases, uprights, fasteners, and engine components such as connecting rods, valves and rocker arms. Initial use focused on high end race cars such as F1 and the 24 hours of Le Mans but is becoming more common across many other forms of racing. In conclusion, we will take a look at how material cost is a relatively small part of a component’s overall cost for a low volume race car component made from titanium vs. high strength steel.


Luckowski, Stephen (October 2008) 'New Titanium Armor Application Provides Protection in a Lightweight Kit Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The U.S. Army Armament, Research and Development Center (ARDEC) provides both lethality and gunner protection systems in support of the Army's operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. ARDEC is the design activity for the Army's standard gunner protection kit for HMMWV and Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicle platforms. This gunner protection kit, known as Objective Gunner Protection Kit (O-GPK) is designed and configured to provide U.S. soldiers enhanced protection against enemy rifle fire and improvised explosive device (IED) blasts and still allow full visibility. This Army-wide solution is made of steel.
In order to meet the requirements of a more specialized application, the Special Operations Command (SOCOM) United States Special Operations Command (USSOC) requisitioned a titanium-based version of the O-GPK to support their operational needs. Titanium's high strength would provide the needed force protection, while its light weight would allow designers to meet these needs at a much reduced weight. This presentation will discuss the process of re-designing the O-GPK using titanium and the challenges faced. It will also discuss the advanced titanium processes and production equipment used to design, fabricate, and manufacture the titanium products.


McHugh, ThomasJ. (October 2008)'Vanadium:  Bright Future, Manageable Risks Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable


McMillan, Rod (October 2008)'Titanium Usage For Medical Devices AndInstruments – A Designer’s Viewpoint'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium and its alloys present the medical device designer with many exciting properties that can be exploited for the benefit of the patient. Titanium offers advantages over other material systems in the areas of strength to weight, biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, fatigue strength and coloring options. Extremely low magnetic permeability helps to assure that titanium products can be routinely used in MR scanners. Why then are there so few alloys being used by the industry and why is the adoption rate for new alloys so slow?

This paper will present the alloys currently used for device designs, some alloys being considered for design and the issues that the designer must deal with when contemplating new alloys for design. A review of the design considerations including cost, availability, manufacturability, regulatory hurdles and material properties will be discussed. Opportunities for new and improved titanium alloys, as well as product forms will be discussed in relationship to the needs of the medical device designer.


Metz, Michael G. (October 2008) 'World Industry Trends Summary Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA
Mr. Metz will provide a world market overview for titanium shipments, global consumption and major market drivers. Presentation will also include general comments on the current state of the titanium market and its future.


Nemchock, Gary (October 2008)'Architectural Titanium' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Worldwide architectural titanium installations completed from 2006 through 2008 and others currently under construction are featured in this presentation which will include:
Grand Lisboa Casino – Macau
Cinemaplex – Roanne, France
International Conference Center – Hong Kong
Patras Museum – Athens, Greece
Corporate Headquarters – Toyko, Japan
Vu Kinderstad (Ronald McDonald House) – Amsterdam, Holland
Private Residence – Hawaii
Private Residence – Palm Desert, California
Mandarin Oriental Hotel – Las Vegas, Nevada
Private Residence – Kent, United Kingdom
Lamborghini Showroom – Singapore

Gary will also discuss the incredible surge of new design, construction and development in the United Arab Emirates.


Pang, David (October 2008)'Chemical Milling of Titanium Alloys' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Chemical milling is used to establish intricate structural feature which can not be easily obtained by mechanical methods on titanium alloys parts. The goal of chemical milling is to achieve defined precision in structural features with good surface finishing and low hydrogen content. The chemicals involved in the process include hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid and surface tension reducing agent. The chemistry in the chemical milling of titanium alloys is described. Process control is also described. Factors affect the result of the chem mill process are; type of Ti alloys, fabrication methods, geometry, racking, movement of parts, acid/Ti concentrations/ratio, solution temperature, mixing & operator.


Panza-Giosa, Roque (October 2008)'Mechanical properties of heat treated Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr, an attempt to define critical properties of various microstructural features Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Beta annealed material exhibits intense localized slip deformation leading to early crack formation and fracture. This mechanism is explained in relation to the presence of fine metastable phase precipitates resulting from the air cool step. Grain size dependence of the yield stress is described in terms of the Hall-Petch relationship.


Pastushan, Nicholas (October 2008)'A Discussion On The Impacts Of The Credit Crunch And The Oil Price Spike On Commercial Aircraft Demand Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Financing markets in turmoil, Economic issues spreading around the globe and a record spike in energy prices. What will this all mean to order and delivery activity for commercial aircraft? Hear a top executive in the leasing business discuss the forward view of travel demand, and how the financing markets will recover from their shocks to fund a record level of order backlog.


Pearson, Murray S. (October 2008)'Market Opportunities for Titanium and Ti Alloys In Pressure Hydrometallurgical Applications Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The development of new hydrometallurgical processes operating at elevated temperatures and pressures over the past two decades has made possible the extraction of precious metals and high value base metals from formerly uneconomic sources. Examples include the extraction of gold, silver and Platinum Group Metals (PGM’s) by pressure oxidation (POX) of refractory sulphide minerals, high pressure acid leaching (HPAL) of nickel and cobalt from lateritic ores, and partial oxidative leaching (POL) of nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc from sulphide mineral concentrates.
Such unit operations occur in pressurized reactors ("or autoclaves”) under process conditions which produce highly aggressive environments, and as such, offer unique opportunities for the application of reactive metals such as titanium, zirconium and tantalum in materials selection decisions.

This paper presents the market opportunities for the application of titanium and titanium alloys in hydrometallurgical extraction facilities, the major participants in the mining and metallurgical business sector, and the associated EPCM firms that undertake the design work. It also outlines some of the process implications, operating advantages and economic factors that are considered by engineers and owners in evaluating the preferred materials of construction and their potential application in modern autoclave facilities.



Pepka,Charles (October 2008)'New Devolvement's in Titanium Spring Materials Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Testing of Ti 200 for springs has begun. Successful development requires cooperation between the Material suppliers, The Wire or bar mill converting the material, The Spring manufacturer, and the Customer. The paper will explore the development of materials, testing, and product applications for new Titanium spring alloys.


Plöchl, Laurenz (October 2008)'Recent Advances of Titanium Alloy Powder Production by Ceramic-free Inert Gas Atomization ' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

CP-Ti and γ-TiAl barsticks have been atomized by the ceramic-free Electrode Induction-melt Inert Gas Atomization (EIGA) technique. To date, the EIGA technique had been limited to relatively small feedstock dimensions (ca. Ø50-60mm) and relatively low melt flow rates (ca. 5-50 kg/h). In this work, the feedstock dimensions and melt flow rates were significantly increased (ca. triplicated). Steady-state process conditions have been achieved at melt flow rates of up to 90 kg/h with feedstock dimensions of up to Ø140mm. These achievements enable to utilize titanium alloy VAR electrodes as feedstock for the EIGA and to atomize titanium powder at significantly lower specific gas consumption.


Rosenberg, Ed (October 2008)'The Newest Prestige Element Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

As the virtues and benefits inherent to titanium became recognized in the consumer products arena, it rapidly emerged as the material of choice through a multitude of products and applications. Through the past 2 decades the popularity of platinum and other precious white metals gave way to the meteoric ascent and recognition a new group of contemporary elements. This evolutionary movement was spearheaded and dominated by titanium. Heralded as the NEW Nobel Element, titanium was truly the catalyst in a movement that consummated the marriage of art and science. The dramatic development in consumer awareness and expectations has caused an equally rapid acceleration in the technologies and potential for broadening applications in the titanium world.
We introduced titanium to a most passive and skeptical jewelry industry over 25 years ago. Despite the weighty barriers of tradition, titanium, in just the past two decades has not only proven its merit and value as a viable jewelry material, it has catapulted to the forefront of not only the jewelry industry, but of numerous other consumer markets as well.
Titanium has been heralded as the signature material for a multitude of the highest profile luxury brands. This ground-breaking contemporary material has set new standards for sales performance across the broadest spectrum of industries and products.
In just the past 2 decades the perception of titanium has transformed from an aerospace or art metal, to an element of premiere status in the world market. Certainly this was a Herculean effort. But what most contributed to this success of titanium in the mind of the consumer is the reality that "titanium is simply better”.
In my presentation I will outline and graphically detail the evolution of products, technologies, designs, & markets. I will further propose a number of significant and obvious growth opportunities which we, as an industry should recognize and respond to.


Schumerth, Dennis J. (October 2008)'TITANIUM & THE NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE A POLITICAL & PRACTICAL UPDATE Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Notwithstanding the current world economic downturn coupled with spiraling oil prices, the global demand for energy continues unabated. It is also clear the continued use of fossil fuels for electric power generation remains the bane of the PowerGen industry. Global warming, green power, carbon capture and sequestration, emission cap & trade and other political agendas touting global warming principals continue unabated.
In some circles, scientific consensus indicates that rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are changing the earth’s climate. The ultimate objective of the Gore Principal, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other pundits is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference within the climate system. Fact or fiction, this concept appears to be the main driver for demise of fossil fuels and the tacit acceptance of nuclear energy by the prior foes – conceivably a choice of the lesser of two evils.
Unfortunately, the Electric Power Generation Industry will not know if a full nuclear renaissance is underway for several more years. Assuming this energy source conceives and bears the gestated fruit of the renaissance, the next several years will indeed, be telling. However an immediate and positive sign lies in the action taken by several utilities and NSSS suppliers in ordering long lead time items recognizing that both from a political and purely practical position, the first in line will reap the rewards.


Seiner, Henry (October 2008)'Balancing Your Raw Materials Portfolio Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

This presentation considers the merits of a balanced sourcing portfolio which includes a range of raw material types, melting technologies and sources to help in strategy selection for all levels of the supply chain. Pro's and Con's of utilizing Sponge versus Scrap, VAR melting versus CHM, and Captive versus Partnership arrangements will be discussed. A flexible portfolio which recognizes the merits and pitfalls of each element will help each of us adapt to the inevitable change in seasons.


Stratton, Paul (October 2008)'Surface Hardening Titanium withCarbon Monoxide' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Titanium has very poor tribological properties and cannot be used for applications like drive train components. Various coatings can be used, for example TiN and DLC, to improve them, but the loading is limited by the low strength of the substrate. In recent years thermochemical diffusion treatments have been developed. To produce a layer that is sufficiently thick to support a load in a reasonable time, these treatments have to be carried out at high temperatures: 950°C and 1 050°C for oxidation and nitriding processes respectively. The high treatment temperature degrades the core properties to such an extent that they must be heat treated again after the surface layer has been produced.
An alternative is desirable that would give a substantive load bearing layer with good wear properties at a treatment temperature of 850°C or lower. The use of such technology would allow the manufacture of a gear box that was 40% lighter than its steel equivalent. An initial study had shown that the layers formed using carbon monoxide were the most promising at lower temperatures and these were studied further. The effects of some of the treatment variables were determined, along with some of the characteristics of the optimised ceramic layer.


Swale, Bill (October 2008)' "Attacking the Fly to Buy Ratioby Laser Welding and Hot Forming” Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

The new generation Civil Aircraft utilize Carbon Composite structures with the Aluminium components replaced by Titanium. Normally fuselage and structural components are made from Aluminium but a Carbon/Aluminium combination could result with adverse galvanic corrosion. To overcome this the structural frames, stringers, ribs etc are designed to be made from Titanium based alloys which have little or no adverse corrosion reaction with Carbon Composites.
Having made this design decision the manufacturing challenge is to find sufficient titanium materials, extrusion sources, forming sources and machining houses that can produce titanium structures of similar configuration to those typically made from aluminium. It has become apparent that the choice is limited and the cost of titanium prohibitive to the extent that innovative manufacturing methods have to be developed to meet costs and weight targets. To meet this challenge, Aeromet, which has an extensive experience in forming Titanium materials, joined with the United Kingdom Welding Institute to demonstrate methods for producing thick section frames from thin plate Ti6/4 material using the Hot Forming and Laser Welding processes. This development resulted in radical cost and material savings greater than 50%.


Tippee, Bob (October 2008)'World and US Oil and Gas: Where’sthe Turning Point?' Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Signs appeared in mid-2008 of relief from market strains that had elevated prices of crude oil and petroleum products to extraordinary levels. Global inventories of crude and idle production capacity available in the leading oil-exporting nations remain low. But major projects in the Middle East and Africa will bring new production capacity on stream in the second half of 2008 and in 2009. Global consumption growth is decelerating. These developments will ease price pressure unless supply sustains a major disruption. In the US, oil consumption is falling and oil production, rising. An emerging concern is supply of highway diesel.


Tuominen, Jyrki (October 2008)'Light Element Detection (Al,Si, Mg) by Portable Metal Analyzers'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

In recent years, development of portable X-ray Fluoresence (XRF) analyzer technology has grown rapidly. Analyzers are getting smaller and lighter, as well as more accurate and faster. User friendliness and data transfer capabilities have improved significantly. One of the most recent developments is the capability to measure lighter elements (Al, Mg, Si), which could not be measured with portable units 5 years ago. They form the basis for all aluminum alloys and as most titanium alloys contain significant concentrations of aluminum it is equally important in these alloys too. . Portable optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analyzers also have a role in titanium production due to limitations of XRF analyzers when measuring lighter elements.
In order to achieve relatively good detection limits and precise measurements, all XRF analyzers on the market use either Helium gas or vacuum technology to make light element detection possible. OES analyzers are much larger but detection limits and speed of analysis are better than of XRF. Therefore each of these technologies has certain drawbacks, as well as, unquestionable benefits. Additionally certain key components, such as the X-ray source or the detector, limit achievable accuracy. The sample surface and matrix composition also affects the measurement of light elements. The aim of this presentation is to highlight certain technical limitations and latest technical developments to analyze light elements in Ti alloys.


Turner, Richard(October 2008) 'Heat Transfer Effects Arising During the LinearFriction Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Caesar'sPalace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Ti-6Al-4V is the most common titanium alloy used in the aero-engine industry. In particular, it is an important material for the production of rotor blades and discs, and blisks (integrally bladed-discs). Blisks have benefits over conventional rotors, but a method of joining the two together is necessary, with linear friction welding (LFW) being one possible route. This paper considers the temperature profiles caused by frictional heating and the heat dissipation during this welding process. Thermal cycles experienced by Ti-6Al-4V were measured, by placing thermo couples close to the welded joint. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of a numerical model for the linear friction welding process. Comparison between the experimental data and the modelling is shown to be reasonable.


Walter, Roy (October 2008)'Titanium Powder Metallurgy for Armor and Structural Applications Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Increased use of titanium will provide weight reduction, which is the goal for armor and structural applications for all military systems. Powder metallurgy approach has great potential for low cost manufacturing of these products and can be the preferred manufacturing process for production of armor plates and composite armor module components for DoD and civilian applications. P/M approach offers cost reduction in manufacturing titanium parts as well as substantial reduction in lead time. In this presentation, Titanium PM is reviewed as a possible substitution of IM processes when a price reduction and shorter delivery time make PM approach more favorable to compare with the traditional IM. The lowest cost Blended elemental approach (BE) to produce Ti alloy components by room temperature consolidation (die-pressing, cold isostatic pressing, direct powder rolling) followed by sintering will be discussed. This BE approach would also allows to produce the low cost large ingots and slabs for subsequent high temperature deformation by forging, rolling, extrusion, flow forming and other conventional processes. Although these processes are being used in ingot metallurgy, the P/M starting material offers the lower cost and improved microstructure and properties which will be demonstrated in this presentation.


Wang, Xiqun (October 2008)'Performance-based Optimization for Titanium Milling Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

In the manufacturing industry, especially defense and aerospace, many component designs and characteristics of titanium materials make them expensive to machine. A considerable amount of stock must be removed from the initial form such as forgings, plates, bars, etc. In some instance, as much as 50 to 90% of the primary form’s weight ends up as chips. Maximum machining efficiency for titanium alloys is required to minimize the costs of stock removal and maximize productivity.
A performance-based methodology of machining optimization has been developed by TechSolve to optimize machining parameters in order to achieve optimum machining performance of machines and cutting tools. This technology has been recently applied in milling operations on titanium alloys. The optimization method has been validated for a dozen of tool-material combinations in face-milling and end-milling operations. Optimum cutting parameters, speeds and feeds, are derived based on the user requirements of the overall machining performance including surface roughness, cutting forces, material removal rate and tool-life. Applications of the machining optimization system can improve process planning, increase productivity and reduce machining cost. A case study will illustrate the optimization of end milling operations on Ti-6Al-4V parts. The comparison of machining performance between pre-technology and post-technology shows that understanding the machining process leads to productivity improvement by optimizing machining parameters without any capital expenditure.
It is also a challenge for machining process planners to select appropriate machining parameters for new titanium alloys. Generally, the selection of machining parameters for tooling material combinations is based on experience, handbooks or static databases. However, since there is little experience and little knowledge about the machinability of the new material, process planners will have great difficulties in the selection of machining parameters and cutting tools. Inappropriate machining parameters may cause high scrap rate, short tool life or even tool failure. It will be helpful for process planners if the vendor of the new material could provide a range of safe machining parameters with which they can start process planning. A standard methodology has been developed by TechSolve to evaluate the machinability of new titanium alloys and recommend starting machining parameters for process planners. A case study will illustrate the evaluation of machinability for the new titanium alloy Ti-5-5-5-3 and process planning of end milling operations to produce a part using the obtained machinability information.


Williams, John (October 2008)'Titanium Valves for Hydrometallurgical Metal Extraction'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

A major contributor to the successful operation of high-pressure acid leach (HPAL) operations has been the valves throughout the autoclave. The valve of choice has been the metal-seated floating ball valve. The corrosion resistance and strength of titanium has made it a key building material for equipment utilized in HPAL operations.
The objective of this paper is to provide knowledge about the design challenges for valves in PAL, the specific applications of those valves in PAL, and the specific materials in common use today.


Wilson, Mark (October 2008)'Molybdenum Market Outlook'Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA

Abstract Unavailable





Abkowitz, Susan M (October 2007) 'Titanium Matrix Composites: The Growing Commercial Applications' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Abkowitz, Stanley(October 2007)'Low Cost Titanium by Advanced Powder Manufacturing Technology–Manufacturing Technology –Distinguishing the Current Opportunities from the ‘Wishful Thinking’'Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort,Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Adachi, Mark (October2007)'Enabling Technology Enabling Future' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Boucher, Robson (October 2007)'Oral Systemic Balance Therapeutic Systems' Rosen Shingle Creek GolfResort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Boyer, Rod (October2007)'The Boeing Perspective on The Boeing Perspective on Titanium Development'Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort,Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


BUNTING, ROBERT M. (October 2007)'Vanadium - RecentDevelopments in Supply and Demand ' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Burling, Ingegärd (October 2007)'Why Plate Heat Exchangersand why in Titanium –today and tomorrow?' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Cackowsk, Frank (October 2007)'Focus on the "Push -Pull”Boundaries to Improve Supply Network Performance' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Campbell, N. David(October 2007)'Lean, Lean - Achieving Substantial Supply Chain Improvements in a Compressed Timeframe' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Chabin, Mathilde (October 2007)'Simulation for High Quality Part with Minimum TryoutTooling' Rosen Shingle Creek GolfResort, Orlando, Florida USA 

Abstract Unavailable


Entrekin, Charles (October 2007)'Titanium Non Aerospace Defense Market' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Faitelson, Jerry (October 2007)'ITA Titanium Scrap Market Update Fall 2007' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Surging demand for vanadium, most notably in China, has continued since 2004. This led to an unprecedented price spike in 2005 which stimulated increased vanadium production most notably as by-product from steel production. Most of this increase in vanadium production has taken place in China.


Faizulla, Furkhat (October 2007)'China Titanium Metal' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Fanning, John (October 2007)'Titanium Development for Commercial Airframes ' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Fletcher, Albert R. (October 2007)'Titanium Surface InspectionOf Bar Stock' Rosen Shingle Creek GolfResort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


FUJII,Hideki (October 2007)'Automotive Applications of Nippon Steel’s Titanium' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Galbraith, Kathy(October 2007)'Simplification of Import / Export Supply Chain Practices'Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort,Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Gehler, Sylvain (October 2007)' TITANIUM SPONGE PRODUCTION INKAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA AND UKRAINE' RosenShingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Gooch, William A. (October 2007) 'The Design and Applicationof Titanium Alloys to U.S. Army Platforms' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Goranson, Gordon(October 2007) 'High Velocity Adiabatic Impact Technology ' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Hanchen, Wang (October 2007) 'Development Report of TitaniumIndustry in China in 2006 ' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, FloridaUSA

Abstract Unavailable


Hickton, Dawne S. (October 2007) 'Titanium Demand ForAerospace' Rosen Shingle Creek GolfResort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Hurley, Peter (October 2007) 'Competing in a New Marketplace' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Briefly, this paper introduces the development of titanium industry in China in 2006, and put stress on the development situation of the largest titanium enterprise of Baoti Group Ltd. in 2006, and gives some suggestion on development of Chinese titanium society in the near future.


Ishigai, Shinya (October 2007) 'Kobe Steels Activities in Aerospace' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Kane, Russell D. (October 2007)'Titanium Alloys for HighPressure, High Temperature Wells: A Joint Industry Program' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Lipp, Doug (October 2007)'Keynote Presentation' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Maeda, Takashi (October 2007) 'Microstructural Design andMechanical Properties of a Newly Developed αβ Titanium Alloy for Cold Strip' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Matsuhisa,Hiroyuki (October 2007)'Shanghai Morimatsu and the demand of special materials in the Chinese market ' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


McCormack, Al (October 2007)'Titanium in Military Airframes' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


McGorty, Frank(October 2007)'Titanium in Industrial Chemicals' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Mercier, Gerard (October 2007)'TITANIUM RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT FOR NAVAL DEVELOPMENT FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Metz, Michael (October 2007)'Titanium Market Summary' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Moore, David (October 2007)'Trends in Supply of Feedstockfor the Kroll Process' Rosen ShingleCreek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Moulton, Carl R.(October 2007)'Industrial Titanium Market' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


MOXSON, V.S. (October 2007)'Low Cost Blended ElementalTitanium Powder Metallurgy' RosenShingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Musson, Craig (October2007)'Aerospace Market Overview a P&W Perspective' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Recent substantial increases in price and delivery of components produced by traditional ingot metallurgy (IM) processes caused by shortages in the cyclic titanium market renewed an interest in titanium powder metallurgy (PM) approach to manufacturing. P/M offers cost reduction in manufacturing titanium parts as well as a substantial reduction in lead time. In this paper, titanium PM is reviewed as a substitution of IM processes, and as an approach to manufacturing alloys that are not produced in large quantities. Blended elemental (BE) approaches are potentially the lowest cost processes to produce such alloys. BE processes are based on the use of powder alloying elements or master alloys which are added to commercially pure titanium powder to achieve the required alloy chemistry. Subsequent room temperature consolidation to the required configuration and sintering in vacuum are applied to produce the final, dense components. Room temperature consolidation in BE approach (die pressing, cold isostatic pressing, and direct powder rolling) will be described as viable processes to produce components that have properties meeting the various application requirements. Other advantages of taking the PM approach include ability to produce discontinuously re-enforced, multi layered titanium components and composite structures not achievable by the conventional IM processes.


Noda, Toshiharu (October 2007)'Development of New Alpha+BetaTitanium Alloy of Vanadiumless' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Parente, Frank(October 2007)' The low cost, high quality process route for titanium' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Pearson, Murray (October 2007)'AUTOCLAVE TECHNOLOGY' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable



The use of titanium alloys in the pressure hydrometallurgy sector with examples of corrosion resistant applications, the service conditions, and history of it’s successes and failures will be presented.


Polites, John (October2007)'Keynote Presentation' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Robison, James W. (October 2007)'The Relationship between Composition and Density in Binary Master Alloys for Titanium ' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Schumerth, Dennis J (October 2007)'TITANIUM- THE MATERIAL OF CHOICE FOR NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Each year we field several calls from consumers of master alloys asking how they can estimate the density of master alloys. Common approaches are weighted averages of elemental densities and mole-fraction averaging. As several lower-density titanium alloys are showing growth, there is accompanying interest in master alloys with lower density and often lower melting ranges. To address these issues, in this paper we examine the variation of measured densities as a function of composition for Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb alloys across the entire range of possible composition. We also compare the "estimated densities” obtained by the above approximations, and the composition-liquidus curve for each of the four binaries. It is hoped this information will be useful to the titanium industry.


Seiner, Henry S. (October 2007)'World Industry Supply Trends'Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort,Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Semeniuta, Vasily (October 2007)'Titanium in ConsumerApplications' Rosen Shingle Creek GolfResort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Skorija, Mike (October 2007)'Supply Chain Overview' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Takahashi, K (October 2007)'Trend of Titanium Parts forMotorcycles' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Thomas, Craig (October 2007)'The Application of Titanium in Direct Seawater Cooled LNG Plants' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Wagner, Lothar(October 2007)'Status of Titanium and Titanium Alloys in Auto Applications' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando, Florida USA

Typical potential applications of titanium and titanium alloys in automotive engineering are outlined. Generally, these are highly loaded components in the engine such as connecting rods, turbocharger wheels, pistons and piston pins as well as valve gears. Recently, titanium suspension springs as well as exhaust systems made of titanium were introduced.


Wang, Xiqun (October 2007)'Titanium Milling Optimization' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort, Orlando,Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable


Williams,Tom (October 2007)'Titanium Demand in the Jet EngineMarket' Rosen Shingle Creek Golf Resort,Orlando, Florida USA

Abstract Unavailable






Bissell, Alan C. (October2006)'The FFC Cambridge Process: Progress and Development' Sheraton San DiegoHotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

The FFC Cambridge process was discovered at the University of Cambridge and patented in 1998 and has now been developed and commercialized by Metalysis.  Meta lysis Ltd was set up in 2000 to exploit the technology, initially for non-titanium activities, however the Company now owns the exclusive global rights to the technology for all metals and alloys including titanium and its alloys. Metalysis now operates FFC cells capable of producing 150kg batches of metal and is targeting commercial production by early 2008.  This presentation will provide a comprehensive review of the FFC technology and its development at Metalysis, including the process background, the latest technical developments and the latest commercial progress including the recent acquisition of QinetiQ's FFC operation and the formation of a first overseas subsidiary.



Borys, Stanley (October 2006)'LowCost Armstrong Titanium Reduction Process' Sheraton San Diego Hotel &Marina, San Diego, California USA

In 1994 three former Argonne National Laboratory researchers devised a methodology for the con-tinuous reduction of titanium tetrachloride through a flowing stream of liquid sodium. The concept was presented to multiple experts in the titanium field and their assessment was uniform: nothing so simple could actually work. Development and demonstration has proceeded, supported largely by individuals outside of the titanium field. This presentation will provide in depth view to the obstacles that were overcome, the efforts put forth, and the personalities involved in bringing the Armstrong Titanium Reduction Process to its present status.  Note: The detailed technical presentation of the Armstrong Process will be presented at the Wednesday, October 4 ancillary session.



Buch, Jim (October 2006)  'Meeting the Demand Challenge' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Demand projections suggest significant titanium growth into the next decade. The titanium industry is reacting quickly to these challenges through technology and expansion. However, a snapshot of supply and demand suggests that investment is still required to support and nurture the growth. This talk will consider the projected mass balance (Supply and Demand) and discuss the expansions and efficiency improvements needed to meet the challenge.



BUNTING, ROBERT M. (October 2006)'Vanadium Market Developments, and Their Implications for Titanium ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

After the huge spike in price experienced during 2004 and most of 2005, the Vanadium Market has become much more stable over the last 12 months – albeit at a relatively high level compared to historic averages. Given the critical importance of vanadium in titanium alloy production, I will give my views on why the market has stabilized and what variables exist to influence the future of this market. I will also update the worldwide supply/demand picture and provide what detail I can with regard to changes in production and consumption of vanadium.




Chegwidden, Judith (October 2006)'Future Availability of Titanium Sponge' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Current concern about the future availability of titanium sponge derives largely from the very real shortage of sponge coinciding with a low point in the scrap generation cycle. Over the past 24 months there has been a shortage of titanium units resulting in extended lead times for many mill products. The paper will examine the titanium industry's plans to combat this shortfall by increasing available titanium sponge capacity, by greater intensity of use of scrap (particularly by plants outside the USA) and by improving productivity.
Total increases in sponge capacity announced in 2005, including expansions and new plants in China, exceeded 32,000 tpy. Further announcements of expansions in 2006 could result in a total additional capacity of 40,000 tpy by 2007/8. Most of the expansion in Japan, Russia and the USA is based on increasing capacity at existing plants or restarting mothballed plant. Some greenfield developments have been announced in China.Scrap availability is often tight at the beginning of an upturn in the titanium business cycle. In 2004/5 this coincided with strong demand for titanium scrap from the steel industry.
Scrap availability will increase towards the middle of the cycle in line with increased mill product output. Greater emphasis on returning titanium scrap to ingot production in Russia and Japan could also affect the supply demand balance.
Improved productivity, whether by improved titanium extraction techniques, changing melt technologies or a more extensive use of powder metallurgy will also impact on sponge availability.
The paper will evaluate the cumulative effect of increased sponge and scrap availability combined with emerging technologies and assess whether it will result in sufficient titanium sponge to meet the forecast increases in demand, which are driven largely by higher intensity of titanium usage in the new generation of commercial aircraft.



Cross, C.E. (October 2006)'The Role of Hydrogen in Titanium AlloyWeldments ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Traditional practice for arc welding of titanium alloys has called for extremely low allowable levels of hydrogen in weldments. This has resulted in what are often considered extreme measures to avoid hydrogen pick-up when welding critical aerospace parts, although the reason behind the establishment of strict limitations on hydrogen are often not well documented. Of particular concern is how hydrogen limits apply to new beta alloys, which are less susceptible to hydride formation. In this study, restrained welds on Ti-Grade 2, Ti-64, and Ti-21S (α, α-ß, and ß alloys, respectively) have been made with controlled additions of hydrogen to the shielding gas: 0, 5, and 7.5 volume percent H2 in Argon. Following welding, weldments were radiographed and bend tested to failure. Hydrogen was found to embrittle the ß weld, but did not adversely affect the α or α-ß alloys. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was used to characterize activation energies for hydrogen trapping in the weld metal, revealing the existence of irreversible trapping sites in the α-ß and β welds. Data is presented and discussed in light of existing theory and understanding of hydrogen effects in titanium, taking into account the special conditions and unique microstructures obtained in welding.



Czyryca, Ernie (October2006) 'TITANIUM RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS' Sheraton SanDiego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Titanium and its alloys are finding increasing applications on U.S. Navy surface ships and submarines. The physical, mechanical and corrosion properties of titanium favorably impact current U.S. Navy ship design requirements for increased reliability with reduced maintenance, reduced weight, and shock integrity. Based on the excellent erosion-corrosion properties of titanium, commercially pure grades are used extensively for seawater pumps, cooling and piping applications on surface ships and for a number of seawater system components on submarines. For applications where higher strength is required, titanium alloys Ti-3AI-2.5V, Ti-5111 and Ti-6AI-4V Ell are used for optimum toughness, weldability, and seawater stress corrosion cracking resistance.

This presentation will describe the advantages of titanium in ship applications and systems where the use of titanium is service proven. Current and planned titanium research & development studies to characterize the strength, fracture toughness, fatigue, and seawater corrosion/stress corrosion resistance properties of the Ti-5111 alloy will be presented, including the results of fracture testing under dynamic conditions. Increased use of titanium in naval ships has been limited by high material and fabrication costs. The Navy is a participant in projects focused on the reduction of titanium product cost and has had continuing projects to reduce welding costs. These include R&D efforts in gas metal-arc welding, flux-assisted welding, and friction stir welding. The results of these projects will be covered as well as planning toward future applications of titanium in new ship designs.



Faizulla, Furkhat (October 2006)'Development of China Titanium Industrinin 2005' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

The economy of China keeps on growing at an intense pace. The demand for titanium mill products and equipment in chemical engineering, power engineering and non-ferrous metallurgical facilities is high. The Chinese titanium industry developed at a much higher rate in total than the dramatically recovered world market in 2005.

At the end of 2005, the output of titanium sponge increased by 97.8°/o compared to the level of 2004, and reached 951 0.8mt in total. The total sponge production capacity in China was 13,000mt at the end of 2005; the Zun Yi Titanium Co. Ltd contributed 10,000mt of this, and is now planning another 10,000 project before 2008. At least more than 15 new players are planning to join this white hot sponge production competition.

The output of titanium ingot (total of 19 manufacturers) in 2005 was 16,230mt, a 37.3°/o increase compared with 2004. The Baoji Titanium Industry Co. Ltd and Baoshan Iron & Steel Co. Ltd are planning to increase their capacity in the near future.

The overall increase of titanium mill products output in 2005 was 17 o/o compared to the level of the previous year, and reached 9963.4 mt in total (17 manufacturers).

China's titanium equipment production sales increased by 54.4 o/o in 2005 compared with 2004. The total net import of titanium sponge in 2005 decreased by 50°/o, an influence of the tight world market; on the contrary, the mill products net export increased 10% compared with 2004.

The local market price of titanium sponge and mill product increased during 2005 as it did in the world market. However, not every side is a happy picture. Chinese government's hard regulations on protecting the environment have begun to limit sponge manufacturers' production. The environment and production technical improvements are the most urgent issues on the Chinese titanium industry's agenda right now.



Fanning, John (October2006)'Titanium Alloys for Composite-Intensive Airframes' Sheraton San DiegoHotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

The extensive use of composite materials on new commercial airframes has resulted in the use of unprecedented quantities of titanium in sections of the airframe that traditionally would have been aluminum. For example, fuselages that previously would have required very little titanium now consist of more than 15°/o titanium by weight. The majority of this titanium will likely continue to be Ti-6AI-4V. However, in some instances new alloys may be able to offer improvements in the producibility and/or performance of the titanium products on composite-intensive airframes. This presentation will discuss recent developments in new titanium alloys with improved machinability, higher stiffness and other potential advantages.



Fonte, Matthew (October 2006) 'Flowformed Tubulars Made of Titanium Alloys:' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Fox, Stephen (October 2006) 'Modeling in Production of Titanium Alloys' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Gehler, Sylvain (October 2006) 'TITANIUM SPONGE KAZAKHSTAN, UKRAINE INWORLD SPONGE SUPPLY' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

Mr. Gehler will review the Kazak and Ukrainian titanium mining and sponge industry. Mr. Gehler will also analyse changes expected in the world titanium sponge industry in the years to come, such as titanium sponge capacity increase and its ability to fulfill market demand.



Grisdale, S (October 2006) 'Prime End Users View of Future Supply ChainIssues and Strategies ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

The M777A1 is a lightweight 155mm howitzer and is a critical fire support component of U.S. Marine Air Ground Task Forces and U.S. Army Stryker Brigade Combat Teams. The M777A1 is the first ground combat system to make extensive use of titanium as fabricated parts and investment castings. This significantly reduces the weight of the howitzer offering improved transportability and mobility while retaining the full ammunition and range capability of the M198 howitzer it replaces.
The M777A1 is assembled at BAE System’s integration facility in Hattiesburg, MS and incorporates components manufactured in the United States, United Kingdom and Italy. In addition to the distribution logistics of a transatlantic supply chain, the programme also presents challenges in terms of price pressure on material and shipping costs. The paper gives a perspective on current and future issues facing the program with an overview of the strategy for continuing forward with an effective supply chain solution.



Grosz, A.E. (October 2006)'Lowering the cost of Ti metal: U.S.Geological Survey support of U.S. DoD Ti initiatives' Sheraton San Diego Hotel& Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Hall, David (October 2006)'Distribution Trends Panel Introduction'Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Hanchen, Wang (October 2006)' Chinese Titanium Industry and Research work on New Titanium Alloy ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Chinese Titanium resource ranks the first place in the world, the proven titanium deposits are 703 million tons, half of the amount of the world. The research work for titanium processing started in Beijing in the mid 1950s; semi-industrial production started in Shenyang in early 1960s; and in the mid 1960s, a sponge production base and a mill products production base were founded in Zunyi, Guizhou and Baoji, Shaanxi respectively, which marked and established that China had become a titanium industrial country. Output for both sponge and mill products have been increasing year after year during these past 40 more years. In 2005, the output of the sponge and mill products (1/3 of them were incoming material processing) reached 9,500t/a and 10,100t/a respectively.



Holz, Markus (October 2006)'European Titanium Market Current and FutureScenario' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Dr. Holz will provide a comprehensive overview of the European Titanium market for both the Aerospace and the Non-Aerospace Industries. He will focus on the new programs being carried out within the European Aerospace business (military and commercial) and the increased consumptions (greater quantities per aircraft used).

Besides, a view on the European titanium scrap situation will be addressed. Space will be given to the industrial applications of titanium emphasizing the fact that a vast majority of desalination plants and power stations are supplied by European fabricators, also considering the heavy impact on this industry due to the severe shortfall in sponge supply and the high prices that the titanium market has been experiencing.



Hurson, Steve (October 2006)'Use of CP Titanium and Titanium alloys forDental Implants ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, CaliforniaUSA

Professor Per Ingvar Branemark of Sweden published his results on 15 years of research in 1980 and started the modern era of dental implants. The implants he used at the time were CP Grade 1 Titanium screws with a machined surface. The implants were used to restore the edentulous patient with a full-arch screw retained prosthesis. Since that time dental implant treatment has become commonplace and expanded to include single tooth restorations, immediate placement in fresh extraction sites and immediate loading of implants after they have been inserted into the jaw. Dental implants, screws and abutments are predominantly made from CP Titanium or Titanium alloy. These materials are selected for their strength and proven biocompatibility. Extremely high functional loads are placed on dental implants during chewing. To deal with these loads, implant designers have turned to high strength CP Titanium grades with yield strengths up to 109 KSI as the material of choice. Abutment screws are typically made from Ti 6Al 4V ELI and may be treated with low friction coatings to obtain high clamping forces.



Itami, Y. (October 2006)'Stamping Simulation Model for Titanium Sheet'Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Lechinger, Terry (October 2006)'Is That Your Final Answer?' SheratonSan Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

In the past we have accepted steel as a material of choice for most of our needs in drilling and production of oil and gas. However, as the production becomes increasingly more difficult, new material solutions will be required. We are now finding ourselves producing from reservoirs that are difficult to reach and into environments that are more corrosive and with higher than normal temperatures. These wells will exceed the limits of many conventional materials so new solutions will be needed. This presentation will evaluate how alternate material selections can be considered for a few key components used for drilling and producing. We will consider key drivers to these selections and see how more robust materials can help in solving our energy needs.



Luckowski, Stephen (October2006)'survey of Army Titanium Trends and Technologies' Sheraton San Diego Hotel& Marina, San Diego, California USA

Low-cost titanium remains an important goal for the US Army to support lightweight add-on armor solutions for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The current titanium market supply constraints and price escalation have made this an increasingly challenging goal for the Army. This presentation will highlight applications of titanium in armor solutions and will also address the Army's long-term strategies in achieving a low-cost product form for its use. The presentation will discuss the Army's collaboration with Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and technical milestones associated with low-cost titanium production.



MATSUKURA, NORIKAZU (October 2006)'Development of Cold ForgingTechnology for Beta-Titanium' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

Although Ti-6AI-4V is generally used for the high strength bolt, Ti-6AI-4V has not good cold workability, and is usually manufactured by the hot forging or cutting. On the other hand, beta type titanium alloy is mentioned as a high strength alloy with good cold workability. Conventionally, beta type titanium alloy is easy to wear with dies, and the mass production of cold forge products was not performed. At Kobe Steel Ltd., the cold forging technology of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3AI was developed, and the mass production of the high strength bolt was attained by the cold forging process so that a high strength titanium bolt could be manufactured at low cost. Thereby, application to a bicycle or auto parts is expected.



Metz, Michael (October 2006)'Titanium Raw Materials in Russia andAround the World' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, CaliforniaUSA

Mr. Metz will speak on the raw material supply outlook from Russia, and its role in the global titanium market.



Monahan, John (October 2006)'Commercial Aerospace Market Outlook forTitanium' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Commercial aviation has historically been one of the most important sources of demand for titanium mill products, and this will become even more true over the balance of this decade. New technologies in commercial aircraft construction are leading to more titanium consumption per aircraft. Emerging demand from Asia and the Middle East has spurred demand for aircraft, causing major aircraft manufacturers to raise production rates. Together, the result is that demand for titanium from the commercial aerospace sector is rising rapidly, and likely will result in permanently higher levels of demand for the industry over its business cycles.



Monsees, John C. (October 2006)'Hi-Tech Welding and Forming' SheratonSan Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Moxson, V.S. (October 2006)'Low Cost Titanium Powder MetallurgyComponents for Armor and Structural Applications' Sheraton San Diego Hotel& Marina, San Diego, California USA

his presentation covers the results of activities in 2006 on manufacturing low cost P/M Ti-6Al-4V alloys for armor and structural applications. A cooperative agreement between the U.S. Army Research Lab and ADMA Products, Inc. focuses on room temperature consolidation by Direct Powder Rolling (DPR), Cold Iso-Static Pressing (CIP), or die pressing methods followed by sintering. Technology developed in this program will be directly applicable to defense applications for titanium alloy plates, sheets and foils. The advent of reliable, low cost titanium powder supplies also opens the door for direct solid state powder rolling as viable process for the commercial sector. It is expected that the increased availability of reliable low cost powders and the novel direct powder rolling process will allow decrease in the price of titanium plates by at least three times compared to current production techniques.
Titanium alloys exhibit many attractive properties for defense applications: mechanical strength, good corrosion resistance and low density. Increased use of titanium is desired for military air, sea and land systems, but is limited by high cost of titanium components produced by conventional metallurgical processes. Six major advantages of P/M direct-roll processing include rapid manufacturing cycle with fewer steps, direct alloying, uniform properties in longitudinal and transverse directions, lack of texture, a low buy-to-use ratio (scrap rate ≤ 2%) and integral processing of laminates or functionally gradient plate such as multilayer composite Ti-6Al-4V/TiAl/Ti-6Al-4V. Processing advancements developed on this program include the ability to roll sheet 48 in. x 0.5 in x 120 in (the length is restricted by sintering furnace capabilities), CIP densification of large bulk slabs, and to vacuum sinter plate up to 25,000 lb. The results of this work demonstrate that the use of blended elemental powders to produce near-full density, desired chemistry, microstructure, chemical homogeneity, and reduced cost will signal a change in how the civilian and military titanium markets will be exercised.



MÜNCH, Pierre (October 2006)'EXTRUSION FACILITIES IN EUROPE' SheratonSan Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Today, the European extrusion capacity for Titanium is widely underestimated by the North American industries. Throughout Europe you will find 4 major companies providing hot extruded special profile in Steel alloys or titanium alloys: CEFIVAL in France, HOESCH SCHWERTER PROFILE in Germany, OSBORN STEEL EXTRUSION in the U.K. and SIDERVAL in Italy. We will give you the real picture of this specialty in Europe.


Companies comparative chart

Maximum Circumscribing

Maximum weight per Ti bar

Press forces







Logistical cost VS raw material ratio

Capacity to produce near finish shape and "even more near finish shape"

Development capacity


Evolution of the Holding

Short term investments

Long term strategy



Nemchock ,Gary (October 2006)'Architectural Titanium Installations2005-2006' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Architectural titanium installations completed since October 2005 and those currently under construction are featured in this presentation. TIMETAL 35A and 50A commercially pure titanium products were used on all installations.

Commercial projects include:
Denver Art Museum – Frederic C. Hamilton Building

INCS-Chino Factory/Showroom – Nagano, Japan

Crystalline Tower – Cincinnati, Ohio

Het Groene Woud – Middleburg, Netherlands

Sous-prefecture de Torcy – Torcy, France

Old Homestead Restaurant – Boca Raton Beach Resort & Club, Florida

"Conversations with Michael Eisner” TV Set designed by Frank Gehry for MSNBC

Triodus Bank – Triodus, Netherlands

Air Force ARS Niew Millingen - Netherlands

Clinique des Cedres – Grenoble, France

Flying Egg – Netherlands

Patras Museum – Athens, Greece

Residential installations include:

Private Residence – Boston, Massachusetts

Private Residence – Palos Los Verdes, California

Private Residence – New York

Private Residence – Maaseik, Belgium

Private Residence – Alberta, Canada

Private Residence – Palm Desert, California

Private Residence – Hilo, Hawaii

Projects under construction include:

Cinemaplex – Roanne, France

Medical Lab Building – Indiana

University Prince Turki Bin Nasser Beach Palace – Saudi Arabia

Private Residence – Aspen, Colorado

Projects for 2007:

Private Residence – Dana Point, California

Paradise Redevelopment – Liverpool, England

Private Residence – Malaysia

Museum Tower Courtyard Wall – Dallas, Texas

High-rise Tower – China

Vu Kindersted – Netherlands

High-rise Tower – New York
After two years of production and supply to European markets, American Express has launched the Black Titanium Centurion Card to selected Centurion members. Architectural Titanium has produced over 200,000 cards for distribution throughout France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, Germany, United States, Singapore and Hong Kong. Cards for Japan and Australia are in production and testing has been completed for custom computer chip cards for the U.K. The titanium credit cards are machined from 0.030” and 0.016” TIMETAL®™ 50A, coated with a special black PVD coating and laser engraved. A short video clip of the American Express ad closes the program.



Newman, Edward J. (October 2006)'Titanium Scrap and Market Overview'Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

This paper will focus on the current state of the titanium scrap market. The past eighteen months have seen an almost unprecedented tightness in the supply of titanium scrap. Low scrap generation levels in the early part of the decade merged with increasing demand from both the titanium and ferrotitanium industry, along with a limited amount of sponge capacity, to create the perfect storm. These factors combined resulted in quickly escalating scrap values and a pricing relationship with sponge not seen before. We will also discuss how the supply of titanium scrap to the titanium industry is affected by the competition that goes on for scrap units between the titanium industry and the ferrotitanium industry. Finally, we will discuss how advances in the titanium industry related to scrap processing and melting have allowed the titanium industry to recapture more titanium scrap units for reuse in to titanium than ever before and can we do more.



Nogami, Kazuharu (October 2006)'Current Situation of Titanium Industryin Japan' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

In Japan, shipments of both mill products and titanium sponge in 2005 were the highest ever. On the other hand, there are some concerns about the switch from titanium to other materials due to the shortage of titanium. How to best cope with the shortage has become an important issue in Japan. Then, the application developments and the cost reduction efforts by the Japanese titanium industry, and JTS's activities are presented. Lastly, "the eleventh World Conference on Titanium" in 2007 and another issue are mentioned.



Ogawa, M. (October2006)'Development of Vanadium Free Beta-Titanium Alloy' Sheraton San DiegoHotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Paddock, Brett (October 2006)'"Turn or Burn” A Study of InventoryLevels and Trends within the Titanium Industry' Sheraton San Diego Hotel &Marina, San Diego, California USA

Current and forecasted demand continues to remain strong within the titanium industry. Titanium manufacturing and processing capacity is increasing but demand still threatens to overshadow supply for the immediate future. Inventory throughout the titanium supply chain has "risen to the occasion", but to what extent? Are the larger OEM's as well as first and second tier subcontractors protecting their businesses by increasing inventory levels so as to minimize the effects of raw material shortages, even at these historically high prices? How do current inventory levels at these companies compare to standard historic inventory levels as a function of business volume and backlog? What effect does this have on current distribution business and what are the potential pitfalls as industry production catches up with demand? The answers to these questions and others will be discussed to gain insight into one of the most difficult aspects of the titanium market cycle to measure-industry inventory levels.



Parry, Jonathan, Grauman, Jim(October 2006)'Titanium Production Tubing for HPHT Oil & Gas Wells'Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Phelps, Hank (October 2006)' Maintaining Material Properties F-22 Prospective' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

The F-22 Raptor is the highest performance military aircraft in production. Titanium is the largest single material system on the Raptor, accounting for nearly 40°/o of the airframe weight. As the Raptor transitioned to full-scale production, there was a need to qualify alternate material suppliers and fabrication processes. The qualification process has evolved to focus on cost efficient processes. This presentation will review the F-22 qualification process for wrought titanium materials. These requirements include establishing a business case justification for the qualification and coupon level testing to verify that the materials produced support the existing design allowables. The types of tests performed and success criteria are also covered.



POLETTI, C. (October 2006)'Hot deformation studies on discontinuouslyreinforced Ti-Alloys ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

Titanium alloys exhibit high specific strength and stiffness that fit structural applications demanding lightweight. The microstructure of the alpha-beta titanium alloys can be changed by thermomechanical processes such as heat treatments and pre-forging to achieve a certain ductility. Ceramic reinforcements can improve specific strength and stiffness, and also the wear resistance. In Situ particle reinforcement introduces neither further anisotropy to titanium alloys nor large internal stresses. The particulate reinforced titanium alloys (PRTi) are cheaper than the fiber reinforced materials and can be hot deformed. The present work-studies the effect of thermomechanical processes on the microstructure of the PRTi produced in-situ by powder metallurgy from Ti-6Al-4V-powders with additions of 1.0%wt of B and 0.1%wt of C. In the as received material TiB is precipitated as needle like reinforcement in the Ti-6Al-4V-0.1C matrix. Hot compression tests on this PRTi and on conventional Ti64 (pre-deformed) were carried out between 850 and 1100°C at strain rates between 0.001 and 10/s using a servohydraulic Gleeble® device. The stability of the alpha and beta phases and of the TiB precipitates was studied by heat treatments before deformation. The beta transus temperature of the composite increases with respect to that of the Ti64 matrix indicating changes in composition. The micro-structures before and after deformation were studied by SEM and light microscopy. Some broken particles are found in the deformed samples at lower and some porosity in the matrix at higher temperatures, respectively. These results are compared with those of TiC-particle reinforced Ti64 produced by Cold-Hot Isostatic Pressing (CHIP). Keywords: Hot compression, TiB reinforcement, particulate reinforced titanium, Ti64, damage.



Rivard, K. (October 2006) 'High-Cycle-Fatigue Evaluation of Ti-5553 forOrthopedic Applications ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

Titanium-based alloys are commonly selected for use in orthopedic implant applications, owing to their excellent mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Ti-6Al-4V in either cast, forged or wrought form is among the most common. A new alloy, Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti-5553), that has shown to exhibit excellent static strength and equivalent castability properties to Ti-6Al-4V, was investigated. The casting alloy Ti-5553, a modified version of the Russian Alloy VT-22, is a near-beta alloy exhibiting a refined alpha/beta Widmanstätten microstructure with no apparent eutectoid formation. Typical room temperature tensile properties are 168 ksi UTS, 153 ksi YS, and 9% Elongation, similar to wrought Ti-6Al-4V properties in the annealed condition. The first phase of the evaluation of Ti-5553 was to conduct high-cycle rotating beam fatigue (RBF) studies. Implant materials must have a high degree of fatigue resistance, particularly for highly stressed implants such as a femoral hip stem, to perform over the long term. In this study, comparison RBF testing was performed for cast, hot isostatically pressed, and heat treated Ti-5553 against wrought mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Both materials were tested in smooth and notched (Kt = 2.9) configurations to assess the endurance limit, or the level of stress below which fatigue failure will not occur, and estimate the notch sensitivity of each alloy. RBF samples were tested to failure, or survival of 10 million cycles, which is estimated to be equivalent to approximately 10 years for a moderately active patient, and considered a "run-out”. The fatigue properties of cast Ti-5553 were found to be comparable to the fatigue properties of wrought mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V when tested in rotating beam.



Robison, James W. (October 2006) 'Multi-Component Master Alloys forTitanium ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Master alloys for the titanium industry have evolved from simple binary Al-X alloys into a wide range of multi-component specialty alloys with as many as six or more elemental components. Most of these alloys are produced in one step by alumino-thermic ("thermite”) reduction reactions. In this paper, we present the thermochemistry of these alloys, the flexibility and range of the underlying thermite process, and some limitations imposed by that process. The operational advantages of multi-component master alloys are discussed, as well as circumstances in which such master alloys may not be the preferred material(s). Some alternatives and options for future work are presented.



Roopchand, Brij (October 2006)'Ballistic Properties of Single-meltTitanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

The Army has a need to reduce the weight of its ground combat systems for air transportability, lower footprint, and quick deployment without sacrificing either structural performance or ballistic protection Titanium alloys offer good structural and ballistic properties. Ti-6Al-4V is the current alloy of choice for the structural and applique armor. The Army is using titanium alloys selectively to reduce the weight of its vehicles. More widespread use of titanium for ground combat systems has been limited by the cost of titanium. To increase the use of titanium in ground combat systems, the Army has evaluated single melt titanium using electron-beam (EB) cold-hearth and Plasma-Arc Melting (PAM) as opposed to the current double-melt titanium alloys in an effort to reduce the raw material cost. This presentation will provide more recent applications to ground combat systems such as Light-Weight Howitzer, Crusader, and transition of some of the technology to Future Combat System (FCS).



Rosenberg ,Edward (October 2006)'The business of titanium: Defining thebusiness model that has successfully launched titanium to the forefront in theconsumer products arena: ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

As with many other unchallenged traditions, technology and persistent quality marketing has led to revolutionary changes in thought and acuity in the consumer products markets. Through the past 4 decades gold and platinum have become commoditized and are rapidly loosing market share to the new breed of materials known as contemporary elements. Titanium pioneered this revolution in jewelry and remains the only real contender in this movement. The challenge that titanium faces is maintaining its integrity, status, perception, and global supremacy in the market it created.



Rupert, Timothy G. (October2006)'World Industry Trends Summary' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, SanDiego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable




in recent years, concern over the continued use of limited fresh water supplies or similarly, cooling towers and their essential makeup, high maintenance and associated chemical treatment requirements has spawned a crafty, yet dramatic change in power plant surface condenser and heat exchanger cooling. The paradigm shift away from the established and typical toward the unconventional has produced an innovative and non-traditional cooling water source for surface condensers and heat exchangers. Clearly, gray water-cooling has come of age.



Seton, John (October 2006)'Advanced Titanium Alloys' Sheraton San DiegoHotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



TAKECHI, Tsutomu (October 2006) 'SSAT-2041CF Beta-Titanium AlloySuitable for Cold Processing ' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, SanDiego, California USA

This presentation consists of three parts. In the 1st part I will explain the short history about the SSAT-2041CF. I also refer to the background of developing history, and some topics of pioneering new application. I hope you can find not only the information about this alloy, but also the typical Japanese working style. In the 2nd part, I will explain the ideas forward from today we bear in mind looking for new applications. In the last part, I will explain the conclusion.



Trapp, Tim (October2006)'Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Hybrid Laser Welding (HLW) of Ti 6-4Structural Components' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

The development of Friction stir welding (FSW) has progressed rapidly since its inception. The process has been applied to a variety of high-temperature alloys, including titanium, with increasing success. One challenge in FSW high-temperature materials is designing a tool with the proper geometry and material combination to prevent tool deformation and wear. EWI has designed a non-conventional tool referred to as a variable penetration tool (VPT). The VPT geometry was combined with a low cost tungsten-based alloy. The result was robust tool for FSW titanium.

In this study, FSW was used to join Ti 6AI-4V structures in the butt, corner, and T-joint configurations combining varying thicknesses of material. These joint geometries were joined in lengths exceeding 60-in and in a variety of material thicknesses including .188-, .250-, and .500-in.

Hybrid laser welding (HLW) is a process that combines laser (LW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). This process combines the robustness of the GMAW with the penetration of lasers to create a process that can achieve deep penetration at high travel speeds with reduced fit up requirements. The HLW process was used to join material combinations similar to FSW trials.

This work was completed under Army Contact # DAAD19-03-2-002 to investigate joining of complex structures using these new advanced processes. This project demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating complex Ti components using both FSW and HLW.



Tripp, David W. (October2006)'The Production of Titanium and Titanium Alloys Using Electron Beam ColdHearth Single Melt' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego,California USA

Electron beam cold hearth melting has been used for a number of years to produce Commercially Pure (CP) titanium sheet, strip and plate. Over the last five years, TIMET has expended significant effort to develop the production of alloy titanium including TIMETAL XT, TIMETAL 54M, TIMETAL 64, TIMETAL 3-2.5 and TIMETAL 21 S using electron beam cold hearth only methodology. In this paper, we discuss the production of the benefits of producing these alloys using Electron Beam Single Melt (EBSM), qualification status of material produced using EBSM and status of their production at TIMET.



Ventura, Tim (October 2006) 'ESI Group Presentation' Sheraton San DiegoHotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Abstract Unavailable



Wellwood, Grant (October 2006)'Low Cost Titanium Powder Processes to Facilitate Near Net Shape Manufacture' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Near net shape manufacturing facilitated by powder metallurgy is a proven strategy for reducing the cost of many finished metal items. Titanium is particularly well suited to this approach as much of the cost of producing titanium items is associated with high wastage rates during milling. However, titanium powder is currently an expensive derivative of sponge thus making this approach economically unviable for all but the most specialised applications. A source of low cost titanium powder is therefore needed to unlock the full potential of near net shape manufacturing techniques. The CSIRO has developed processes for producing both CP and alloyed titanium powders directly and at low cost. Both processes are continuous in nature and have distinguishing technical attributes which are discussed.



Williams, Tom (October 2006)'Trends in Titanium Consumption in the JetEngine Market' Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California USA

Commercial and military aircraft are powered primarily by gas turbines commonly called jet engines. The demands placed upon jet engine designs for increased thrust, clean emissions, and fuel efficiency are driving engine technology including material selection. Titanium usage is affected when engine temperatures increase beyond capability and composites are applied to lower weight. However, overall demand for titanium is growing to record levels. This presentation will discuss these trends and show a titanium demand forecast for jet engine applications.





ANDERSON, C. G. (September 2005)'The TEMPER and Free FormTitanium Fabrication Initiatives at The Center for Advanced Mineral andMetallurgical Processing, USA' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, ArizonaUSA

Titanium is a metal of increasing strategic importance. The Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) at Montana Tech is currently directing two titanium initiatives. The first program, TEMPER, is focused on producing low cost titanium through the identification and development of new mining, beneficiation and extraction technologies which will significantly reduce the cost of titanium production. This will directly benefit military and commercial applications. Emphasis is being placed on development of the domestic titanium ore bodies thus reducing the use of foreign titanium ore. Secondly, CAMP is evaluating new technologies for fabrication of titanium utilizing the Solid Free Form Fabrication initiative. These technologies may drastically reduce the cost and time to manufacture titanium components. Because of the high strength to weight ration of titanium coupled with it's superior corrosion characteristics, these programs will be of vital importance to the United States military. An overview of these two titanium initiatives will be presented at the meeting.


Boster, Patrick L. (September 2005) 'Deep Water Engineering Solutions Using Titanium - The Devil is in the Detail' Marriott's CamelbackInn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Offshore deepwater exploration and production of hydrocarbons provides a rich target for energy companies. Regions such as the Gulf of Mexico are re-ported to have the super fields under deepest waters, well below the ocean floor.
Physical challenges exist where water depths are approaching 10,000 ft, with subsequent drilling of an additional 20,000 ft below the mud line. These oil & gas producing wells often time contain highly corrosive media with well bore pressures up to 20,000 PSI and temperatures in excess of 350°F.
Energy operators experience producing well conditions that are further complicated by the affect of the structural challenges of the offshore environment; i. e. dynamic stresses, metocean affect, material fatigue damage and the occasional hurricane presenting interesting challenges for the engineering community.
This presentation will provide an overview of deepwater offshore production facilities and upstream development projects. Included in the presentation will be details behind the engineering application of titanium, detailed engineering efforts for construction and the successful field installation.


Bunting, Robert M. (September 2005)'Vanadium MarketDevelopments, and their Implications for Titanium' Marriott's Camelback Inn,Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Vanadium is a critical metal in the production of titanium alloys. It has recently experienced record price levels as a direct result of a massive imbalance between worldwide supply and worldwide demand. This presentation analyses the reasons for this supply/ demand imbalance. Historical sources of supply are described and future potential sourcing is also reviewed. Current production capacity by source is also listed as is the potential for future increases m capacity and production. The reasons behind the recent surge on worldwide consumption are also described, and future prospects for demand are analyzed.


Doerner, Frank (September 2005)'Titanium for Aircraft Uses,Technologies, and Future Trends' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, ArizonaUSA

This presentation will discuss Boeing's overall vision of where the aircraft industry is headed and specifically what the implications are concerning advanced stnichiral concepts. The presentation will discuss the benefits and drawbacks for using titanium in aircraft structures. It will discuss technology improvements needed to improve Ti performance and to lower the cost of fabricating Ti aircraft structure so that it can be used in wider applications.


Dorsch, T. James (September 2005)'Titanium for Ground Combat Vehicles' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Titanium alloy is currently a leading candidate to improve ballistic performance and reduce weight for future armored vehicles. Significant challenges exist that may limit the widespread application of titanium. These include cost and availability, difficulty in joining and inspecting, reduced machining rates and incorporating it into ceramic annor systems. One particular challenge is that titanium ground vehicle structures and components must withstand threats not typically encountered on other military systems. Therefore shock and penetration resistance are necessary which may affect efforts to develop low cost manufacturing methods. One vehicle manufacturer will review their experience with applying titanium and provide remarks on how these challenges could be met.


Fanning, John (September 2005)'Recent Developments in Beta Strip Alloys' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Strip Manufacturing • TIMETAL 21S • TIMETAL 15-3 • Applications


Fanning, John (September 2005)'MILITARY APPLICATIONS FOR BETA TITANIUM ALLOYS' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Abstract Unavailable


Furuta, T. (September 2005) 'Development of Titanium Alloywith Controlled Elastic Properties' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale,Arizona USA

It is common knowledge that titanium alloy is highly attractive material for aeronautical, aerospace, automobile, marine, and military applications because it has tremendous properties such as specific strength and corrosion resistance. Nowadays the applied field of that is spread out not only transport components, but also a wide range of the applications for artificial bone, implants, medical equipment, and sporting good. There withal, the development of titanium alloy having a new functionality has been conducted. In particularly, it is very important to control the elastic property on developing innovative products.
In this paper, the activity of Toyota Central R & D Labs., Inc. regarding titanium alloys controlled an elastic property has been introduced. Those are ( l) a TiB reinforced titanium metal matrix composite obtained via a cost-effective powder metallurgy process for automobile engine parts. We realized that TiB particle is the only ideal reinforcement, which has high rigidly, strength and thermodynamic stability in titanium alloy, and (2) Gum Metal, a new multifunctional beta-titanium alloy, Ti-24at% (Ta+Nb+V)-(Zr+Hf)-0, which shows ultra-low Young's modulus, ultra-high strength, ultra-high elastic deformability, and super cold formability without work hardening._ Each and/or complex nmction of Gum Metal must offer a wide range of the applications in the emerging markets.


Gehler, Sylvailn (September 2005)'Titanium Mining and Sponge Production in Kazakhstan Ukrania' Marriott'sCamelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Review of World Ti Sponge supply situation as well as trends for the years to come taking into account ti sponge production capacity increases in Japan, USA, Russia and China.


Herman,William A.(September 2005)'Titanium in Combat Vehicles' Marriott's Camelback Inn,Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Abstract Unavailable


Holz, Markus(September 2005) 'Titanium's Wuthering Heights' Marriott's Camelback Inn,Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Aerospace Market Europe
Industrial Market Europe


Kamon, Mark S. (September 2005) 'WORLD TITANIUM MILL PRODUCTSDEMAND' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Over the past twelve month's the European Titanium market has observed a rather steady growth in demand for both CP and Aerospace grades with a number of industrial applications in power generation and desalination, and the success of the Airbus program (Airbus A380) and the new tranche of Eurofighter, respectively.
However, it has also been confronted by a severe shortfall in raw material supplies coupled with boosting prices as an effect of a massive demand for this metal gobbled up by the steel industry as a minor alloying element (Ferro-Titanium).
Activities in emerging markets have been frozen due to these unstable market conditions with the impending risk that titanium may be replaced by other competing materials thus affecting the titanium industry at large, as well as the negative impact on all research and development activities for new applications.
We have grounds to expect that the situation will remain unchanged until mid-end of 2006.


Keough, Graham (September 2005)'New Developments in InductionSkull Melting Using DC Fields to Increase Superheat' Marriott's Camelback Inn,Scottsdale, Arizona USA

The melting and casting of highly reactive metals into net shape parts has been problematic due in large measure to the limited superheat. Because liquid Titanium reacts so rapidly with conventional crucible materials, it is typically melted in a water cooled copper crucible before pouring into the mold. A significant part of the energy coupled into the melt is transferred by conduction to the water thus limiting the superheat. Harding et a!. reported some improvement in superheat using high power ISM, but, the results we still well below desirable superheat levels.
The presenter will give a brief history of the evaluation of the potential increase in superheat by using a DC field to damp the turbulent stirring of the melt and thus the heat transfer to the base and side wall of the crucible.
A new ISM crucible design developed by Consarc has been tested at the University of Birmingham in 2 series of tests. Overheads will show the configuration used and a short video of an actual melt will be displayed.
The results of the second series of tests melting Titanium Aluminide and CP Ti, show approximately 80 % increase in superheat using the new design when the DC field is turned on compared to the superheat achieved with high power ISM. The results are considered significant.


Kraft, Edwin H. (September 2005)'Overview of EmergingTitanium Technologies' Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Recent years have seen a significant increase in interest in new technologies for production of titanium metal and in processes to form primary metal into useful product tonns. Much of this effort has focused on reducing the cost of primary Ti or mill product. This overview will reexamine the status of the approximately 20 processes being developed for primary metal production. Some of these reduction processes have made significant progress, while others have been abandoned and new efforts started. Advancements have also been made in melt processing of sponge and scrap into ingot and slab and will be reported. Progress in investment casting and similar processes will be reviewed. Methods of consolidation of new powder materials is receiving increased attention and will be addressed in this overview as well as in full papers during the panel session.

Luckowski, Stephen (September 2005) 'Titanium Protecting theSoldiers of Operation Iraqi Freedom' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 As operations in Iraq continue, the Army has continued to examine methods to improve force protection without sacrificing operational effectiveness. Titanium is playing a growing role in applications where the combination of ballistic performance and light weight are required to maintain system performance. This presentation highlights the efforts of the US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to apply titanium in specific Army systems-both those currently operating in Iraq as well as future systems still under development.

Magyar, Michael (September 2005)'World Molybdenum MarketOverview' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott'sCamelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 No discussion of the present day molybdenum market would be complete without going back to the beginning of the U.S. molybdenum mining -the Climax Mine. High atop the Continental Divide in central Colorado sits the Climax "glory hole," a Yz-mile wide, I ,000-foot deep crater that is the result of more than 7 5 years of mining. At one time, this single mine supplied 75% of the world's molybdenum needs. An overview of the history of the Climax Molybdenum Company shows the development of molybdenum from a laboratory curiosity to a vital metal traded worldwide. From that starting point, background information on molybdenum mineralization, recovery, and processing will be presented. A discussion of primary versus byproduct molybdenum production will lead into a breakdown of supply and demand from a global perspective. Some data on consumption by end use will be presented both by commodity and by market. Finally some perspective will be provided on the forces at work in the molybdenum market that are driving the recent price rise to historic levels.

Martin,J. Landis  (September 2005) 'Titanium Companies and the Capital Markets' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Mr. Martin will be speaking about the public markets for titanium companies and its impact on the industry.

McWhorter, Dan  (September 2005)'Spark Analysis of Titanium  Alloys with a Cu Electrode' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Titanium Alloys present some unique challenges to your Quality Control personnel when it comes to Alloy Identification. All phases of the Titanium Industry require that the material be identified and controlled at some point. This process actually begins at the recycling facility. new line Equipment utilized: Recyclers and Titanium metal producers and users utilize both X-ray and visible light spectrometers for this purpose. Some of this instrumentation can be very old and still provide accurate results. The metal scope and Fuschs are such machines. (Detail of the instruments currently used by the industry.) new line Instruments Available: Description and type of instruments available new. Their application and limitations. new line Why Tungsten materials are a hazzard for Titanium producers.  new line Description and technical data on the Test Master from vVAS: It's application and results of testing using both a Tungsten and a Copper Electrode.  new line Conclusion: Speed and accuracy is still the key to rapid through put of material with a new emphasis on trace analysis. Ru adds value on 6-4 applications. new line Guaranteeing specifications for low Si, Pd, Sn, and other elements in CP can add profit and cut production steps for the end user, thus adding value.  new line The test and working relationship between supplier and user are always being evaluated. Providing safe, tungsten free material, with 100 per cent guaranteed alloy verification will always be in vogue.

Metz, Michael (September 2005)'Role of Russian Raw Material inGlobal Titanium Market' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 ConferenceProceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
Mr. Metz will speak on the raw material supply outlook from Russia, and its role in the global titanium market.

Monahan, John (September 2005)'Forecast of Russian TitaniumProducts' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott'sCamelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Mr. Monahan will be speaking about recent trends of titanium production in Russia, and will present a projection of how those trends may influence and shape the future of titanium manufacturing activity in Russia and the supply of Russian titanium into the global market.

Moxson, V.S. (September 2005)'Low Cost Titanium Components for Armor and Structural Applications' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

 This presentation is related to the direct powder rolling process for producing titanium and titanium alloy plates and covers the activities performed against a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Army Research Lab and ADMA Products, Inc. on manufacturing low cost P/M Ti-6Al-4V alloys for armor and structural applications.

Musi, Dean (September 2005)'An Update on Ti-5AI-5Mo-3Cr' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

Abstract Unavailable

Nemchock, Gary R. (September 2005)'ARCHITECTURAL INSTALLATIONS COMPLETED AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION  2004-2005' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Architectural titanium installations completed since October 2004, as well as several cunently under construction, will be featured in this presentation. Included will be the progress of the Denver Art Museum as constmction will be near completion for opening in 2006. new line Other commercial installations: Mauna Kea Astronomy Education Center-Hilo, Hawaii Albany Courthouse-Albany, New York Government Building-The Netherlands Shopping Mall -Rome, Italy Clinique des Cedres-Grenoble, France Library-Tromso, Norway Office Interiors-Malaysia Oostpoort-The Netherlands UCLA Men's Gym -Los Angeles, California Military Training Facility-The Netherlands Crystalline Tower-Cincinnati, Ohio DFS Watch Store -Hong Kong INCS-Chino Factory Showroom-Nagano, Japan new line Residential installations in Palm Springs, Boston, Pebble Beach, Aspen, Ontario, San Pedro, Del Mar,

Nogami, Kazuharu (September 2005)'Progress of Titanium Industry In Japan' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

 The titanium industry in Japan has grown steadily, experiencing rather small ups and downs. In 2004, there were a record high number of shipments for both sponge titanium and mill products in Japan. Since a strong demand for titanium can be expected to continue not only in Japan but also in other countries for at least a couple of years, the two sponge titanium producers in Japan have decided to expand their production capacities. In addition, facing the upcoming shortage of melting capacity in Japan, some Japanese companies are considering expanding the capacity. new line As recent topics, a project for developing new technologies in refining and fabricating, newly developed titanium alloys in Japan, and the increasing role of Japanese companies in building large commercial aircrafts will be presented. new line Japan is now working on establishing worldwide standards for titanium under the ISO, and will host "The Eleventh World Conference on Titanium" in 2007.


Okamoto, Akio (September 2005)'Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  and Titanium Plate Heat Exchanger' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion OTEC) is a new method of generating electricity utilizing huge amounts of thermal energy of ocean. This method of power generation, producing exceedingly low carbon dioxide, is expected as a Counter measure to solve the energy issues crucial to human race. For OTEC plant, the most important material is titanium. The development of titanium plate-type heat exchanger boosts the performance of OTEC to practicable level.

Otsuka, H. (September 2005)'Developments of High-PerformanceTitanium for Alloys for Automotive Exhaust Systems' Paper Presented on Titanium2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, ArizonaUSA
 Recent growth of titanium use in several automotive parts has made titanium one of the major materials in automotive industry. In particular, a great deal of CP titanium has been used for mufflers and exhaust pipes in motorcycles and the application range of titanium is now expanding to four wheeled vehicles. However, there is a strong requirement of materials having higher performance at elevated temperature with keeping good formability from the viewpoints of rising operation temperature and manufacturing cost. To properly respond to this tough issue, we, Nippon Steel, have developed a new alloy especially for automotive exhaust systems. new line The alloy has 1 mass% of alloying element X, which contributes to increase strength at temperature up to 700°C without deteriorating fonnability at room temperature, resulting in the high-performance alloy with both excellent high temperature strength and cold formability. In this presentation, the concept of alloy design is at first described and some of the properties including twice higher strength at 700°C than that of CP Gr.2 and better or equivalent cold formability compared with. CP Gr.1 and Gr.2. Other properties needed in automotive exhaust system such as weldability, corrosion resistance and performance stability in relation to long term use are also introduced.

Rao, M.P.  (September 2005)'Titanium Micro-Machining    via Plasma Etching' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 This paper details the development of a new titanium micro-fabrication technology that is currently being developed in Prof. Noel MacDonald’s lab in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Using plasma etching techniques adapted from the semiconductor industry, this new process technology enables, for the first time, fabrication of complex high-aspect-ratio structures with micrometer-scale features in titanium. new line As will be shown, this technology provides the opportunity for fabrication of titanium-based micro-structures with a degree of design sophistication and precision that would be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve using conventional methods. Although this technology was originally developed within the context of the semiconductor realm, we believe it shows considerable promise for broader application as well. Our intention in this presentation is to provide exposure to as wide an audience as possible in the hopes that it may stimulate interest in the technology and help identify compelling new development opportunities that exploit its unique capabilities.

Rigby, G.D.  (September 2005)'Polar™ Titanium –Development of the BHP Billiton Titanium Metal Production Process' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
Abstract Unavailable

Rupert, Timothy G. (September 2005)'Military TitaniumMarkets' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott'sCamelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Titanium plays an essential role in critical military aircraft and other defense hardware around the world. Mr. Rupert will review the history of titanium's development for defense-related applications and discuss the relative contribution of military applications as it relates to annual titanium U. S. industry shipments. The presentation will highlight several significant military titanium applications, including aerospace, naval, and ground support systems, as well as discuss the growth of new applications and the resulting opportunity for the titanium industry.

Semeniuta, Vasily (September 2005)'Titanium Scrap Situationand Latest Trends in Ti Scrap Demand and Supply' Paper Presented on Titanium2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, ArizonaUSA

Current up-cycle in Titanium industry is very different from any of previous cycles. This is the first ever Titanium cycle that is "synchronized" with global industrial cycles. Each of earlier Titanium cycles came independently from global industrial cycles. We can indicate three major demand components in current Titanium cycle -(1) demand for Titanium units from steel industry to accommodate steel consumption for China industrial growth, (2) demand for CP Titanium for industrial projects in China and South East Asia and (3) demand for aerospace industry in Western World. This cycle is the first one started not by increasing demand for Titanium products (like all previous cycles), but by demand from outside Titanium industry-for Ti units for steel production. new line Increase in Ferro-Titanium production started in the fourth quarter of 2003 lead to increase in demand for Titanium scrap. Then recovery of Titanium industry started in 2004, both industrial and aerospace sectors simultaneously, and created additional demand for Titanium scrap. Combination of three powerful factors of demand created unseen competition for Titanium units. Prices for low grade scrap for Ferro-Titanium production went from the lowest point of $2.50/kg in 2002 to $20+/kg at the latest peak in March 2005, then dropped to around $9-10/kg level by July. Prices for "vacuum" quality scrap for Titanium ingot production went from $4.40/kg at the lowest point to highest of $31/kg in March-April 2005 and settled at around $28-29/kg by summer time without signs for any further weakness coming shortly. new line During presentation we will try to analyze scrap supply situation in the current cycle, difference of this cycle from all previous cycles and try to forecast scrap situation for short-and mid-term future.

Shields, James (September 2005) 'M777A1 Howitzer CostReduction Efforts' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. ,Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 This presentation will discuss the implementation of titanium investment casting on the U.S. Marine Corps U.S. Army's next generation 155 mm towed howitzer. Implementation of castings during Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) led to improved product quality, and reduced risk in achieving full rate production requirements.

Sobota,Ed, Sr (September 2005)'Can We Process What We Need?'Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's CamelbackInn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA

The processing of titanium cast material to plate, sheet, forgings, and bar utilizes both in-house and out-sourced facilities. Mr. Sobota will review past processing practices and facilities and what the titanium industry is doing to increase its capacity and make itself more independent of outside processors.

WALSH, JOHN F.  (September 2005)'COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT MARKETS UP OR DOWN AND FOR HOW LONG? ' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
Mr. Walsh will discuss the current market boom in orders for the Boeing and Airbus aircraft markets and the slowdown of the regional jet markets for the Bombardier and Embraer regional jet aircraft. New line Traffic trends, airline profits, aircraft orders and forecasted new aircraft delivery rates in the 2006, 2007 time period will be discussed in detail. The implications for longer term aircraft delivery rates as a result of the upsurge in near ten deliveries will also be addressed. new line The introduction of the new aircraft designs from the four major airframe manufacturers on the long term aircraft and titanium markets will be analyzed and will make for what is expected to be a lively Q&A session.

Williams,Thomas E.  (September 2005)'Commercial Aerospace Market' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Mr. Williams will chair a panel discussion on titanium in the commercial aerospace market. His introductory presentation will highlight the growth of the commercial aerospace market and its impact on titanium demand. The drivers behind the accelerating growth of titanium will be discussed along with a forecast of titanium shipments for commercial aerospace applications. Mr. Williams will conclude with a review of Allegheny Technologies' actions to meet the growing demand for titanium.

YASHIKI, TAKASHI (September 2005)'NEW HIGH PERFORMANCE TITANIUM FOR EXHAUST SYSTEMS' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. , Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Mechanical properties, formability and high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-1.5Al and our new alloy were introduced in IT A 2004 conference. The use of Ti-l.5Al is mainly for motorbike exhaust systems. Ti-1.5Al was registered with ASTM standard as Gr.3 7 after the conference. In IT A 2005 conference, in-depth research results of our new alloy, whose name is Ti-1.2ASNEX, will be introduced. This research was done in order to develop the titanium alloy which had high temperature oxidation resistance more than Ti-1.5Al. Ti-1.2ASNEX has excellent high temperature oxidation resistance and practical fonnability. This alloy is consequently considered to be applied to not only motorbike exhaust systems but also automobile exhaust systems.

Yu ,K.O. (September 2005)'Beta C Spring made from PAM SingleMelt Input Stock' Paper Presented on Titanium 2005 Conference Proceedings. ,Marriott's Camelback Inn, Scottsdale, Arizona USA
 Beta-C is a high strength titanium alloy widely used for spring and fastener applications. Spring and fastener input stock is currently manufactured by rolling billets forged from conventional double melt VAR (2 x V AR) ingots. Recent advances in plasma arc melting (PAM) single melt technology offer a potential to reduce the input stock cost by directly rolling the as-cast near net shape PAM ingots instead of the conventional forged billets. A 5" diameter as-cast PAM ingot was rolled to 0.60" bars which were then processed to smaller diameter centerless ground bars for making springs. The evaluation of microstructures and mechanical properties of the bar input stock as well as the finished spring will be presented.




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