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TITANIUM 2010 - 2014
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Baldauff, Regis (September 2014) ‘Current Global Trends for Titanium Applications within the Chemical Process and Oil & Gas Markets' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Recent Global events and Catastrophes have created a Paradigm Shift in material Choices for decision makers within the Chemical Process and Oil and Gas Markets. Piping and Equipment manufacturers and large OEM’s have been tasked with designing components and systems that increase performance, improve life cycles and reduce risk. Titanium offers all of these with the correct design and application. With that said titanium products are facing increasing competition within this market space from products such as Fiberglas Reinforced Pipe (FRP), Duplex and Super Duplex Stainless Steel materials. Pricing should not be the only evaluation tool used for determining which product is the best material of choice. Safety and Performance characteristics are now at the top of list when it comes to the design criteria that is used within these Industrial Markets. This presentation will provide an overview of these current market conditions and why Titanium can provide solutions to these problems and provide superior performance over the long term.

Barnes, John E. (September 2014) ‘Titanium 3D Printed Treatment of Sleep Apnoea' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

A novel oral appliance for providing breathing assistance during sleep for the treatment of both snoring and sleep apnea has been developed by CSIRO researchers and Oventus Pty Ltd clinicians. Sleep apnoea occurs when the air passage in the throat becomes blocked during sleep and causes people to stop breathing. People can suffer hundreds of events per night and it is estimated that about 4% of men and 2% of women in the Western world have sleep apnea, but it could be as high as 14% of adults have the disorder. Left untreated, sleep apnoea can have serious and life-shortening consequences: high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, automobile accidents caused by falling asleep at the wheel, diabetes, depression, and other ailments.

Additive manufacturing was used to enable the device relying on its ability to affordably provide a custom fit with a lightweight, comfortable device. A 3D scanner is used to map a patient’s mouth anatomy, and that custom design can be 3D printed in titanium, with a recess for the user's teeth with an opening to allow air from outside to be drawn in. The air passes through an airway on each side, and is directed into a posterior region of the mouth, bypassing issues with tongue and lower jaw position. In more severe cases, the opening to the outside can be connected to a continuous positive airway pressure machine, providing more comfort and increased patient compliance compared to a mask. Researchers moved into industrialisation, writing software that would automatically read a 3D scan result and morph a file in a database to meet the patient requirements.

This paper will share the experience of developing this technology and discuss the advantages/shortcomings of the potential growth in 3D printing in the bio-medical industry.

Bayne, Andrew (September 2014) ‘Titanium Revert in 2015' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

This presentation will examine the opportunities and challenges surrounding the titanium revert chain. The aerospace inventory overhang continues to wind down at a time where melt rates are increasing, driving a continued focus on “closing the loop”. Difficulties continue due to the growing geographical diversity of generation sites, and educating new sources on the importance of segregation and cleanliness. The industry is also experiencing supplier consolidations while scrap pricing is moving towards parity with sponge and alloy. Each of these phenomena will be discussed and the impact on the near-term and long-term future considered.

Bihlman, Bill (September 2014) ‘Global Supply Chain Trends' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Undoubtedly, the commercial aerospace industry is facing unprecedented growth and record backlog. This creates both challenges and opportunities for suppliers throughout the value chain. Titanium can be viewed as a strategic commodity; thus, this industry’s health is of particular importance to both engine and airframe OEMs. This presentation will briefly address the various categories within the value chain. It will also explore significant developments over the past 5 years until present. It will discuss varied topics, such as sourcing from Russia, the impact of additive manufacturing, and the effects of vertical integration by the mills.

Birt, Aaron (September 2014) ‘An Analysis of the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Resulting from Cold Sprayed Ti-6Al-4V' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

With the government and industry driven focus on new material systems and additive manufacturing, new processes for material consolidation techniques are constantly being developed. One such system, cold spray, bombards particles onto a substrate and induces bonding through particle deformation derived from the kinetic energy of the impact, all while remaining in the solid state. It has been successfully used in re-manufacturing and surface modifications. However, with the focus on near net shape manufacturing techniques coming to the fore, a shift towards bulk net shape materials created with cold spray has begun. Research presented here used the cold spray technique to consolidate martensitic Ti-6Al-4V powders at the highest kinetic energy levels possible in order to introduce the highest levels of deformation and work in the consolidated material. The resulting samples were tested for tensile strength, macrohardness, and microhardness. Microstructural features were analyzed with secondary electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The relationship between the level of work introduced to the system, microstructure, and mechanical properties will be discussed.

Bonini, Julius (September 2014) ‘Cleanliness Related to Post-Fabrication Processing of Additive Layer Manufactured Porous Surface' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Porous-layer coated titanium medical and dental implants have been the industry standard for several decades. Sintered-on wire or beads, as well as plasma sprayed titanium coatings, have been the most common methods for creating a porous surface structure for effective osseointegration in these devices. Each of these coating methods generates a unique porous structure and efficacious methods have evolved over the years to ensure cleanliness of the final device. The use of several new additive layer manufacturing (ALM) methods to fabricate implant devices with integrated porous surface structures has presented new challenges to achieving the required level of cleanliness in this industry. These new ALM methods, such as electron beam manufacturing (EBM), as applied specifically to titanium devices, create unique and complex porous surface structures that present considerable challenges for appropriate cleaning. These complex structures involve a combination of interconnected and closed cell porosity. Exposure to cutting fluids, cleaning fluids, solvents, blast media, grinding media, passivation solutions and many other chemical agents during processing presents several possible means of contamination. These potential contaminants tend to become entrapped in unique ways in these complex porous structures and need to be completely removed prior to packaging as finished goods. Images of the complex porous structures will be presented in both spatial and cross-sectional view via optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging.

Bruneau, Albert (September 2014) ‘Global Trends in Industrial Markets’ presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Significant volume of titanium is consumed every year as plates, sheets or tubes by the Power Generation, Process and Desalination markets. These volumes have been fluctuating significantly over the recent past, generating lack of visibility and concern for all the players along the supply chain. What are the drivers and trend on market?

Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes has collected views and experiences of various suppliers and end users and has built a unique understanding of these complex markets. Albert Bruneau will discuss the key drivers of titanium consumption in the industrial market and provide an estimate of the evolution in the coming years.

Conrad, Adrian R. (September 2014) ‘Master Alloy Supply and Demand: Supporting the Future' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

The business of supplying world class quality master alloys to the titanium industry is much like world cup soccer, difficult to predict, guaranteed to change, surprise, disappoint, as well as delight. This presentation will touch on various factors which impact the master alloy business from the supply and demand dynamics of raw materials, global sponge production, scrap recycling efficiency all leading to the requirements for master alloy. The precision for planning, production and distribution of master alloys is critical.

Supporting the future requires navigating through all of the hurdles and having the right quantities of raw materials in the pipeline and the physical assets in place to manufacture and deliver customers exact requirements, precisely when needed at world class quality.

Duz, Vladimir (September 2014) ‘Manufacturing of Titanium Components for Critical Applications from Hydrogenated Titanium Powder' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Innovative powder metallurgy processes for manufacturing the titanium components for critical applications from hydrogenated titanium powder will be presented. The manufacturing of titanium alloy components by low cost blended elemental approach that includes various room temperature consolidation techniques (die-pressing, direct powder rolling, and cold iso-static pressing) followed by sintering and high temperature post processing (forging, rolling, extrusion, ring rolling) will be discussed. It will be demonstrated that the low cost ADMA patented powder metallurgy processes (ADMATALTM) provide the best combination of mechanical properties that meet or exceed the properties obtained on the identical titanium alloys by conventional ingot metallurgy processes. Phase and structural transformations occurring upon these innovative processing and resulting microstructures/properties relationships will be also discussed.

Flinspach, Jochen (September 2014) ‘Preparation of High Purity Metals and Metal Alloys by Electron Beam Melting For Atomization Purpose' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Electron beam melting is a perfect tool to prepare high purity metal electrodes for further use in powder production by Electrode inert gas atomization. In ALD’s in house furnace electrodes of high purity metals have been prepared and further atomized to powder by the Electrode inert gas atomization technology. The paper will focus on preparation of the material by melting different kind of available input material and give some results of powder properties.

Hickton, Dawne S. (September 2014) Titanium in the Military: What About Tomorrow?’ presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

The changing nature of defense threats is driving a transformation in the systems and tools utilized to combat those threats. It is a transformation that is also raising new questions about the role of titanium as a strategic defense material. How is the new defense picture affecting use of titanium in the weapons and support systems of today and in the future? Is sequestration behind us? Should we count parts, not pounds? Mrs. Hickton will discuss these and related issues in the context of current U.S. and European defense budgets and the stresses felt in an era of austerity, juxtaposed against growing Chinese defense spending. She will also highlight how titanium has transformed from a strategic material whose value was measured in pounds, to an innovative material whose uses are far more varied and for which value is measured by its inclusion in sophisticated, advanced technology systems.

Himstead, Greg (September 2014) ‘Today's Service Centers: Setting New Standards for Compliance in Titanium Supply Chains' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Abstract unavailable

Honnart, Alain (September 2014) ‘Near Net Shape: From Dream To Reality' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Metalvalue is cooperating with a Swedish company Bofors Bruk AB (named as was the Alfred Nobel’s company: not surprising for a company located in the same city of Karlskoga) and its daughter company METEC Technologies AB to develop a new technology able to manufacture parts from a few ten grams to a few kilograms: the MMS SCANPAC™ process.

Developing a new technology takes time: from the first idea in 1996 to the last patent registered a few weeks ago (a total of 6 complementary patents), years have been spent in R&D, prototypes, pre-¬‐series, end user tests, etc. Now the process is operating and already used to supply alloyed steel, tool steel nickel alloy parts at full density with the same or better properties of forged products.

The same technology is used for titanium. The technology is environmentally friendly, no toxic binder, energy saving, material saving. The driver for its development is simply cost: it allows to make parts cheaper than the conventional route. The fact that they are metallurgically better (because they are made from powder) is just a plus. This cost saving comes from different factors: the powder itself is cheap because, despite the fact that the process can use ultra-¬‐high purity atomized powder it allows to get it at low price because it will use the left over from the production of additive manufacturing powder. In addition the manufacturing cost is inexpensive and parts are pressed at high speed. Products can easily be qualified for aerospace usage (due to the manufacturing steps ending with a low cost HIP operation).

All the experience already gained from manufacturing other metal parts, can be transferred to titanium. The SCANPAC- MMS process will contribute to develop volumes in titanium parts for many industrial applications.

Hudson, Robert (September 2014) ‘The Realities of Rutile' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

The paper looks at the factors involved in the production of rutile, starting with the geology, location, country risk, grade, costs of production, environmental management, through to ability to fund large capital expenditure, jurisdictional challenges, and shareholder return consideration.

Ivasishin, Orest (September 2014) ‘Fundamentals of Low Cost Titanium Hydride Powder Metallurgy' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Recently, an innovative approach in blended elemental powder metallurgy of titanium and titanium alloys was developed. Its key feature consists in using of titanium hydride powder instead of commonly used titanium metal powder what results in improved balance of mechanical properties due to lower residual porosity, lesser contamination and finer microstructure as compared to conventional titanium powder metallurgy. This paper is stressed on the results elucidating fundamental advantage of titanium hydride based powder metallurgy which consists in synergetic influence of specific compaction mechanism, activated sintering due to a sequence of phase transformations accompanying dehydrogenation, and reactions of surface located impurities with atomic hydrogen with a formation of volatile products leaving the compact through an open porosity network. Efforts to scale up this approach from laboratory experiments to commercial level capable to solve the cost- performance dilemma of titanium powder metallurgy are demonstrated.

Jackson, Christopher (September 2014) ‘Titanium Sponge Developments in India' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

The Kroll technology developed by Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) is successfully transferred to Kerala Minerals & Metals Limited, Kerala, India for the establishment of the country’s first commercial facility for titanium sponge production with a starting capacity of 500 MT per year. The KMML titanium sponge production facility producing titanium sponge regularly in the batch size of 3.5-3.75 MT by the combined process technology demonstrated by DMRL. While several engineering improvements are being brought in during the regular production of titanium sponge at KMML, an elaborate product quality assurance and certification procedure is taken up by DMRL for using the titanium sponge for critical aerospace applications.

As part of the sponge quality assurance programme, large number of samples from randomly chosen production batches have been analyzed through chemical analysis, button melting and hardness testing. Industrial scale melts from selected sponge lots of size 1.75 MT have been made and taken for characterization of down stream processing through forging, hot rolling, extrusion and cold rolling etc. A number of titanium alloys such as Ti6Al4V and half alloy have been melted and processed for the manufacture of several mill products.

Note: Presentation was given by Christopher Jackson, Market Analyst, Retech Systems, LLC on behalf of Dr. Chaganti, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory

Jie, Zhang (September 2014) ‘The New beginning of China Titanium Industry--China Titanium Valley’ presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Since 1950s, China Titanium Industry stimulated the development of China Aerospace and Aviation, shipping chemical industry, etc and formed consummate a scientific research 、production system. China Titanium Industry has been an important part of world titanium Industry. Lead by Baoti Group Ltd., Baoji city has formed the titanium industry Cluster in China to spearheads the development of China Titanium Industry towards the world. China government uses it as trigger to build China Titanium valley and aim to make China Titanium valley as the flagship and China’s largest research and production base. And China Titanium valley will invigorate new vitality to the world Titanium Industry.

Kaneko, Michio (September 2014) ‘Photocatalytic Activity of Anodized Titanium Sheets under Ultra-violet and Visible Light Irradiation' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

A commercially pure titanium sheet precipitated TiC in surface the layer was fabricated by anodization in NH4NO3 and heat treatment in air. The fabricated sheet showed relatively high photocatalytic activity in 0.1M KI solution of just below the activity level of the P-25 particle made by Deguza Corporation. It exhibited photocatalytic activity in antifungal and antivirus tests under black light irradiation, and the high photocatalytic activity under black light irradiation is considered to be related formation of anatase type titanium dioxide and increase of surface area. It also showed photocatalytic activity under visual light irradiation, which, is considered to be attributable to the existence of carbon and nitrogen in titanium dioxide.

Kaufman, Michael (September 2014) ‘The Center for Advanced Non-Ferrous Structural Alloys (CANFSA) ' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

The Center for Advanced Non-Ferrous Structural Alloys (CANFSA) is a new Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) focusing on state-of-the-art research related to non‐ferrous structural alloys. Established in 2011 by faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of North Texas, this member-driven center combines computational modeling and experimental approaches to advance industrially-relevant projects. The center currently has 12 industrial members who provide funding for 15 separate research projects, of which more than a third are focused on titanium alloys. This presentation will provide a brief overview of CANFSA, and summarize some of the projects of interest to ITA members.

Khanna, Gautam (September 2014) ‘Aerospace Stocks & Key Issues Investors are Debating On' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

We will describe the key issues that investors are debating on aerospace stocks now. Most of the issues are viewed with a large dose of pessimism, explaining the multiple compression and stock under performance seen in the sector YTD.

Klevtsov, Andrey G. (September 2014) ‘ADMA Pilot Plant for Hydrogenated Titanium Powder Production' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

ADMA installed the first pilot scale unit for production of hydrogenated titanium powder at our Plant in Twinsburg, Ohio and started manufacturing of this powder in December 2013. The annual capacity of this plant is 250,000 lbs. A design of a full scale capacity unit with 1,5 mln pounds annual capacity had been completed. The innovative ADMA non-Kroll patented process for manufacturing of hydrogenated titanium powder and ability to produce the titanium hydride powders with consistent chemical composition, characteristics and quality that meet requirements for low cost blended elemental powder metallurgy approach will be presented.
The future plans for designing and construction of full scale manufacturing plant with 45 mln lb capacity will be discussed.

Koike, Osamu (September 2014) ‘Overview of Japan Titanium Industry’ presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Mr. Koike provided an overview of the current Japan outlook in the titanium industry.

Kreitman, Kevin L. (September 2014) ‘NFPA 484 Overview' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

The 2015 edition of NFPA 484 Standard for Combustible Metal, has been released and supersedes all previous editions. A number of changes are taking place within NFPA dust standards, in part based on comments from the Chemical Safety Board. These include NFPA’s creation of a Technical Correlating Committee which now oversees all of NFPA’s dust standards and the current development of a new standard covering Combustible Dusts (NFPA 652) which is under development. The 2015 NFPA 484 Standard for Combustible Metals, contains a significant reorganization and new material consolidating and creating new chapters which are applicable to all metals in a combustible form. A number of the items in these new chapters are applicable to new and existing facilities. A review of these changes along with an overview of OSHA’s Combustible Dust information and Chemical Safety Board recommendations related to Titanium will be discussed.

Leach, Wade (September 2014) ‘Titanium Demand and Trends in the Jet Engine Market’ presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Titanium is used in jet engines for its excellent mechanical properties, ease of fabrication, and light weight. The next generation of engines will continue to use titanium extensively even as engine temperatures are increasing in the effort to drive efficiencies higher. This presentation discusses the new engine programs and forecast for jet engine deliveries, the demand for titanium used in the production of jet engine components, and the effect of changes in jet engine design on future titanium demand.

Lee, Robert G. (September 2014) ‘Titanium Fires Simplified' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

If you handle titanium fines or create titanium fines you will likely have a fire. The regulations for the safe handling and transport are voluminous and contain multiple cross-references. This presentation will attempt to identify simple practical steps that can be taken avoid spectacular videos, injuries to employees and massive damage to equipment and facilities.

Lyssenko, Taras (September 2014) ‘A Unique Perspective of the Aircraft Produced and Used by the Greatest Generation' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Mr. Taras Lyssenko, the "T" of A. and T. Recovery, has worked locating and recovering the lost Navy airplanes of Lake Michigan for the past 25 years. He has retrieved nearly four dozen aircraft that are now on display in museums across the country. Taras has a unique perspective of the aircraft produced and used by the Greatest Generation to preserve our freedom and of the project to preserve the history for present and future generations. Website:

Mahnič, Mitja (September 2014) ‘New Challenges In The Development Of The Lightweight And High Performance Titanium Exhaust Systems' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Everyday demands for improving fuel efficiency, reducing exhaust emissions and improve vehicle performance, force designers to reduce vehicle weight. Exhaust system applications, including mufflers and exhaust pipes are one of the main targets. Since titanium was introduced as an alternative material for exhaust system, Akrapovič Company has been constantly looking for new technologies that help us speed up the production process and reduce the manufacturing costs and is therefore more attractive to original-equipment manufacturers (OEM). Parallel with our standard design process, several new approaches are introduced to additional reduce the exhaust weight. This paper presents our new challenges in the development of the lightweight exhaust system: introducing thin wall structures, designing special elements (flexible joints) made of new titanium alloys and finally joining different materials to optimal withstanding applied loads.

McCoy, David (September 2014) ‘Global View of Titanium Supply & Demand' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Earlier presentations at this week’s conference have focused on demand trends within specific end-use markets as well as supply trends within specific raw materials or elements of the supply chain. This presentation will attempt to summarize the current market drivers, headwinds and levers in a qualitative form in order to project a holistic view of the global supply/demand balance into the future.

Metz, Michael G. ‘Overview of Russian Market for Titanium Mill Products’ presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

US Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.

Murphy, Daniel E. (September 2014) ‘Affordable Titanium Solutions for Today's Warfighter' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Alcoa has a proud and long history of supplying multi-material solutions to the US defense market. For the past seven years, Alcoa Defense has accelerated that market growth by providing a single, market facing entity to both the US Department of Defense and original equipment manufacturers. This presentation will describe the breadth of Alcoa’s multi-material solutions along with a discussion of Alcoa Defense’s strategy to strike the appropriate balance between performance and affordability given the current budget environment and will contain specific examples of titanium solutions that were able to provide benefit to the warfighter.

Olin, Christopher (September 2014) ‘Highlighting Current Market Trends for Titanium – What are the potential areas of strength or weakness over the next year?' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

CRC will be sharing the results from their most recent quarterly titanium market report. This includes a brief summary of demand trends and the sequential changes to the supply landscape. The information will also include a gauge into the overall health and momentum for key end-markets like commercial aerospace, military & defense, energy, industrial, and medical. Data series presented will likely include: current downstream order growth (also by market), channel expectations for 2014 and 2015, an update on the inventory situation, estimated producer lead times, and a general pricing index. The 3Q results can be compared to a time series of survey results dating back to 2006. We also look at titanium trends in relation to a few other specialty materials.

Pastushan, Nicholas (September 2014) ‘Aircraft Supply and Demand and Financing Markets' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Lessors are some of the largest buyers of aircraft. How do they view the current state of supply and demand? What is the state of the financing markets for aircraft? Is there enough money available to pay for the record backlog and delivery rate? Nicholas Pastushan, Chief Investment officer of CIT Transportation Finance, one of the world’s largest lessors, will give a buyer’s view of aircraft markets and the state of aircraft finance.

Quan, Benson (September 2014) ‘Titanium Sponge Production in China' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

China experienced low sponge production for several decades, then there was a boom in the sponge project investment. Will this trend will continue? This presentation will give a brief picture about sponge production in China.

Samimi, Peyman (September 2014) ‘A Novel Tool to Assess the Influence of Compositional Variation on the Oxidation Behavior and Concurrent Oxygen-induced Phase Transformations of Binary Ti-X systems' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Authors: Peyman Samimi, David Brice, Yue Liu, Peter C Collins
Titanium alloys are generally described as having superior corrosion resistance at room temperature. However, at elevated temperatures, titanium suffers from poor oxidation resistance and consequently, loses its resistance to corrosion. This limits the service temperature of titanium in application to ~550°C. Although the high-temperature oxidation of Ti and Ti alloys has been a subject of several research efforts such studies however are often constrained to the composition of specific alloys and neither the mechanisms associated with evolution of oxide layers nor the effects of oxygen on the microstructure of the material are well-understood. To better explore the influence of composition variation on the oxidation behavior of the binary Ti-X systems, a novel combinatorial approach was adopted whereby a series of compositionally graded specimen, (Ti-xMo, Ti-xCr, Ti-xAl and Ti-xW) were prepared using an additive manufacturing approach, and subsequently exposed to still-air at 650°C. A suite of the state-of-the-art characterization techniques including scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as atom probe tomography were used to assess, as a function of the local average composition: the structure and composition of the oxide; the oxide adherence and porosity; the thickness of the oxide layers; the depth of oxygen ingress; and microstructural evolution of the base material just below the surface but within the oxygen-enriched region.

Shidid, Darpan (September 2014) ‘Design and Manufacture of Patient Specific Jaw Implant using Selective Laser Melting' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

**CSIRO's 2014 Titanium Challenge Winner** **TITANIUM USA 2014 Best Master Dissertation Winner**

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive type of bone cancer, which often needs radical surgical treatment methods to contain the spread of the cancer cells. In this study, a novel method of designing patient specific orthopedic implant to assist in surgical treatment of osteosarcoma is studied. The implant design comprising of conformal lattice structure suitable to be manufactured using Selective Laser Melting (SLM), is proposed. The design process is automated using a custom developed algorithm to reduce processing time.

The generated designs are mechanically tested to validate the algorithm. The results show that structures with functionally gradient density can be adapted to reduce stiffness mismatch between the bone and implant. Proposed implant design is predicted to have significant impact on patient’s quality of life compared to conventional mass-produced orthopedic implants.

Sebastian, John T. (September 2014) ‘Application of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering to the Design of New High Performance' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) methodologies are effective tools to reconfigure the materials development process to meet specific properties and accelerate implementation of new higher performance alloys into demanding applications. New alloys, meeting specific properties to achieve desired performance goals, can be designed much more quickly and at lower cost than empirical trial and error methods. This is achieved at the design stage by specifying and developing the precise chemical composition and processing parameters of the alloy, using extensive thermodynamic and kinetic databases, advanced properties modeling along with ICME computational tools based on physics, and quantum mechanics.

QuesTek Innovations has applied its Materials by Design® approach to develop three new castable titanium alloys with strength and ductility characteristics similar to wrought titanium (e.g., wrought Ti-6Al-4V) and with greater strength and ductility over traditional cast Ti-6-4. The development of these alloys has been sponsored by a U.S. Army-funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program administered through Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey.

Seiner, Henry S. (September 2014) “Commercial Aerostructures Market Finally Ready for Take Off” presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Today’s Aerostructures market is primed for growth. It is shaped by supply chain alignment, increasing oil prices, and decreasing interest rates. These factors along with a forecasted fleet of greater than 50,000 in 2035 and the OEM’s record backlogs and build rates give rise to a bullish forecast for the titanium demand from the Aerostructures market.

Thomas, Craig (September 2014) ‘Water Conservation, Industrial Cooling Challenges, and Titanium' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Large scale developments in commercial real-estate, power generation, and hydrocarbon processing place a heavy burden on local water resources and the environment. In many regions of the world, the use of fresh, potable, or desalinated water for industrial cooling is limited or severely restricted. Developers are forced to look at alternative sources of cooling water or other methods of heat rejection to balance competing energy, environmental, and water conservation goals. The use of available seawater or treated sewage effluent as a cooling media can be an effective water conservation strategy but also presents unique challenges in terms of equipment reliability and maintenance. This presentation will look at several examples of how the use of titanium in heat transfer equipment enables developers to plan for a wider range of cooling water conditions, and better serve the local community’s water and energy conservation needs.

Vega, Francisco (September 2014) ‘Game Changing Technology for the Production of Complex Titanium Components' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Norsk Titanium is a Norwegian company, founded by Alf Bjørseth’s Scatec AS in 2007. It has developed a novel game changing technology (3D printing) to produce complex Titanium components with unsurpassed quality. This patented Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) technology is based on plasma arc and customer benefits include (i) reduced price, (ii) shorter lead times and (iii) increased design flexibility.

Vogel, John (September 2014) ‘Super Alloy Machining Technology Blue Arc™' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

General Electric has developed a super alloy machining technology called Blue Arc™ that has shown the capability of rough-machining Titanium tens of times faster than conventional methods with significantly reduced tool wear concerns. GE is offering to license this technology to commercial partners who develop their own machining techniques and equipment, after they review our technology and determine if it would be valuable in their products and services.

Yashiki, Takashi (September 2014) ‘High Performance Graphite Coated Titanium Separator for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC) ' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Low electrical contact resistance and high corrosion resistance are important properties for metal separators in fuel cells. Titanium is the most promising material for metal separators due to its excellent corrosion resistance. One of the technical problems of titanium separators is deterioration of contact conductivity. The contact resistance of titanium separators easily increases during use because of its ease of passivation. We have developed graphite coated titanium to solve this problem. The coated titanium is anticipated to be suitable for fuel cell separators.

Zimm, Peter (September 2014) ‘Aerospace Industry Trends & Implications for Titanium Suppliers' presented at TITANIUM 2014, Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL USA

Mr. Zimm will share ICF's perspective on the following issues:
• What is the outlook for aerospace production by end user market?
• What are the implications for new aircraft programs for advanced materials?
• What are the key trends shaping the aerospace supply chain in 2014?
• What are the potential challenges that additive manufacturing poses to titanium suppliers?

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Abkowitz,Stanley  (October 2013)'CREATING VALUE FOR MEDICAL PRODUCTS THROUGH TITANIUM POWDER METAL TECHNOLOGY' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Titanium and its alloys are the material of choice for medical devices due to their inherent properties such as strength, lightweight, durability, biocompatibility and osseointergration. Powder metal manufacturing technology provides a new opportunity to custom engineer novel titanium compositions and structures with new and useful combinations of properties, not producible by traditional melt processing. This approach provides the opportunity for new materials-based solutions to the medical device designer to overcome the limitations of current material options in the design and manufacture of higher performing medical device products

Abkowitz,Susan M. (October 2013)'TITANIUM COMPONENTS FOR AIRCRAFT, MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS BY POWDER METAL MANUFACTURE' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Authors:  S.M. Abkowitz, S. Abkowitz, D. H. Main, H. Fisher

Dynamet Technology, Inc., Burlington, MA 01803

Powder metal (PM) titanium technology offers a viable processing alternative to conventional manufacture of titanium parts from titanium mill products.  There has been significant recent increased global interest in advanced technologies such as additive manufacturing and new methods of producing titanium powder that have many hurdles to overcome. Dynamet’s mature processing approach for manufacture of high quality near-net shape titanium products is increasingly being qualified for use in demanding applications including aerospace.

The compatibility of titanium with graphite fibers in advanced composite aircraft structures has resulted in the increased use of titanium in aircraft.  Titanium is strategically replacing aluminum in aircraft structures because aluminum corrodes in contact with graphite in the presence of moisture.  The near net shape capability of powder metal (PM) titanium alloy preform shapes and reduced machining required offers users a significant cost advantage.  This need along with the maturity of the powder metal sinter and sinter + hot isostatic press (HIP) processes has prompted Boeing to qualify Dynamet’s PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy for commercial aircraft applications.  This presentation will provide an overview of the qualification process for PM Ti-6Al-4V, and the properties that can be achieved with As-sintered and with Sintered + HIPed PM Ti-6Al-4V produced by an elemental blend approach.  The shape making capability of the PM titanium process will also be illustrated.  Additionally a new ASTM specification for PM titanium alloys, including but not limited to Ti-6Al-4V alloy, has just recently issued.  It is anticipated that this will facilitate the adoption of PM titanium produced, by this manufacturing method and other powder consolidation methods, for application for military, medical and industrial components and general use applications.

In addition to the manufacture of conventional titanium alloy compositions, powder metal manufacturing is an enabling technology for developing and producing novel titanium alloy compositions and metal matrix composites. Examples of these non-conventional compositions, resulting material properties and current and future product applications for industrial and medical applications will be presented.

Baeszler,Ken  (October 2013)'RE-EVALUATING THE EDM PROCESS FOR TITANIUM MACHINING' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Until recently, many manufacturers of titanium components have considered Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), either completely off limits, or to be used as a primary process coupled with a secondary operation. Many times, the secondary operation is solely in place to remove the parent material damage caused by the thermal process of EDM.  Recent improvements in electronics have led to the development of new clean EDM generators that substantially reduce the heat affected zone and micro-cracking caused by the thermal removal of material.  In addition to research completed at AgieCharmilles, independent studies are cited from the University of Birmingham that provides evidence supporting the re-evaluation of the EDM process, including:

•  Improved EDM technology processes

•  A review of EDM surface integrity results showing reduced heat affected zone and near zero recast layer and residual stresses.

•  Fatigue resistance tests comparing the EDM process with the milling process.

•  Alternative wire electrode materials (coated, pure steel) showing improvements in cutting speed and elimination of Zn and Cu contamination.

•  Ability to control the thickness of the oxide layer through manipulation of the generator spark characteristics.

Today’s clean EDM technology opens up new avenues of manufacturing for many titanium applications. Intricate parts can now be designed with the EDM process in mind, thus reducing tooling and material cost, improve deliveries and eliminate secondary operations.

Barnes,John  (October 2013)'WHAT'S UP DOWN UNDER? – ADVANCES IN TITANIUM PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING IN AUSTRALIA ' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Authors:  Barnes, J.E.1, Doblin, C1, Duxson, P2, Lathabai, S1, Nguyen, V1, Henry, W1, Gulizia, S1, Jahedi, M1, Helvey A3, & Coleman, G3

1.  Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization, CSIRO, Clayton, Vic

2.  Coogee Titanium

3.  The Boeing Company

The Commonwealth Science Industry Research Organization (CSIRO) is Australia’s national science agency, has an integrated supply chain oriented development program specifically focused on titanium.  Originally built off platforms for novel titanium metal production, the program has grown to include processing and manufacturing techniques including additive manufacturing and machining technologies.  CSIRO leveraged off of Australia’s mineral wealth of titanium bearing ore years ago and is this investment is beginning to pay off.  Soon Australia will join the exclusive club of titanium metal producers and has become an integral part of metallic additive manufacturing.  To that end, CSIRO has been deploying scientists in concert with industry partners, to develop a means to enhance these technologies.  This presentation will focus on advances and unique capability that CSIRO has developed around metal production and its current state as well as unique capabilities in additive manufacturing powder and machining.

Barrett,James  (October 2013)'APPLICATIONS FOR LIGHT WEIGHT MATERIALS IN MODERN MILITARY VEHICLES' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The changing nature of the battlefield has generated a demand for lighter and stronger military equipment. The rapid timing of modern conflicts, for example, requires exceptionally fast deployment of military vehicles and artillery systems, bringing into consideration the load capabilities of available cargo fleets, fuel consumption, runway length in theater (given load weights), and rapid redeployment of equipment for maintenance and retrofit.

The asymmetric nature of the battlefield further requires quick and agile movement with minimum resource requirements. The terrain in these conflict areas is often unpredictable, and lighter equipment is ideal to reposition or withdraw in unimproved areas. Also, refueling stations and other resupply points are dependent on the security situation and are often managed by extra-military sources, making their availability unpredictable.

Bolderson,Robert  (October 2013)'TITANIUM VESSEL DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS TO MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES AND MARKET APPLICATIONS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This presentation will cover the following:

• Recent Advances in Ti Joining Technologies

• Titanium alloys most suited for ship production

• Obstructions to Commercial Development

• Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV) - Market Potential

• Light Modern Metals Manufacturing Institute (LM3I)  as a Market Driver

o DoD Grant - $70 million +  industry matching funds

o Ti vessel a potential consideration

• Industry Support Initiatives

Byrne,John P. (October 2013)'DISTINGUISHED GUEST SPEAKER' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 John Byrne serves as Vice President of Aircraft Materials and Structures for Boeing Commercial Airplanes’ Supplier Management. Byrne is responsible for the purchase of raw materials, standards, fabricated parts, assemblies and major structures for all commercial airplane programs.

John also serves the key role of linking Supplier Management with the Fabrication Division. Additional responsibilities include managing Ural Boeing Manufacturing, a Boeing joint venture, located in Russia, focused on titanium machining.

John joined Boeing in 1987 as a quality engineer at the company’s Fabrication Division in Auburn, Wash., following five years of work with the United States Department of the Navy. He held a variety of quality, manufacturing and leadership assignments across the Fabrication Division. In 2001, John was named the director of the Machine Parts Manufacturing Business unit, which produced complex machined parts and assemblies for Boeing single- and twin-aisle commercial airplanes. John’s next assignment was the Director of Business Operations and Supply Chain Management for the Fabrication Division.

John transitioned from operations to Supplier Management in the spring of 2003. His first assignment was leader of raw materials and purchased outside production; two years later standards were added to his responsibilities. He was named to his current position in June of 2011.

Cain,Kevin J. (October 2013)'INDUSTRIAL MARKETS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The Power Generation, Oil & Gas, Desalination and Chemical Process markets continue to be the lifeblood of the industrial titanium industry.  The opportunities which exist in these industries as well as other markets, such as mining and fertilizer production will be presented.  The influences on all of these markets are varied from regional economic growth to the production of shale gas.  The influences and resulting opportunities that exist today will be the basis for the Global Industrial Market analysis.

Canario ,Michael J. (October 2013)'ADVANCED COMPOSITES – COMPETITOR OF TITANIUM?' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Following the precedent set with military aircraft, advanced composites have emerged as the materials of choice for primary structure of the latest generation of large commercial aircraft.  Will this trend continue?  What impact will there be on the demand for titanium if the usage of advanced composite materials grows?  This presentation will study the history of advanced composites adoption in aircraft design.  Included will be a quick review of the strengths and weaknesses of advanced composites and the resultant benefits and costs.  Some current examples of the trades between aluminum, advanced composites and titanium will be explored.

Cao,Helen  (October 2013)'' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Abstract Unavailable

Cohen,Robert  (October 2013)'EMERGING MANUFACTURING PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES FOR TITANIUM AEROSPACE PARTS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 In this presentation, Mr. Cohen discusses the technologies by which TECT machines components for aerospace applications and the advanced technologies under development. The most significant change in engines from the perspective of process technology is the transition to composite fan blades in engines. The trend of using composites in the engines of double-aisle airplanes has now moved to using more composites in the engines of single-aisle airplanes.

For TECT, this means the engine fan blades are changing from solid titanium to resin-based or metal matrix composite fan blades with titanium leading edges. Therefore, TECT is now focused on the technology for manufacturing titanium leading edges. 

When composite technology was first introduced, titanium suppliers were concerned that less titanium would be required on engines.  However, this has not been the case. With more complexity driven by the change to composite technology, the amount required versus complete blades turned out to be more than originally expected. In addition, as more metallic parts on the platform are replaced by composites, titanium is needed to serve as a bonding agent.

The input weights are different, but engines still use a fair amount of titanium, he says. And with all the new composite applications on the airframe, the amount of titanium used is pretty astronomical.

Daigle ,Robert J. (October 2013)'MOUNTING PRICE PRESSURE ON THE MEDICAL DEVICE INDUSTRY' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Medical device manufacturers are reporting mounting pressure to lower prices as its stakeholders in the Health Care industry attempt to lower their costs.   According to a survey conducted by a hospital group purchasing organization, hospitals are losing money on high-cost medical devices.  The Health Care industry has indicated a  growing interest in purchasing lower-cost alternative products. Stakeholders are communicating their plans to seek less expensive alternatives to brand-name medical devices that could provide similar clinical outcomes, potentially squeezing profits from manufacturers and the supply chain. 

Dalton,Hunter R. (October 2013)'TITANIUM DEMAND AND TRENDS IN THE JET ENGINE MARKET' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Titanium is used in jet engines for its excellent mechanical properties, ease of fabrication, and light weight.  The next generation of engines will continue to use titanium extensively even as engine temperatures are increasing in the effort to drive efficiencies higher.  This presentation discusses the current market drivers and forecast for jet engine deliveries, the demand for titanium used in the production of jet engine components, and the effect of changes in jet engine design on future titanium demand.

Dave,Deepan M. (October 2013)'INDIAN MARKETS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL) is a Central Public Sector Undertaking under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. The Company is engaged in the mining of beach sands through its three Plants namely Chavara,   Manavalakurichi and Orissa Sands Complex (OSCOM) located in the coastal areas of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Orissa respectively for the separation and marketing of about 510 thousand tonnes of Ilmenite per annum and associated heavy minerals like rutile, zircon, monazite, sillimanite and garnet. IREL also has a Rare Earths Plant at Kerala (Alwaye) for processing monazite for the production of rare earths chloride, trisodium phosphate and thorium oxalate as well as a Thorium Plant at OSCOM for the production of mantle grade thorium nitrate.

Since incorporation of the Company at Mumbai in 1950, IREL has grown steadily during the past 62 years and has reached at a sales turnover of about Rs.6224 million with export component of Rs.2008 million. The Company has been generating profits continuously during the last 12 years and paying dividend. IREL also has been a significant earner of valuable foreign exchange for the nation and has been exporting its products to advanced countries like USA, UK, France, Germany, Norway, Japan etc. Over the decades, IREL has built up a corporate image in the world market as a reliable supplier of beach sand minerals and rare earth compounds.

Dewhurst,Philip  (October 2013)'GLOBAL SUPPLY OF TITANIUM SPONGE' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Between 2003 and 2012 there were two periods of rapid growth in output of titanium sponge interrupted by a sharp fall in 2009, with the result that in 2012 sponge production reached 236kt, more than three times that in 2003.  This was principally a result of massive expansion in industrial quality capacity in China, combined with rising output in Japan and Russia particularly since 2009. 

The sharp increase in titanium sponge production between 2010 and 2012 was due to rising demand for both aerospace and industrial applications combined with a fear of a shortage of suitable titanium feedstock, particularly in 2012. As a consequence, sponge consumers built up considerable inventories, and a fall in production is expected in 2013.

In 2013, there are 23 companies worldwide with capacity to produce 333ktpy of titanium sponge: fourteen in China, three in the USA, two in Japan and Russia, and one each in Kazakhstan and Ukraine.  Rotor grade capacity, mainly in Japan, Russia, Kazakhstan and the USA, is estimated to be about 130ktpy.

The paper draws together historic titanium sponge output data by country and company showing recent trends in global output, and capacity developments in producing companies. It outlines the factors that have driven the titanium sponge market since the world economic slowdown in late 2008, and looks to future trends.  Corporate control of the titanium sponge market is summarized, and the impact of company projects on future supply is analysed in relation to forecast aircraft output to 2018. 

Dreier,Oliver  (October 2013)'SOURCING OF TITANIUM FOR AIRBUS & THE EADS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 With the new aircraft programs ramping up, the titanium needs for the aerospace industry are constantly increasing. This presentation will address opportunities Airbus & the EADS offer as well as challenges Titanium suppliers have to face when delivering into this market.

Sourcing of Titanium has developed over the last years to a strategic activity in the metallic procurement commodity.  With the evolution of technology in mind, Airbus and the EADS are constantly looking for improvements to the existing products and applications with the clear objective to continuously deliver value to their customers.


Duz,Vladimir  (October 2013)'ADMA PROCESS FOR HYDROGENATED TITANIUM POWDER PRODUCTION' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Authors:  Vladimir Duz, Vladimir S. Moxson, Andrei G. Klevtsov, Viktor Sukhoplyuyev

ADMA Products Inc., 1890 Georgetown Road, Hudson, Ohio 44236, USA

The innovative ADMA non-Kroll process for manufacturing the hydrogenated titanium sponge and powder will be presented. ADMA has designed and installed a pilot scale manufacturing unit with annual capacity of 250,000 lbs of titanium hydride (TiH2) powders. It has been demonstrated that use of hydrogen reduces the powder manufacturing cycle to less than 24 hours. The ability to produce the titanium hydride powders with consistent chemical composition, characteristics and quality will be discussed.

It will be shown that the titanium hydride powders can be used in production of CP Titanium or Titanium Alloy components via the low cost Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM) approach. The atomic hydrogen reduces the impurities content in Titanium P/M products to AMS specification requirements and, subsequently, hydrogen is completely removed during sintering operation.

The ADMA patented processes (ADMATALTM) provide the best combination of mechanical properties, and the microstructures of titanium alloys are free of the defects, typically attributed to high interstitial content observed in titanium alloys produced from conventional magnesium reduced or sodium reduced titanium sponge fines. Extensive tests have been consistently demonstrating the properties that meet and surpass those obtained via conventional ingot metallurgy processes.

Erdel,Berthold P. (October 2013)'THE M3 SMART SYSTEM ' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The attributes of Light, Small, Simple, Fast, Strong and Smart permeate practically all of Manufacturing- for Process and Product alike.  Aerospace and Defense seek to build for optimum weight and speed characteristics and reduced fuel consumption. Aircraft designs are for economic, efficient, safe and environmental-friendly flying. At the core of it all are Advanced Performance Materials, of which Titanium is a big part.

A lot of attention has been given to its exploration and conversion from mineral to metal as well as its productive and cost-effective machining.

The ever increasing demand for titanium, its supply shortages and high market prices and apparent shrinkages within its cycle of usage have manufacturing companies look for managing this material with a defined, reliable, beneficial and smart process.

The new, innovative Metalinx Material Management System is the game changer the industry has been looking for. Known as the M3S, it embraces all facets of pre-processing, processing and post-processing of scrapped parts, chips and swarf. The M3S secures precise collection, accurate monitoring, timely disposition and smart asset management within the recycling process.

This self-contained, autonomous system ensures complete visibility, maximizes recycled value, guarantees best market price at any time and accommodates the mandates of Green and Blue- Manufacturing.

Forsythe, Bradley J. (October 2013)'THE EVOLVING SUPPLY CHAIN IN AEROSPACE RAW MATERIALS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This presentation will review the internal and external factors that over the last two decades have influenced the aerospace raw material supply chain.  It will also discuss some of the various methods and techniques that have attempted to align supply chains and balance supply and demand over this period.  Characteristics of our industry will be considered that have impacted how the supply chain has evolved.  Current product life cycles and how new types of materials as well as new process technologies are continuing to evolve the supply chain in aerospace raw materials today.

Froes, F.H (October 2013)'TITANIUM POWDER METALLURGY - A REVIEW' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The major reason that there is not more wide-spread use of titanium and its alloys is the high cost. In this paper developments in one cost effective approach to fabrication of titanium components  powder metallurgy  is discussed under  various aspects of this technology .The aspects to be discussed are the blended elemental approach , prealloyed techniques ,additive layer manufacturing , metal injection molding , spray deposition , far from equilibrium processing (rapid solidification mechanical alloying and vapor deposition) and porous materials . Use of titanium powder for sputtering targets, coating, as a grain refiner in aluminum alloys and fireworks are not addressed. 

Graham,Don  (October 2013)'MACHINING TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFICULT TITANIUM ALLOYS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Titanium alloys exist in several allotropic forms: alpha, beta and gamma.  The former is relatively easy to machine.  Alloys with a combination of alpha and beta phases (Ti 6Al-4V being the most common) are more difficult.  Fully beta alloys have become prominent over the last 10 years and are considered quite difficult to machine.  Gamma alloys (based on the Ti-Al intermetallic system) are attractive because of their impressive mechanical properties and because they are non-flammable.  These later alloys are very difficult to machine.

The machinability characteristics of the various alloys will be discussed.  Included will be a discussion of modern techniques such as the use of high pressure coolant for turning, peel milling, dynamic milling and trochoidal milling.  The impact these cutting techniques have on production cost, productivity and surface condition will be covered.

Green ,Jeffery A.  (October 2013)'STRATEGIC MATERIALS IN THE SEQUESTER ERA ' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Jeff Green of J.A. Green & Company will discuss provisions of The National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2014 that are designed to position the Department of Defense as a more assertive force in preserving sources of strategic and critical materials, including titanium.  The proposed legislation makes a number of authorizations and reporting requirements with regard to key materials, including $41 million to stockpile critical materials, a report to investigate the legality of previous national security waivers to the specialty metals clause, and a review of critical materials used in the F-35 joint strike fighter.

Hickton, Dawne S. (October 2013)'COMMERCIAL AEROSTRUCTURE SUPPLY CHAIN' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 With order backlog at record levels for commercial aircraft, what are the implications for titanium suppliers, users and overall demand? Is the titanium industry prepared to support projected record production levels? Can the supply chain deliver on anticipated build rates? How might advances in technology, geopolitical crisis, economic and financial events or other factors impact titanium demand? As part of her overall assessment, Ms. Hickton will take her listeners inside the supply chain for an experiential look at how it works and the challenges it faces to capitalize on the unprecedented potential opportunity for titanium in the commercial aerostructure marketplace.

Higuchi, Shinya  (October 2013)'OVERVIEW OF JAPAN TITANIUM INDUSTRY' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Mr. Higuchi will provide an overview of the current Japan outlook in titanium industry.

Himstead, Greg  (October 2013)'A SNAPSHOT OF TODAY’S GLOBAL AEROSPACE DISTRIBUTION CHALLENGES' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The global network of aerospace clusters and the service providers that support the multi-tiered supply chains are facing an increasing array of complex challenges as volumes increase; work packages move; airplane, engine, and systems backlogs mount; supply chains length, and new value stream efficiency initiatives proliferate.

From a leading aerospace distributor’s point of view, we will present a snapshot of today’s aerospace industry supply chain management initiatives, materials management innovations, lingering commodity risks, regional inventory dynamics, and progression of the distributor’s value proposition. 

We will also offer some observations comparing today’s evolved supply chain with the past and shed some light on the potential development of the vital role that distribution will fulfill in the future.

Ivasishin,O. M. (October 2013)'BLENDED ELEMENTAL Ti-Zr BASED ALLOYS PRODUCED FROM HYDROGENATED POWDERS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Authors:   O.M. Ivasishin1, V.S. Moxson2, M.M. Humenyak1, D.G. Savvakin1, M. V. Matviychuk2

1 Institute for Metal Physics, Kiev, Ukraine

2 ADMA Products, Inc, Hudson, OH, USA

This work was concentrated on manufacturing and evaluation of Ti-Zr and Ti-Zr-Nb alloys produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy (BEPM) using titanium hydride and zirconium hydride powders. Phase transformations upon heating and their influence on densification and homogenization of hydrogenated powder compacts were studied. Role of hydrogen as temporary alloying element in synthesis of the alloys was elucidated. Gases emitted from compacts upon vacuum heating were analyzed in order to determine the potential of hydrogen in purification of powder surfaces and in minimizing the final impurity content. Microstructure and tensile properties of the produced alloys will be discussed.

Janda, Haden  (October 2013)'TITANIUM AS A METAL OF CHOICE FOR MEDICAL IMPLANTS: PRESENT AND FUTURE' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Titanium is a highly versatile material with a wide range of applications in almost every field of modern medicine. Due to its biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and strength-to-weight ratio, titanium has become a material of choice for the orthopaedic device industry. Mr. Janda’s presentation will highlight current applications of titanium, which includes devices designed for superior fatigue strength, bone conservation, and osseointegration. He will also discuss future applications and highly complex designs made possible through powder metallurgy and additive manufacturing technologies.

Khanna, Gautam  (October 2013)'WHAT DRIVES RELATIVE VALUATION OF STOCKS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Abstract Unavailable


Kooman,Piet  (October 2013) 'HIGH STOCK REMOVAL WITH ABRASIVE BELTS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Over the last years, Timesavers supplied and developed machine equipment to grind Titanium sheets and plates. After severe R&D Timesavers introduces a new machine that changes the way metal parts are machined. The machine has been developed in cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, located in the Netherlands.

In engineering this new machine concept, particular attention was paid to its design and ergonomic features. The result is a high-tech machine with intuitive control, easy access to the abrasives, and simple and fast work piece loading/ unloading.

This completely new design of machine has the advantage that it can process larger parts, quicker and more accurately ( +/- 0,01 mm), and to a finer finish (Ra < 0,2 µm), than conventional grinding machines. At its heart is a reciprocating table that runs on precision bearings, as opposed to standard wide belt grinding machines which usually have a conveyor belt or a roller feed table

The Timesavers’ reciprocating grinding machines make use of the advances in coated abrasive belt technology. By using an endless belt the Timesavers machine is incredibly easy to retool. Because it is the roller, which remains on the machine, which is dynamically balanced, changing the consumable needs no special training nor does the consumable itself require balancing; with the dynamic forces controlled within the machine not on the consumable, far higher abrasive surface speeds can be employed: more grits per second translates into higher stock removal rates and finer finishes. Changing from a course belt for high stock removal to fine finishing is a matter of moments without having to use any tools.

The machine is fitted with a vacuum table that can hold a range of parts, small or large, thin or thick; it’s possible to routinely grind parts as thin as 0.18 mm with a clever adaptor plate. Another feature of the vacuum table is its ability to hold complex flat parts even if they have multiple holes, and still achieve a maximum holding vacuum. The vacuum table is integral to the machine

The powerful software in the human machine interface allows the operator to list parameters within a program. When running in manual mode, the operator has the choice of saving current settings as program steps; a simple to use ‘teach-in’ function.  To optimise machine use further, an operator can dictate grinding belt speeds, table traverse speeds, stock removal per pass or per cycle, the amount of cycles and the grinding belt direction.

An easy access coolant filter with a large recycle pump keeps the machine clean inside; the grinding cabin with a specially designed water curtain ensures all the grinding dust is flushed out preventing interference with the grinding process or disturbance of delicate finishes.

Timesavers has a well-equipped grinding laboratory, in which we can run samples for customers and use it for our own research.

Kreitman,Kevin L. (October 2013)'TITANIUM AND COMBUSTIBLE METAL SAFETY' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Metals in a combustible form including titanium, can present fire and explosion hazards.  Improper handling of these materials in fire incidents, place personnel and responders at great risk, these risks however can be minimized through proper pre-planning, engineering, housekeeping, and training. 

Preventive actions are important to minimizing potential fire and explosion hazards.  Knowledge of the risks associated with the metal and the form it is in along with proper housekeeping will greatly reduce risks and likelihood of an incident.

Should an incident occur however, how the incident is handled is critical to a safe outcome.   The proper handling of fires involving titanium and metals in a combustible form does not occur by happenstance.  One of the most important items is to ensure that pre-planning with emergency responders on the risks and hazards associated with titanium and other metals in a combustible form has taken place prior to the incident, to ensure proper actions are taken in the handling of the emergency which is critical to a safe outcome. 

Developing a close working relationship with the facility and working closely with facility personnel is a must to minimize risks for the facility and emergency responders.  Incidents involving a fire at a titanium or other facility involving metals in combustible form may very well present additional risks based on the form of the material involved, such as powders, dusts, molten metal, as well as the potential involvement of chemicals that may be associated with the processing of the metal.

It is essential that facility personnel and emergency responders develop a close working relationship and policies and procedures to ensure the safe handling of incident should they occur.  This presentation will provide a general overview of NFPA’s Combustible Metal Standard, the importance of housekeeping, and the proper handling of fires involving titanium and metals combustible form.

Lasoff ,Laurence J. (October 2013)'ALPHA BETA PROCESSED 6Al-4V EXTRUSIONS: PROPERTIES AND NEW, NEAR NET, SOLUTIONS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Larry Lasoff of the law firm Kelley Drye & Warren will address the government’s fiscal situation, with a specific focus on the Budget Control Act and sequestration. Mr. Lasoff’s talk will provide an inside the beltway outlook on the impact of sequestration on government procurement policy and the upstream defense industry supply chain, including the titanium industry.

Legate ,George  (October 2013)'ALPHA BETA PROCESSED 6Al-4V EXTRUSIONS: PROPERTIES AND NEW, NEAR NET, SOLUTIONS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The production of Ti 6Al-4V beta processed extrusions have grown in leaps and bounds over the past 10 years as extrusions have They replaced other wrought forms of titanium and aluminum in commercial aircraft and the industry looks for near net materials that are compatible with the construction.

Due to process constraints faced by many extruders almost all titanium shapes are processed in beta range. The resultant beta microstructure while quite acceptable for many structural components has intrinsically poorer fatigue properties as compared to what 6Al-4V will deliver when it has been alpha beta processed. Also 6Al-4V that has been beta processed will also not respond to the STA heat treatment that is used to strengthen the alloy.

Nu-Tech does not face such processing constraints and can extrude 6-4 in the alpha beta range.  The author will discuss Nu-Tech Precision Metal’s experience alpha beta extruding 6 Al-4V. He will also compare the hot working of 6-4 extrusions to other hot working methods and then present the exceptional longitudinal, transverse, and radial mechanical properties, and the texture found in extruded shapes, bars and hollows.

The development of alpha beta extrusions allows for such advantages as:  6-4 hollows that can be heavily cold worked, large near net alpha beta extrusions that can replace forged block and heavy plate, stronger (STA) 6Al-4V extruded hollows with better fatigue properties, and extruded bar and shapes that can be a cost effective substitute for rolled bars and closed die forgings when there are low volume requirements.  The author will also review the current level of acceptance within national standards and industry sectors.

Lilly,Abby  (October 2013)'' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Abstract Unavailable

Löber,Guido  (October 2013)'FUTURE SECURITY OF SUPPLY FOR MASTERALLOYS FROM A EUROPEAN POINT OF VIEW' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This paper will focus on Masteralloys for the production of Titanium Alloys. Following a short introduction of Masteralloys regarding their production, their application and the current supplier base; the paper will discuss factors expected to influence future changes in supply and demand of Masteralloys. Additionally, the presentation will touch on some of the challenges this expected future brings to Masteralloy producers as well as to Titanium smelters – all from a European point of view.

Mandal,Sudipto  (October 2013)'TEXTURE CHANGES AND VARIANTS SELECTION DURING TRANSFORMATION OF BCC TO HCP PHASE IN TITANIUM ALLOYS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Co-author: A.D. Rollett

Keywords: Titanium, texture, orientation relationship, misorientation, phase transformation

Titanium alloys are widely used in industries like aerospace, chemical, energy etc. due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent mechanical and corrosion properties. Their mix of hexagonal and bcc phases at room temperature mean that the prediction of their anisotropic mechanical properties is challenging. However, at elevated temperatures these materials are single-phase bcc. During the transformation from BCC to HCP, the parent and product phases are frequently observed to obey Burgers orientation relationship. According to the Burgers OR, the close packed {011} plane of the bcc lattice is parallel to the close- packed (0001) plane of the hcp lattice and the <111> direction in the bcc lattice is parallel to the <11-20> direction in the hcp lattice.

In the present study, information about grain size, shape, misorientations and orientations for a beta-stabilized Ti alloy are extracted from experimental EBSD data and are used to create 3D microstructures using DREAM3D software. In order to study the texture changes and variants selection during the transformation, hcp grains are inserted into a single crystal of bcc and all the twelve variants are generated by imposing the Burgers OR. Misorientation statistics obtained from the simulation are then compared with experimental data.

This work is being supported by the Boeing Company. Interactions with Prof D. Banerjee and Prof S. Suwas (IISC) are gratefully acknowledged.

Marks,Harold  (October 2013)'COIL TO BAR PEELING PROCESS FOR EFFICIENT VERTICALIZATION OF SMALL DIAMETER QUALITY PRODUCTS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 PURPOSE:  Our paper introduces the advantages of production of peeled bars from hot rolled coils.  The new technology of coil to bar peeling allows to optimize the processing in the rolling mill increasing the output producing small diameters bars in coil not in straight length.  The proposed technology will also reduce the peeling processing cost due to several advantages like the minimization of the removed material and the handling procedures.

METHODOLOGY:  The peeling process from coil needs special solutions mainly on wire preparation.  Straight the coil in a proper way is a must in order to obtain a good quality on the final product in terms of tolerance and triangularity, to do this two straightening system are installed in line: the wire is pre-straightened by a H/V multi-roll straightener and after the wire pass through a horizontal and vertical cold rolling head able to remove all the memory form from the material compressing it and at the same time improve size tolerance reducing at minimum metal removal.

RESULTS:  This process gives important advantages on the peeled bar production:

-  Optimization of the hot rolling process with benefits on the rolling mill.

-  Reduction of the metal removal on the bar increasing the material yield.

-  Increase tool life.

-  Complete in-line process without any intermediate storage area.

-  Modular process that could be connected with non-destructive tests, chamfering, bundling…

-  High output of prime quality material

-  Fully automated line and smart lay-out solutions allow a single operator to manage the complete process.

Matviychuk,Mykhailo  (October 2013)'HIGHLY ALLOYED TITANIUM ALLOYS PRODUCED BY LOW COST BLENDED ELEMENTAL POWDER METALLURGY APPROACH' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Authors:  Mykhailo Matviychuk1, Orest M. Ivasishin2, Dmytro Savvakin2, Vladimir A. Duz1, Vladimir S. Moxson1

(1)ADMA Products, Inc., 1890 Georgetown Road, Hudson, Ohio 44236, USA

(2) Institute for Metal Physics Ukrainian National Academy of Science, 36 Vernadsky Str., Kiev 03142, Ukraine

 Highly alloyed Titanium alloys as Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti-185), Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (Ti-5553), Ti-10V-2Fe-3Cr (Ti-10-2-3), Titanium Aluminides and others processed from ingots require special melting approaches, repeated homogenizing heat treatment and hot working operations to minimize segregations. With low cost Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM) manufacturing approach, the products are inherently homogeneous and do not require any special processing to minimize segregations.  This presentation will discuss a unique and low cost ADMATAL™ process for manufacturing the highly alloyed Titanium materials from Hydrogenated Titanium powders. It would be demonstrated that Low-cost Powder Metallurgy (PM) process can be successfully used for manufacturing the various high-alloy titanium alloys Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti-185), Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (Ti-5553), Ti-10V-2Fe-3Cr (Ti-10-2-3). It would be shown that the microstructures and phase composition of these alloys can be widely modified using the different sintering cycles and heat treatments. This allows improving the combination of their mechanical properties that are meeting or exceeding the properties of the identical alloys produced by traditional ingot metallurgy processes.

McCoy,David  (October 2013)'TITANIUM VALUE-CHAIN: SAND TO MELTED PRODUCTS.' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
  Titanium minerals have seen an unprecedented surge in cost for sponge producers of the last two years. First it was rutile, which jumped 340% in price of a weighted average traded basis (higher in the spot market) between 2010 and 2012. More recently, the price for other high-titanium content feedstocks used to make sponge have become more expensive as legacy contracts progressively expired. The changes in manufacturing costs to produce sponge have change so much in recent years that sponge companies started to explore alternative feedstock sources and mixes, while at the same time trying to ensure no net impact on sponge quality.

Titanium sponge producers are expected to account for around 6% of 2013 mined feedstock units. No longer is rutile, nature’s highest quality TiO2 mineral, an insignificant cost when making a tonne of sponge.  So does this mean that producers of sponge will need to look at lower quality titanium feedstocks? Does the importance of scrap rise in the value chain?

The solution may be a mixture of new and old suppliers, with some rebalancing between the sources of minerals and alternative titanium units.

There has also been rationalisation in the suppliers for high-titanium content feedstocks in recent years. Two of the world’s largest TiO2 pigment producers have back-integrated into the titanium feedstock market. These producers are expected to progressively demand more of their own high-grade minerals be internally consumed in the chloride process to manufacture TiO2 pigment, leaving less for the external sponge market.

All of this is driving up the cost of sponge manufacture. One Japanese producer has publicly postulated that relocation of operations to other lower-cost countries may be considered. The use of scrap in melted products has increased as the cost-gap between sponge and scrap widened.

In China there has been a rapid expansion of titanium slag production capacity, primarily using small, batch process technology which currently operates at very low efficiency. Similar technology is being rolled out in Vietnam and India, as governments require value-add processes to be employed rather than basic raw mineral exploitation. There are approved projects in Vietnam to expand further into the sponge sector, while in India a small scale commercial plant was commissioned in 2012.

In this paper, TZMI will present a holistic review and independent forecast of the global titanium mineral market, focusing on its impact on titanium sponge producers. TZMI will also place the titanium mineral demand for sponge manufacture in context with the growing global supply base for titanium sponge and its demand for use in melted products.

About TZMI:  TZ Minerals International Pty Ltd (TZMI) is an independent specialist consulting and publishing company, established in 1994, with offices in Australia, USA, China and South Africa. The TZMI team has decades of cumulative production and consulting experience across the titanium value chain, from resource estimation to divestment, and the depth of skills enables advice to be provided ranging from high-level strategic M&A decision support to operationally-focused plant optimisation. TZMIs Publications and Data Services support its consulting activities.

McGee,Mike  (October 2013)'GETTING THE MOST OUT OF YOUR CAPITAL INVESTMENT WITH OPERATIONAL READINESS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Thousands of activities must be accomplished to produce the deliverables required for a successful plant start-up. How can owners gain greater control and certainty to meet the business goals of their new production program?

The speaker introduces an operational readiness plan to manage the integration of all the pieces including capacity planning, commissioning, start-up activities, ramp up, risk mitigation, and return on investment for full production capacity. Once the new capacity is accomplished, the speaker outlines asset productivity methods to sustain this in the long term.

Combining these two strategies reduces the risk of underachieving assets at start up and over the long haul. Participants will understand how to:

• Maximize the rate of return from the capital investment

• Optimize the trade-offs between initial capital investment and operations reliability and life cycle costs

• Limit financial risks

• Establish a superior workforce

• Implement best practices for plant operations, maintenance and logistics.

Mertens ,Tobias  (October 2013)'INVESTIGATION OF SELF-ORGANIZED Ti02 LAYER AS PRE-TREATMENT FOR STRUCTURAL BONDING OF TITANIUM' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 In the aerospace industry new design concepts offering weight savings are high in demand. In the recent generation of aircraft (e. g. Airbus 350 XWB, Boeing 787), composite materials have shown new perspectives in terms of structural efficiency and performance. Due to the increasing amount of composite materials used in the aircraft structure, new corrosion concepts have to be developed. In order to avoid galvanic corrosion, more titanium has to be used in aerospace (14 wt.-% in Airbus 350 XWB). To increase the efficiency and performance of the aircraft the connection between composite materials and titanium should be realized by adhesive bonding. However, it is well-known in aerospace industry that titanium materials exhibit critical issues in regard to long-term stable adhesion. Reflecting this, the surface treatment is the most important step to ensure durable bonds.

Within this work, a TiO2-nanotube layer is formed by anodisation. This anodisation process is used as a pre-treatment for structural bonding of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. For reference, an alkaline etching process (Turco 5578) and a second anodising procedure in an alkaline anodising electrolyte (NaTESi process) are employed to evaluate the TiO2-nanotube structure.

Using the TiO2-nanotube process, the surface area could be enlarged by a factor of 20, compared to the initial surface after alkaline etching. The mechanical tests (floating roller peel test, wedge test) show that the area enlargement due to the anodising processes enhances the bonding durability in hot/wet conditions. The results obtained, confirm the correlation between the morphology and the bond strength. The improved adhesion properties after the anodising pre-treatments can be related to the contributions from the mechanical interlocking of the adhesive in porous oxide layers and the chemical and physical interactions between the hydroxylated surface and the epoxy film adhesive.

Using the TiO2-nanotube anodising at 5 V and 15 V, respectively, a high resistance against crack growth can be achieved. In comparison to the other treatments (NaTESi process, alkaline etching) the TiO2-nanotube anodising leads to the lowest crack growth under hydrothermal conditions.  The investigations show that in principle the TiO2-nanotubes can be used to achieve a long-term stable adhesion on Ti6Al4V even at combined mechanical and hydrothermal loads.

Metz,Michael G. (October 2013)'OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN MARKET FOR TITANIUM MILL PRODUCTS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.

Michaels,Kevin  (October 2013)'2013 AEROSPACE TRENDS IMPLICATIONS FOR TITANIUM' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Dr. Kevin Michaels has more than 25 years of aviation experience, including hundreds of consulting engagements for leading aviation and aerospace companies worldwide. Dr. Michaels is a globally recognized expert in the aerospace manufacturing and maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) sectors and has significant expertise in business-to-business marketing, customer satisfaction, and strategic planning. His experience spans all major market segments, including air transport, business and general aviation, and military. He was a founder of AeroStrategy, director of Strategic Development with Rockwell Collins Government Systems, and principal with The Canaan Group. He began his career as a project engineer with Williams International, a gas turbine original equipment manufacturer.

Mitchell,Gene  (October 2013)'TITANIUM IN SHIPBUILDING' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Titanium and its alloys offer many benefits for naval ship applications due to their well known properties including high corrosion and erosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio and in the case of one particular TIMET alloy, very high fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance of base materials and welds. However excessively high initial cost, including welding fabrication cost, continues to present a strong impediment to wider scale usage of titanium for achieving improved system performance and life cycle cost savings. Mr Mitchell will present a brief overview of the following aspects of titanium usage in naval ship applications:

• Examples of current applications of CP and alloy titanium

• A development program for replacing a nickel based alloy with titanium alloys

• Cost, service and fabrication related factors impeding the wider use of titanium.

• An example, involving titanium, illustrating the need for better overarching coordination of research and development work so as to significantly improve computational methods for engineering characterization of material performance.

Okamoto,Akio  (October 2013)'KOBE STEEL SUPPLIES HIGH HEAT TRANSFER TI SHEET FOR USE IN OTEC DEMONSTRATION PROJECT' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Kobe Steel, Ltd. has supplied a high heat transfer titanium sheet called HEET™ for use in the heat exchangers of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system in a demonstration project in

Kumejima, Okinawa Prefecture. It is the first time that HEET™ has been applied in an OTEC power system.

OTEC power generation utilizes the temperature difference between deep seawater and surface water. Warm surface seawater is pumped through a heat exchanger where a low-boiling-point fluid, such as ammonia, is vaporized. The resulting steam drives a turbine to generate electricity. Cold deep seawater goes through a second heat exchanger to condense the vapor back to liquid. The high heat transfer titanium sheet enhances the heat transfer performance by more than 20 percent. This HEET™ application is hoped to make large advances in lowering the power generation cost to verify the practical use of OTEC power generation, which is attracting attention as a renewable source.

Paramore,James  (October 2013)'PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS WITH EXCEPTIONAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES BY HYDROGEN SINTERING AND PHASE TRANSFORMATION (HSPT)' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Authors:  James Paramore, Pei Sun, Z. Zak Fang, Mark Koopman, University of Utah

Keywords: hydride, hydrogen, low-cost, metallurgy, PM, powder, sintering, titanium

Hydrogen sintering and phase transformation (HSPT) is a new, low-cost, powder metallurgical process to produce titanium alloys with mechanicals properties that exceed ASTM standards for wrought titanium alloys.  Powder metallurgy (PM) has long been sought after as a means to reduce the cost of titanium products, as the majority of cost associated with titanium stems from the complicated and energy intensive wrought processing methods that are currently employed in industry.  However, PM has fallen short as a viable means to produce titanium for critical applications due to poor densification and the undesirable microstructures that result from traditional PM processes.  HSPT has several unique characteristics that set it apart from other PM processes.  During HSPT, compacts of TiHx powder are sintered under dynamically controlled partial pressures of H2 and subsequently dehydrogenated.  The presence of comparatively weak Ti-H bonds during sintering increases diffusion rates and, therefore, significantly increases densification kinetics.  This means full densification is achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times than those required for traditional titanium sintering.  Additionally, the Ti-H system undergoes a eutectoid transformation during cooling.  The decomposition of primary β grains during the eutectoid reaction results in significant microstructural refinement.  This phenomenon gives HSPT unprecedented control over the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy.  Therefore, by controlling the partial pressure of H2 throughout the thermal cycle, fully dense titanium alloys with engineered microstructures may be produced in the as-sintered state without the need for post-processing.  Because of this, HSPT shows great promise as a low-cost alternative to wrought processing for the production of titanium alloys with application-tailored mechanical properties.

Pastushan,Nicholas  (October 2013)'AIRCRAFT SUPPLY & DEMAND + FINANCING MARKET' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 An overview of aircraft finance markets and an assessment of commercial aircraft supply and demand.

Patera ,Stephen M. (October 2013)'USE OF TITANIUM IN OIL REFINERIES' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This presentation will concentrate on the utilization of titanium products in refineries and why it is suited for this application. Titanium’s use in refineries goes back decades, and has increased ever since. With the introduction of lower grade crudes and the corrosive nature of the subject environment, titanium is an ideal choice and lends itself to these applications.

We will examine the advantages of titanium in coking units, distillation columns and condensers.

Plester,Dennis  (October 2013)'TITANIUM FEEDSTOCK OUTLOOK – AN INTEGRATED PRODUCER AND CONSUMER’S VIEW' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The merging of Exxaro’s mineral sands assets in South Africa, the Tiwest Joint Venture minerals sands/titanium dioxide operations in Western Australia and Tronox’s titanium dioxide pigment production facilities in the United States and Europe has seen Tronox become a significant, fully integrated titanium dioxide company with direct control over its entire supply chain from pit to pigment.

As a large producer and consumer, Tronox is active on both sides of the supply and demand environment for titanium feedstock. In this paper, Tronox will present commentary on the outlook for titanium feedstock supply based on its involvement in mineral sands production, and on feedstock demand both as a titanium dioxide pigment producer and a continuing participant in the marketing of feedstock into pigment and non-pigment applications externally. The latter includes welding consumables and titanium sponge markets.

Qin,Guihong  (October 2013)'RESEARCH OF HOT TANDEM ROLLING PROCESS OF TC6 TITANIUM ALLOY BARS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The test on effect of three kinds of tandem rolling process on microstructure and property of TC6 titanium alloy bars was conducted in this paper. The result shows that the microstructure and property of the bars produced by process one are able to meet the requirement of the specification, but the microstructure is not uniform, the content of primary αphase in the center of the bars is much more than than that of the edge. the bars’ which was produced by process two room temperature and elevated temperature tensile-strength can not meet the requirement of the specification. After analysing the reasons of the failure of the above two kinds of processes. However, Both of the microstructure and the mechanical property of the bars produced by process three are able to meet the requirement of the specification produced by process three.

Rao,M. Narayana (October 2013)'EFFECT OF ALLOY CHEMISTRY, PROCESSING AND MICROSTRUCTURE ON STA PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOY   Ti- 6Al- 4V' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Ti- 6Al-4V is the most widespread titanium alloy and comprises 60 percent of the total titanium production. Titanium alloys microstructure is the most widely varied and results in the widest range of properties. Ti 6Al-4V is used in numerous applications in annealed condition with tensile strength of about 900MPa. STA condition gives rise to most pronounced strength, hence further advantage of specific strength in aerospace applications. The full hardenability of the alloy is limited to about 25mm thickness and achieving STA properties in a component becomes most difficult task. The paper brings out the various experimental and production trials carried out to achieve the full hardenability in the alloy component. It is observed that not only the quench delay, finer control of iron, oxygen and martensitic lath size contribute to the enhanced mechanical properties of the alloy.

Rau ,Hansjörg  (October 2013)'ELECTRON BEAM COLD HEARTH REMELTING OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Authors: Hansjörg Rau, Jürgen Kiese, Jury Kazakov, Klaus-Peter Wagner

Outokumpu VDM, D-45143 Essen, Germany

Hearth melting of titanium and its alloys become more and more important. The original reason was to eliminate any inclusions from titanium alloys particularly used in critical rotating parts. Nowadays, environmental and economic aspects are becoming increasingly important. As the main reason may be mentioned here, protecting the world's resources by using the high volume of the existing titanium scrap.

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Remelting of titanium is a well-established melting technique at Outokumpu VDM. The EB furnace is located at the production site in Essen and its maximum capacity is 5,000 metric tons/year. Typical products are rectangular slabs and round ingots. The products reach lengths up to 5.5 meters weighing up to 16 metric tons. The produced alloys to this date are cp grades 1 and 2 as well as Ti-6Al-4V and its ELI grade. The round ingots especially made of Ti-6Al-4V can be taken for an additional melting in the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnace (EB+VAR). At the production site of Outokumpu VDM there are three VARs available.

Since 2008 the total amount of melted Ti-6Al-4V at Outokumpu VDM is more than 700 metric tons and the demand grows rapidly.

The melting of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in an EB furnace is a challenge. The most important issue is to control the Aluminum content because of its pronounced evaporation during the melting process. It has been shown that it is absolutely necessary to obtain a stable process with a constant melting rate. Only in this case it is possible to realize homogenous products during a melting campaign with several ingots. Examples will be given that a homogeneous distribution of alloying elements is present both on the ingot length, as well as on the cross-section. Likewise it is shown that this is in a good relation with the conventional sampling by drilling. Moreover it is also demonstrated that this is in a good agreement within the semi-finished product.

The results of an experiment with seeded particles of hard metal show impressively that hearth melting is an appropriate measure to eliminate inclusions. It was observed that both a separation and dissolution of the particles took place.

Rose,David L. (October 2013)'CLOSING THE LOOP' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 As any market or industry matures, the dynamic of competitions’ quest to add differentiable value to their customers becomes harder and harder.  Whether it be consolidations on the ‘supply’ side or the ‘buy’ side, fluctuations in commodity prices, or other obstacles; the challenges grow every day. 

Within the Aero, Energy, and other super alloy revert markets, ‘closing the loop,’ the process of recovering one’s own revert stream at all points of the supply chain, is becoming the new norm.  As melters become more and more dependent on revert as a high percentage of their charge volume;  finding quality revert of known origin, at competitive prices, has dominated the thinking of the supply chain teams within these organizations.  Establishing a revert supply partner with dependable and known sources has become key to their success.

‘Closing the loop’ is not rocket science, it is just common sense.  By recovering more of their own revert stream, they not only create a supply stream, they also better control the quality of the revert they buy and use.  A more comprehensive review of this concept will be shared during the PCC Revert Group presentation.

Schumerth,Dennis  (October 2013)'HYDRIDING OF TITANIUM CONDENSER TUBES IN POWER PLANT APPLICATION' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Schutz ,Ronald W. (October 2013)'TITANIUM'S COMPETITION WITH CHROME-BEARING ALLOYS' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This presentation offers a cursory overview on traditional and current application arenas where titanium is utilized but competes directly with various chrome-bearing ferrous- and nickel-based alloys.  These arenas span aerospace applications such as various gas-turbine engine and air-frame components, and extend to numerous non-aero arenas including chemical/petrochemical processing, pulp/paper bleaching, power generation, oil/gas production, hydrometallurgical ore processing, medical devices/implants, desalination, and naval ship and offshore marine components.  The primary attributes and limitations of titanium/titanium alloys and the relevant chrome-bearing alloy competitors are reviewed, along with consideration of performance benefits versus relative cost where possible; providing some basis for identifying unique, sustainable, and promising applications for continued, and growing titanium use. 

Seiner,Henry  (October 2013)'MILITARY & DEFENSE' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 The shift from conventional warfare to counter insurgency measures combined with budget pressures is impacting the design of and demand for weapons, aircraft, and ground vehicles. This presentation will address the opportunities and challenges facing the global titanium industry for both military aerospace and ground vehicle applications and will cover how these forces are likely to influence the future of titanium in this sector.

Seiner ,Henry  (October 2013)'SUPPLY TRENDS RECAP & STATISTICAL REVIEW' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This presentation will briefly summarize the points made by the other session panelists and attempt to tie together the common threads of the feedstock market, the sponge market, the master alloys market and the scrap market. Included will be commentary regarding possible future developments in each of these markets. There are significant interdependencies between feedstock, sponge, master alloys and scrap. This presentation will focus on these interdependencies in an attempt to provide insight to the audience as to what developments should be monitored in order to best estimate the future of these highly volatile elements of the titanium mill products supply chain.

Building upon this theme, the presentation will also discuss information available related to these materials in the public domain to help monitor market developments. Information regarding our industry is both more and less accessible than it has ever been. With consolidations occurring in recent years, the amount of market information being released into the public domain by titanium producers and consumers is in many cases more limited than it has been in the recent past. However, government statistics and international trade information is more easily accessible than it has ever been. This necessitates that marketers and analysts turn to different sources for their insights than they may have leaned on in the past. This presentation will explore how one may go about approaching this change to market statistics to best stay ahead of the curve.

Sparkowich,Steven  (October 2013)'SIGNALS FOR THE FUTURE OF TITANIUM:  USE OF PATENT LANDSCAPING TO FORECAST TECHNOLOGY TRENDS ' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 As described by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), patent landscaping reports describe the patent situation for a specific technology in a given country/region or even globally.  Subject matter experts conduct state-of-the-art research in the technology focus area and supplement the bibliographic data with characterizations to highlight specific attributes of the patent claim language.  To gain a deeper understanding of the patenting efforts, results are analyzed to identify patenting activity patterns, innovation trends and collaborations.

Patent landscapes can be customized to answer specific questions of importance such as licensing due diligence, business development activities or competitive intelligence monitoring.  A visual representation of the trends and relationships facilitates critical discussions between senior management, technicians, scientists and legal counsel.

This presentation will survey the uses of titanium for applications in corrosion, medical/dental, aerospace, electronics and other areas. Data will be presented on patents and published applications by industry sector from the year 2000 to present. This patent landscaping example should serve as an example of how patent landscaping can be strategically used to identify potential growth areas for titanium and its alloys.

Stansbury,Trevor  (October 2013)'EXTENDED ENTERPRISE COLLABORATION' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 Over the last 20 years (partially as a consequence of outsourcing) most Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have lost visibility into the titanium raw materials that go into their parts and therefore exercised little or no control over where those raw materials are purchased, what is paid for them and how they are supplied. Consequently, titanium demand information flows slowly and sequentially, if at all, to those stake holders that have the greatest need for it - the raw material distributors and mills.  Ironically, most OEMs have invested vast resources on leaning-out the value-added component of finished part cost, while ignoring the waste and inefficiency on the raw material side of the total product cost equation.  Mr. Stansbury, an expert on extended enterprise collaboration and will share  how some of the world's largest OEM's and their sub-tier suppliers are collaborating to address those challenges by leveraging aggregate, consolidated titanium demand to obtain the very best pricing and service levels.

Toledo,Carlos  (October 2013)'QUALITY PRODUCTS FOR THE MEDICAL INDUSTRY' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 This presentation will address the challenges associated with developing a comprehensive supply chain to meet these requirements. Discussion will include key attributes for suppliers, logistics and the uniqueness of quality system along with deliverables associated with medical products.

Walker, Scott,Trimmer, Andrew (October 2013)'THE BLUE ARC MACHINING PROCESS ' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 What is Blue Arc™? What are its benefits in a production environment? What are its applications in titanium? Who is developing it? When will it be available to manufacturers? All of these questions and more will be answered -- specifically how the technology relates to titanium aerospace structures, jet engine components, and power generation parts.

Chemical Engineer Mr. Andrew Trimmer, PhD at GE Research will discuss this exciting machining process and Mr. Scott Walker, President of Mitsui Seiki USA will relay valuable information about the machine tool requirement to apply the Blue Arc™ methodology successfully and efficiently.

Blue Arc™ is a High Speed Electro Erosion (HSEE) process that was developed to rough cut high strength aerospace alloys.  Fundamentally, BlueArc™ is a controlled thermal removal process driven by an electrical potential between a tool electrode and a workpiece. Thermal events are more intense and widespread than conventional EDM processes and are controlled by the applied potential and current, the electrolyte, and the distance between the tool electrode and workpiece.  Each thermal event erodes some of the workpiece resulting in bulk material removal.  Under most conditions the contact forces between the electrode and the workpiece surfaces are negligible enabling the use of slender electrodes or light duty machines.  End milling, peripheral machining, and shaped electrode profile machining have been studied.  In this seminar, machining results will be shared for nickel based superalloy and titanium alloy rough machining.  In each case material removal rates 2-3 times the conventional analog for similar size tooling was achieved.  BlueArc™ is a versatile rough machining process that can achieve high material removal rates and significant tooling and machine investment cost savings.

Warner, Michael (October 2013)'DISTINGUISHED GUEST SPEAKER' Paper Presented on Titanium USA 2013 Conference Proceedings. Titanium USA 2013, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
 As Director: Market Analysis, Michael Warner leads the team developing Boeings view of the airline industry and trends in the market. In addition, Warner is responsible for Boeings annual publication, the Current Market Outlook (, which describes the long-term demand for air travel and the resulting demand for new aircraft.

Warner joined Boeings marketing department in 1998 and most recently served as Senior Manager. Market Analysis: he was promoted to Director in 2011. Before this, he served in the Product Marketing role, presenting the value of Boeing products and services to airline customers, leasing companies and media. Prior to his roles in marketing, he spent five years in the engineering department supporting the design and certification of new Boeing airplanes including the 777.




Harshman, Richard J.(October 2012) " MilitaryAirframe, Land & Sea based Applications for Titanium." TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium is used extensively in military applications because of titanium’s superior mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication, and low density. These superior characteristics make titanium the material of choice for critical components in the military systems and platforms used to support the warfighter. This presentation discusses the current outlook for titanium applications in military aircraft, land, and sea vehicles that will impact future titanium demand.



Buch, James M. (October 2012) "Jet Engines.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium volume into the engine market over the next 5-7 years will be driven by commercial high by-pass twin aisle engines, competition for fuel efficiency in the new and re-engined single aisle and regional jet segments, emerging and legacy military programs, and the burgeoning aftermarket. This presentation will look at these drivers as well as the impact of certain technological innovations in order to draw conclusions about the growth of titanium in this key segment through the rest of the decade.


Hickton, Dawne S. (October 2012) "Commercial Aerostructure Update.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The commercial aerospace industry, including its titanium aerostructure suppliers, faces a more competitive, global market than even a few years ago. New single-aisle competition progress from producers in Canada, Russia, and China, prompted both Airbus and Boeing to accelerate launches of their single-aisle jets and re-evaluate their supply chains in today’s post-duopoly commercial environment. Record backlogs for these more efficient single-aisles and twin-aisles have exploded, placing a premium on supply chain execution and capacity. Manufacturing locations are also shifting to make producers more globally competitive: Witness Airbus’ recent announcement to build its first U.S. assembly plant in Mobile, Alabama and its new assembly plant in Tianjin, China. Are titanium suppliers prepared to support these projected record production levels? What titanium aerostructure capabilities are critical to winning in today’s market? Are the projected delivery levels real relative to likely production? Can all these planes get financed? How might the European economic crisis and fragile U.S. recovery impact demand projections? Ms. Hickton will provide insight and analysis into the key drivers in titanium demand since her last commercial aerospace update in 2010, and also put this recent activity into perspective relative to other industry cycles. She will also inform the audience on the current state of the commercial aerospace aerostructure segment and the anticipated demand for aerostructure titanium in the future.


Metz, Michael G. (October 2012) "Overview of Russian Market for Titanium Mill Products.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.




Zou, Wuzhuang. (October 2012) "China Titanium industry Overview.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

China began the research process for titanium sponge and mill products in 1950’s. China now has become the largest titanium supplying country in the World. The Paper overview the development history of Chinese Titanium Industry and makes detail analysis on the market situation in 2011, both the titanium sponge and mill products output reached historical records. Despite to the double pressure of world economic conditions and domestic inflation, in the first half of 2012 Chinese titanium industry still maintains a rather large increase. The paper analysis the reasons and make comments on the future development that Chinese titanium industry shall focus on.



Nishizawa, Shozo (October 2012) "Outlook of Japan’s Titanium Industry 2012.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This year, the Japan Titanium Society celebrates its 60th anniversary. Mr. Nishizawa, chairman of the Japan Titanium Society will present the history of Japan’s titanium industry and the current outlook of Japan’s titanium industry specifically about titanium sponge and mill shipments.


Dussart, Gilles. (October 2012) "Global Trends in Industrial Markets.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Power generation, Process and Desalination markets are different angles of the industrial applications which are consuming significant volume of Titanium every year. Thanks to its long and worldwide presence, Valtimet has a unique understanding of the dynamics and trends of Titanium usage by these complex markets. Mr. Dussart will discuss the key drivers of titanium consumption in the industrial market and provide an estimate of the evolution of the consumption in the coming years.


Crist, Ernie. (October 2012) "Development of RTI Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Production-Scale Fine Grain Size Sheets for Low-Temperature Superplastic Forming Applications.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242) alloy sheets are widely used in monolithic sheet metal aerospace parts fabricated via superplastic forming (SPF), often in combination with diffusion bonding (DB). Conventional Ti-64 sheet is superplastic at temperatures above 1625oF (885oC), at which rapid tool deterioration occurs. Deep alpha case forms that requires removal by expensive and non-environmentally friendly chemical milling. Therefore, reducing SPF temperatures and cycle times are desired for the fabrication of parts via SPF/DB. In recent years, significant effort has been devoted to developing Ti-64 sheet that is superplastic at temperatures in the range 1450-1500oF (788–816oC). Aero-engine components currently manufactured from Ti-64 sheet are being converted to Ti-6242 to meet the demands of increased elevated temperature requirements. Consequently, OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers have expressed an interest in Ti-6242 sheet exhibiting "low-temperature” SPF behavior at or below 1550oF (843oC). As with Ti-64, lowering the SPF temperature will improve die life and eliminate the need for chemical milling. This presentation will provide an overview of fine grain size sheet manufacturing developments at RTI for low temperature SPF applications.




Saraf, Vikas. (October 2012) "Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Tensile Properties in Titanium Forgings.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is being highlighted in the wide array of industries as a need to meet the demand of rapid process design and enhanced component capabilities. At the same time, the development and adaptation of predictive thermal, mechanical and microstructural models is becoming a norm in the aerospace supply chain. Many of such models are developed as deterministic in approach. Physics based models will have their place and requirement to understand the material behavior from the fundamentals to the application. But such models require wide amount of resources to develop and validate consistently. Fast acting model based on the Artificial Neural Network connecting known inputs with known outputs with a known degree of error is an approach that can be developed and adapted, relatively, faster to influence design and manufacturing decisions. In this presentation, the results of the neural network model developed to predict the mechanical tensile properties of the forged aerospace components of Ti64 material will be discussed. Various microstructural characteristics of Ti 6-4 such as primary and secondary alpha sizes and chemistry are included as inputs. A unique feature of Ti6-4 anisotropic behavior, crystallographic texture, is also incorporated as a modeling input. These inputs are trained using a neural network algorithm to predict the tensile mechanical properties. Microstructural inputs for the neural network model are generated using various validated computational models such as phase field, crystal plasticity, thermodynamic and variant selection. These models, ultimately, will help the designers to optimize the manufacturing process and yielding the desired properties for forged Ti64 components.




Brown, Adam. (October 2012) "AMRC Titanium Machining Strategies & Dynamics.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Representing the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) with Boeing, the groups technical lead in Titanium machining heading up the newly formed Ti structures group, a small but focused team of experienced long standing AMRC staff and new engineers aiming to build a world class capability for developing and applying fundamental machining research to process development projects within industry. Technical strengths of the group being world class machine tool dynamic analysis and stability prediction.




Tallman, Cory. (October 2012) "Thermal Assisted Machining.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Machining of Titanium is difficult because of its poor thermal conductivity and high toughness. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) demonstrated and evaluated enhancements achieved by using a laser in front of the cutting path to soften the material. Results were such that a commercialization project called Thermal Assisted Machining (TAM) is now underway. LM Aero is involved in this commercialization effort as a part of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) managed industry team. The main objective of the project is to integrate a state-of-the-art laser system with a modern CNC five-axis milling machine to result in a production capable TAM cell to reduce roughing machining times by up to 80% and increase tool life by up to 3X. The technology will be licensed to an equipment manufacturer to make the technology broadly available to F-35 suppliers and others machining titanium.
The 4 kW fiber delivery diode laser has a built-in, real-time, closed-loop temperature control system. The appropriate energy distribution and beam shape will be determined and integrated appropriately with the tool path programming to optimize the process.




Young, Charles S. (October 2012) "Titanium is NOT Too Expensive.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

When a Titanium Industry representative talks with maintenance and process engineers, purchasing agents or management in any of our chemical processing "end use” industries, there is always one or two individuals in the audience who consistently raise the concern that "Titanium is too expensive to use in this application.” Alternative materials, such as nickel alloys, duplex stainless steels, copper-nickel alloys, etc. are seen by these individuals as being less expensive and more cost effective. While this may have been true a number of years ago, when pricing of materials was entirely different, it is definitely not true today. In this presentation, I will show that, when using a "Normalized” price approach to compare materials, titanium is very cost competitive and can even offer a cost advantage to materials with less or similar corrosion resistance. This approach can be effectively used to overcome cost-based objections and increase the potential for titanium in the chemical processing industry.




Ugarenko, Charles. (October 2012) "Titanium Internals in Refractory Lined Pressure Oxidation Autoclaves.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This paper provides an overview of the design considerations, manufacturing techniques, quality assurance and installation of titanium compartment walls, baffles and anchor brackets for use in metallurgical autoclaves. Hatch pioneered the use of titanium autoclave internals in 1996 at Barrick Gold Corporation’s Goldstrike facility in replacement of hydraulically inefficient, maintenance intensive and voluminous refractory brick internal structures. Titanium is a proven material of choice for autoclave internals due to its service longevity in the high temperature, acidic and abrasive environment found in metallurgical autoclaves. Employing computational fluid dynamics and stress analysis, and fabrication techniques developed by W.E. Smith Engineering, Hatch has successfully implemented titanium compartment walls and baffles on a number of autoclave projects, including four of the world’s largest refractory lined pressure oxidation autoclaves at the Pueblo Viejo Project in the Dominican Republic.




Baldauff, Regis. (October 2012) "Titanium and Copper Nickel Properties and Characteristics-Titanium's Comparative Advantage.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Copper Nickel Pipe and Fittings have been specified for multiple Naval, process plants and offshore petroleum production applications for many years and are well established as the metal of choice in the Marine Industry. With that said, a closer comparative analysis between Titanium and Copper Nickel reveals a much different story. This presentation will provide an overview comparison between the two metals in a seawater environment. We will present data that revels how titanium offers a competitive advantage over Copper Nickel in weight savings, life cycle cost, maintenance costs, corrosion resistance and many other areas. Therefore, based on these comparative results we will show why "Initial or First Price” should not be the only evaluation mechanism used for determining which is the best metal of choice. Comparisons between these metals properties include Mechanical, Physical, Corrosion resistance, Erosion, Volume & density. Advantages of Titanium and its Applications in the Marine industry and for general seawater service are also presented.




Ferreira, Neidenei Gomes. (October 2012) "Production and Characterization of Boron Doped Diamond Electrodes Grown on Titanium, Applied to Textile Dye Degradation.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Recent advances in the water treatment process to industrial effluents led to the development of methods denominated Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP). These processes can be defined as an oxidation method based on intermediated oxidant species or on hydroxyl radical formation highly reactive and as result the pollutant destruction. In parallel, advances in material science led to a large spectrum of materials for application in AOPs, where the electrochemical mineralization of organic pollutants is a relatively new technology for wastewater treatment without the chemical agent presence. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop diamond electrodes at different doping levels, and at different deposition times, grown on titanium substrates.




Truong, Vi Khanh. (October 2012) "Investigation of Bacterial Attachment Patterns on Micro-and Nano- Restricted Surface Topographies.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The use of metallic implants is increasing and diversifying; as is research into the use of titanium that has undergone bioactive surface modification to increase biocompatibility and eliminate bacterial biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by human pathogenic bacteria on medical implants can be problematic, most often leading to failure of the device and requiring its surgical removal from the patient. Biofilms can be associated with systemic infection, loss of limb or organ function, amputation or death. Therefore, it is critical to identify ways by which implant surfaces can be improved so that they can modulate the degree of bacterial attachment that takes place on their surfaces. In this study, the modification of titanium surfaces was achieved using two different approaches, namely the alteration of the surface architecture of the bulk titanium, and by coating substrate surfaces with thin films of titanium. For bulk titanium materials, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and femtosecond laser ablation were employed to alter the surface micro- and nanoscopic topographic parameters. A magnetron physical vapor deposition system was employed to fabricate titanium thin films containing particular sub-nanometric surface features. Radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) was also investigated as a method by which titanium surfaces could be improved by coating the titanium surface with thin films of terpinen-4-ol, a constituent of tea-tree oil that has been shown to be anti-microbial. An optimized experimental procedure allowed the application of RF PECVD of terpinen-4-ol such that the resulting film retained the chemical integrity and functional properties of the original terpinen-4-ol.





Jewell, Daniel A. (October 2012) "Titanium Metal Production via Oxycarbide Electrorefining.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The growing needs of an ever developing world have led to an unprecedented demand for high-performance materials. To address this issue research has mainly focused on the invention of new materials which offer novel structures or compositions, e.g. CNTs and high- performance alloys. Whilst these can offer unparalleled properties in some areas, significant research and development is required before they can be employed widely, cheaply, and in useful quantities. There are occasions, however, when existing materials are available in significant quantities and have established industry, but the cost of extraction limits their wider use; titanium is such an example. Since the publication of the FFC-Cambridge Process[1] in 2000, an intensive worldwide research program was undertaken to develop novel titanium extraction techniques. A decade on, limited success has been achieved and the Kroll Process remains undefeated. A recent contender has begun to show promise as an alternative route to cheap, large-scale titanium production and is currently under investigation at the University of Cambridge. This method, called the Chinuka Process, is a novel electro-refining method[2-4] which uses a titanium oxycarbide anode to produce a purified titanium deposit on the cathode. A particular advantage is the ability to refine lower grade ores that are prohibitively impure for other titanium extraction processes.




Dragovich, Steven (October 2012) "Outsourcing as a Business Strategy” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Mr. Dragovich will describe how total supply-chain integration and project focus can result in pinpoint mobilization of materials and technology to rival the in-house operations of any original equipment manufacturer and accelerate product development.




Faora, Francisco. (October 2012) "Fueling Innovation in the Premium Dental Products Sector.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Based in Switzerland, Straumann develops and manufactures dental implants, instruments and tissue-regeneration products. Mr. Faoro’s presentation, "Fuelling Innovation in the Premium Dental Products Sector,” will include information on Straumann’s high-performance dental implant material for the North American market—an alloy of titanium and zirconium known as Roxolid™. Mr. Faoro’s will describe how the new material has higher fatigue and tensile strength compared with commercially pure titanium.




Urbanowicz, Don (October 2012) "Sustaining Innovation within the Orthopedic Industry.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Urbanowicz Consulting LLC is a medical device advisory firm with a musculoskeletal focus, based in Chatham, NJ. Mr. Urbanowicz will discuss how successful innovators have little fear of cannibalizing their big revenue generators to build new businesses. These companies make frequent but smaller acquisitions that secure new technologies and open new markets. Innovative ideas can come from all levels of an organization, but companies need a clear process to prioritize and test ideas quickly and inexpensively so they can afford to keep experimenting.



Kovachuk, Dmytro (October 2012) "Technological And Economical Advantages Of Electron Beam Melting Of Titanium.” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Most of market forecasts predict substantial growth of civil applications of titanium in foreseeable future. CP titanium in different flat products and welded pipes made from coils cover the lion’s share of civil consumption of titanium. Growth of manufacture of titanium products results in appropriate growth of formed quantity of titanium scrap. Owing to these trends EBCHM of titanium as the most effective technology for manufacture of slabs and for scrap recycling is more and more popular over the last decades. But expansion of civil demand of titanium mainly depends on production cost of titanium semi-products which consist both of price on raw materials and cost of processing in each production step including melting. Large industrial EBCHM furnaces are still very expensive and this fact makes appropriate contribution to cost of titanium. Application of gas-discharge electron beam guns in EBCHM furnaces is one of the most effective ways to reduce production cost of titanium ingots/slabs. Gas-discharge EB guns provide substantial reduction of investments for creation of EBCHM furnaces and cost of its operation. Also such EB guns allow usage of titanium sponge of low grades for production of ingots/slabs for ordinary commercial application. Report is dedicated to main features of gas-discharge EB guns and their influence on technological and economical efficiency.




Chen,Yusheng "Pure Titanium Slab Rolling Study & Practice onTwin-stand Hot Steckel Mill.” TITANIUM2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This article presents the industrial pure titanium coil process study and production practice on Twin-stand Steckel Mill of Kunming Iron & Steel Co., Ltd (Hereafter refer to "KISC”) carried by Yunnan Titanium Industrial Co., Ltd. It analyses the different process features comparing with Continuous Hot Strip Mill. It states process study and production practice, gained experiences and achievement on how to improve the target rate and quality for Pure Titanium Coil Hot Rolling on Twin-stand Steckel Mill.




Shi, Yaming (October 2012) "Argon Protection Annealing Process Study & Application for Titanium Coil” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Yunnan Titanium Industrial Co., Ltd. (Hereafter refers to "YNTY”) utilizes the Steckel Mill and 4-high Cold Mill imported from Tippins Inc., USA. for Titanium coils hot-rolling and cold-rolling. Complete production process of Shot Blasting, Acid Pickling, Degreasing, Annealing, etc. will be carried for Titanium Coil. This article presents "Steel-Titanium” combination production process carried by YNTY. The product property and surface quality problems have been gradually solved for cold-rolled Titanium Coil through continuous study, creative and improvement for the Argon Protection Bell Annealing Process. It has been achieved for process stable, quality under controlling, commercial and batch production for cold-rolled Titanium Coil.




 Bishop, Brian (October 2012) "New Aerospace Technologies” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This presentation will give an overview of some of the new technology areas that EWI has developed over the past few years. The three topics that will be covered are: Acous Tek Ultra-Sonic Machining, LPS/LSP – Laser Paint Stripping/Laser Surface Preparation and Translational Processes. Acous Tek Machining is the process of adding ultra-sonic power in a very controlled manner to cutting tools (drills, mills, reamers, taps, single point turning tools etc.) to greatly reduce the force and torque on the tool improving process times of up to 150% and tool life up 800%. This process also allows for the machining of hardened materials with conventional cutting tools over 50 Rc. EWI’s LPS/LSP Polygon scanner can be utilized with most Laser types and allows for the stripping of surfaces to remove paint and other coatings down to the primer coat or substrate. This scanner has demonstrated the best ever reported paint stripping efficiency, paint stripping rates, small size and light scanner weight, effluent removal capability and hardware robustness on the market today. This scanner has also been demonstrated to remove coating and prep the surfaces of composite materials for re-coating or final coating without harming the fibers of the composite. Translational processes that will be highlighted are LFW (Linear Friction Welding) and TAUW (Translationally Assisted Upset Welding). The equipment and processes are both more efficient and less costly than previously available allowing better ROI and access to contract manufacturing companies.




Eff, Michael (October 2012) "Novel Technologies for Similar and Dissimilar Titanium Joints” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium and it alloys now find considerable applications in a wide range of industrial sectors. This ranges from the complex high strength alloys used in aerospace manufacturing, to the corrosion resistant materials used in Oil and Gas applications. The range of applications, has led to the need for both new generation technologies for titanium alloys to themselves, as well as titanium to other materials systems. In this discussion, three evolving applications will be discussed. The first addresses development titanium free form manufacturing using friction stir welding (FSW). Friction stir welding is well demonstrated for titanium alloys, and has been shown possible over a range of processing temperatures with an associated variety of resulting microstructures. This application will address using FSW to create metal overlays, and the kinds of microstructures that can be obtained. The second application addresses creating micro-scale build-ups of titanium onto steel and Ni-base substrates using electro-spark deposition (ESD). ESD has been shown to result in extremely high (>106 C/sec) cooling rates, enabling joining of materials normally considered metallurgically incompatible. In this case, results have been related to implicit ESD pulse widths, and the kinetics of secondary phases that form in these systems. Finally, the manufacture of bi-metallic honeycomb structures (incorporating both Ti and Nb) will be discussed. This application demonstrates the potential of solid state welding for titanium alloys to refractory metals, as well as the kinds of structures that can be obtained with such dissimilar material combinations.




Robertson, John (October 2012) "Titanium – base Alloy Repairs at Delta Airlines” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Abstract unavailable.





Zanin, Eric (October 2012) "Airbus Perspective on Titanium Sourcing” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The presentation will give a brief overview of the aviation market and Airbus’ development past, present and future and then explain how Airbus’ Procurement strategy is designed to maximize the opportunities, raise to the challenges and mitigate the risks.




Monsees, John (October 2012) "New Applications of Titanium In Miliarty/Defense” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

With a constantly changing yearly market for titanium it is easy to overlook what may be at the heart of titanium use, innovation. The industry spends considerable effort attempting to project what materials (alloys) may be needed and at what volumes annually. This of course drives our industry in long-term product research and development, infrastructure investment, resource allocation (technical marketing and sales) and product/application innovation both in the mills and at our customer level. Though we talk about the truly new market areas and what they mean to stabilization and so on; traditionally diverse to titanium’s historical core remains Aerospace, Military and Defense. Despite the diversification into these new and exciting market areas, the titanium industry still largely remains effected by Administration and Geo-Political interests within the Services. This is particularly true in the military/defense budgets which are seen as a political "Hot Potato” for any candidate, Senator or Congressman, and is especially true in years where top Administration change is inevitable. But, the truth of the matter is, the typical applications where titanium is used, typically require years of engineering, sales and marketing support and most often, process and/or product innovation to ensure the success we want. And these efforts typically see more than one Budget with more than one Administration influence over the course of the Project or Program.




Gooch, William A. (October 2012) "New Processing and Fabrication Technologies for Current and Potential Titanium Military Applications” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium alloys have an established history of their application to armor technology and published technical papers in many forums describe the replacement of steel wrought plate with wrought titanium plate. Technical papers were presented in previous International Titanium Association Conferences in 2007-2011 that describe the ballistic advantages of wrought titanium. This paper will concisely review past recommendations for increasing titanium applications for armor applications and will then emphasize newer processing and fabrication technologies for both armor and non-armor applications to expand the use of titanium alloys on military ground platforms.




Mills, Kendall (October 2012) "The Expanded Use of Titanium in the Services” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium is metal that has long been important to the Department of Defense. It has a rich history of use, from traditional aerospace applications within the Air Force to corrosion protection applications within the Navy to more recent weight reduction and force protection applications within the Army. Common to all of the Services, in the use of titanium, is the implementation of new technologies to make it competitive with other, more traditional materials. Each of the Services has a portfolio of research programs and remains active in incorporating new manufacturing technologies into their developmental efforts. This presentation provides an overview of the titanium-related technologies within the Services and will highlight new processing methods, such as Additive Manufacturing, as a way of achieving higher performance and better affordability.




Green, Jeffrey A., Lasoff, Laurence J., & Horgan, J. Kevin (October 2012) "Regulatory and Legislative Developments” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Jeff Green of J.A. Green & Company will discuss provisions of The National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2013 that are intended to promote a more coherent, comprehensive strategy with regard to materials critical to national security. The bill would require the office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy to develop policy, conduct oversight, and monitor resource allocation for agencies of the Department of Defense ,including the Defense Logistics Agency, for all activities that pertain to ensuring a secure supply of materials critical to national security, including titanium. This policy analysis would include a prioritized assessment of risks and challenges to the defense supply chain to ensure that the national technology and industrial base is capable of achieving the desired national security objectives.


Mr. Lasoff will address several regulatory compliance issues associated with shipping titanium, including conflict minerals; export control reform; government contractor obligations; regulations intended to eliminate human trafficking, etc., as well as national security-related supply chain issues. Government regulation of international trade can have a significant impact on titanium trade flows.


Kevin Horgan of the deKieffer & Horgan law firm will discuss developments in international trade regulation. Topics will include Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and the proliferation free trade agreements ("FTAs”) that may have a significant impact on the titanium industry such as the bilateral Korean-US FTA and the multilateral Trans-Pacific Partnership.




Gipe, Paul (October 2012) "Renewable Revolution: How Renewable Energy is Remaking Electricity Generation” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Renewable electricity generation is growing at an exponential rate worldwide, but especially so in Europe and Asia. No longer an "alternative” source of energy, renewable energy dominates growth in new electrical generation from the storm-tossed seas of the English Channel to the wind-swept plains of Mongolia. Denmark currently supplies 20% of its electricity with wind energy alone, while neighboring Germany—the world’s fourth-largest industrial economy—provides 20% of its electricity from a mix of renewables. Both countries have ambitious plans for more renewables: Germany, 38% by 2020; Denmark, 50% by 2020. Some have set their sights even higher. Scotland, Denmark, and several German states are both moving aggressively toward 100% renewable generation. Not to be left out, both China and post-Fukushima Japan have embarked on a massive build-out of new renewable generation. The revolution is well underway. The presentation will provide an overview of the "Renewable Energy Revolution" with a focus on Europe-- and a brief overview of North America and Japan.




Khanna, Gautam (October 2012) "Potential Implications of Budget Sequestration on the U.S. Defense Budget” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

We will walk through the potential implications of budget sequestration on the US defense budget.




Michaels, Kevin (October 2012) "Increasing Interdependencies of Aerospace, Energy and Oil & Gas Markets; Implications for Titanium” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

In this session, Dr. Kevin Michaels will explore the increasing interdependencies between aerospace, energy and oil and gas markets and what it means for titanium suppliers. Issues addressed will include:
What is the outlook for the aerospace, energy and oil and gas markets? What factors will drive titanium consumption?
Where are the interdependencies between these three industries and why?
What do these interdependencies mean for Ti suppliers?




Compart, Andrew (October 2012) "Early Retirement (For Aircraft, That Is)” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium is being used more extensively in commercial aircraft, and the average retirement ages for those aircraft suggest how quickly carriers will be replacing their older aircraft with new models. An Aviation Week Intelligence Network analysis shows that the average and median age for those aircraft retirements has been dropping, with several factors contributing to the trend. This presentation looks at what has been happening with the retirement age over the past decade and where it is projected to go from here.




Ivasishin, Orest (October 2012) "Extra Low Impurity Content Titanium Powder Metallurgy Titanium and Titanium Alloys” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This presentation will describe low cost powder metallurgy (P/M) processes for manufacturing extra low interstitial content Titanium and Titanium alloys, and the effect of atomic hydrogen in impurity level reduction. Laboratory scale powder production and scaling up of this process for manufacturing large slabs will be also discussed. Scanning Electron and Optical Microscopy images of hydrogenated titanium powders will be presented. Microstructures and mechanical properties of various P/M Titanium alloys will be discussed. It will be demonstrated that the presence of hydrogen during the sintering process results in titanium components with very low interstitial content that easily meet, and surpass, ASTM and the critical AMS requirements. Because of high purity and low interstitial content, ADMA TiH2 Powder based components can be welded, something that has hereunto not been achieved by low cost P/M titanium processes.




Duz, Vladimir (October 2012) "Transformational Non-Kroll Process Hydrogenated Titanium Powder Production (For the Manufacture of Highest Performance Titanium and Titanium Alloy Components)” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The innovative ADMA, non-Kroll, process for manufacturing hydrogenated titanium sponge and powder will be presented. ADMA has designed and installed a unique laboratory scale titanium powder manufacturing unit that has produced over 20 lots of ADMA Hydrogenated Titanium (ADMA TiH2)Powder. It has been demonstrated that the use of hydrogen in the titanium powder making process reduces the manufacturing cycle to less than 24 hours. The excellent, consistent, and reproducible titanium powder chemistry and characteristics will be discussed. The ability to manufacture pre-alloyed powders during the TiCl4 reduction process will be demonstrated and the microstructures of the commercially pure and pre-alloyed titanium powders will be presented. It will also be shown that the hydrogenated titanium sponge produced under ADMA’s patented method is easily ground into powder to be used in the production of C.P. titanium, or any titanium alloy, component via the low cost Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM). The mechanical properties and microstructures obtained on P/M Ti-6Al-4V alloys produced by BEPM approach followed by rotary forging will be shown for two types of powders being used in this study: ADMA Hydrogenated Titanium powder(ADMATAL®) and common sodium reduced Titanium sponge fines.



Matviychuk, Mykhailo (October 2012) "Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy Titanium Alloys Strengthened by Heat Treatment” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This presentation will demonstrate that the various Titanium alloys produced by the Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM) approach can be effectively heat treated to the strength levels achieved by ingot metallurgy STA alloys of identical composition. Analysis of the post-sintering treatments and response of the BEPM Titanium alloys to heat treatment will be discussed. The results obtained on high strength alloys widely used in the aerospace industry such as Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr will be presented.




Abakumov, Georg (October 2012) "Powder Metallurgy Titanium and Titanium Alloy Components Manufactured from Hydrogenated Titanium Powder” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This presentation will discuss the low cost room temperature consolidation processes such as die-pressing, direct powder rolling and cold iso-static pressing followed by vacuum sintering to produce a broad range of titanium and titanium allow components from hydrogenated titanium powders (ADMATALR). Post processing of the sintered components by forging, hot rolling, extrusion, rotary forging, and flow-forming, to achieve finished shape and improved performance, will be also discussed. Several high performance finished components for critical applications, their mechanical properties, microstructures, and examples of the finished components will be presented. It will be shown that the transformational, low cost, powder metallurgy manufacturing processes of component manufacturing of Commercial Pure and titanium alloy components from ADMA TiH2 Powder brings improved performance to critical applications, including defense and aerospace. Extensive testing has consistently demonstrated properties that meet, and surpass, those obtained via conventional ingot metallurgy.




McCracken, Colin (October 2012) "Plasma Spheroidized (PS) Titanium Powders” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The production of today’s commercial titanium powders for the Powder Metallurgy (PM) industry can be divided into two main groups, the higher cost spherical powders aimed at near net shape PM processes such as, direct HIPping, additive manufacturing and metal injection molding. Then there are the lower cost non-spherical titanium powders, which are used to manufacture net shape performs using press/CIP and sinter, direct powder rolling and plasma spraying processes. Today’s hydride-dehydride powders offer the titanium PM industry an intermediate powder product, with limited powder flow and tap density. Reading Alloys has developed a new Plasma Spheroidized (PS) Titanium powder that incorporates a spheroidization process step, which produces a cost effective high tap density titanium powder. This free flowing powder also exhibits no satellites and/or particle agglomerates. This paper will outline the manufacturing route and key powder characteristics of a spherical titanium powder derived from a hydride-dehydride powder.




Cooper, Rene (October 2012) "Powder Handling Guidelines” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Mr. Cooper's presentation will cover International Titanium Powder's creation of the Powder Handling Guidelines primarily in response to their customer's requests. The presentation will focus on powder properties; requirements for fire and explosion hazards, storage of powder, housekeeping, and handling and use. Emergency precautions will also be covered.




Mason, Rick (October 2012) "Key Elements of a Safety and Environmental Management System” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

In 2005, the speaker adopted a shared company vision to develop a safety and environmental management system, modeled on principles of ISO 14001, Environmental Management Systems, and its anticipated counterpart for Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001; 2007). Since the Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) was instituted in 2006, a year-over-year reduction in the number and severity of injuries and environmental impacts has been observed. In the spirit of continuous improvement, the key elements of SEMS will be outlined, with discussion of benefits observed and lessons learned. Rick expects to elicit group feedback and discussion on best practices used by others and suggestions for additions and improvements to the SEMS.




Allen, Andrew M. (October 2012) "Titanium Fire Extinguishment” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

New developments in titanium safety, handling and processing are available through the use of GSL's Firebane® aqueous fire extinguishment agent. Firebane® is a new technology and recently patented non-toxic and environmentally friendly fire suppression agent; not only capable of rapid extinguishment of burning titanium but can render titanium non-flammable for typical processing and shipping requirements. Firebane has been developed by Global Safety Labs ( It seems incongruous to use water based or a liquid system on a titanium fire but the chemistry of Firebane® locks up the water molecules to the extent that the cooling power of water can safely be used to extinguish and protect. Firebane allows an aggressive approach to a titanium fire (as well as other combustible metals) allowing for total extinguishment, not just a smothering approach.




 Creswell, Gregory (October 2012) "Combustible Dusts” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Dust hazards in industry are a problem that could create a fire or explosion. This presentation will help to emphasize the need for fire prevention programs. Applicable safety standards will be discussed along with recommended testing criteria to help prevent fires and explosions.




Barnes, John (October 2012) "Ti PM, What’s After the Kroll Process?” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

For many years the high cost of producing engineering components from titanium alloys has limited the use of these materials to high-end markets, such as the aerospace industry, where the performance benefits outweigh the considerable expense. Recently several promising new technologies for the extraction, consolidation and processing of titanium metal have been developed and are in the pilot stage. When successful, these should significantly reduce the overall cost of producing finished components, making titanium viable for use in a wider range of industries. While most of the discussion has been on the promised cost reduction that will come with these new processes, we should devote some attention to the potential industry wide advantages. Researchers have embraced solid state production of titanium but there is cause for optimism that can contribute to the entire industry. We see the obvious market benefit these new technologies can offer by reducing cost and enlarging the market for titanium, but why wouldn’t we see adoption within the existing titanium industry? The cost of capital and cost to build solid state production facilities are calculated to be much lower than existing Kroll and ingot metallurgy facilities. As controversial as it sounds, it also has the promise of producing more consistent quality parts. Continuous production of metal can yield improved overall quality by eliminating batch to batch variation. In comparison to conventional ingot metallurgy, the solid state consolidation used during powder metallurgy processing produces more randomly oriented grains of consistent size. This makes the inspection easier and more accurate.




Heidloff, Andrew (October 2012) "Performance of Composite Pour Tubes for Titanium Close Coupled Atomization” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Many attempts have been made to produce high purity spherical titanium alloy powders of fine size (<45mm) with some technical promise, but the economics have not been advantageous. Close-coupled gas atomization (CCGA) is commercially viable is many metal systems with less reactivity. Recently, a special CCGA system was demonstrated for Ti at Ames Laboratory and was made possible by the use of induction skull melting and a novel laminated composite pouring nozzle made by plasma spray deposition. These nozzles have been proven to boost effectively the melt stream temperature, to control flow, and to maintain purity during CCGA without the use of a stopper rod. Additionally, the production of large yields of fine Ti powder required the use of in-situ passivation to create non-hazardous powders with chemical purity. Support for this work was provided by the US Army and performed at Ames Lab under contract no. DE-AC02-07CH11358.




Doblin, Christian (October 2012) "Ongoing Develeopment of the TIRO™ Process” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The CSIRO is continuing to develop the TIRO™ process for the continuous direct production of titanium powder. The process comprises two stages. The first stage is a fluidised bed reactor (FBR) in which TiCl4 is reacted with magnesium powder to form solid magnesium chloride particles about 350 µm in diameter in which micron sized Ti particles are dispersed. The second stage is a continuous vacuum distillation operation where the Ti is separated from MgCl2 and sintered to form a friable "biscuit”. The biscuit comprises porous Ti spheres about 200 µm in diameter which can be liberated by very light grinding. A pilot scale FBR has been operated at 1.6 kg/h Ti for extended periods. The current continuous vacuum distillation unit has a throughput of 0.2 kg/h Ti. The process has generated Ti powder with ≤0.2 wt% O and < 200 ppm Cl. CSIRO in collaboration with Coogee Chemicals, a private Australian company, is planning to build a 2.5 kg/h Ti equivalent demonstration plant. Techno-economic modelling has indicated the capital cost of a 5000 tpa TiRO™ plant is significantly lower than that of an equivalent sized Kroll plant while the projected operating costs are similar. Based on our costing model, titanium produced by the TiRO™ process could be used as a sponge replacement while the CP grade powder market is grown.




Gaiani, Silvia (October 2012) "Optimization Of The Chemical Milling Of Investment Cast Titanium Alloys” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

The presence of alpha case layer leads to a deterioration of surface mechanical properties, especially fatigue resistance. Therefore its removal is required for high performance applications. Chemical milling is a candidate removal process where the components are superficially etched using a strong acid bath. This technique is widely used for alpha case removal on titanium parts, but its efficacy is strongly dependent on the nature of the chemicals involved and on the process parameters like time and temperature. This paper describes the work developed by the authors to investigate the effects of chemical milling on two of the most used titanium alloys: Ti6Al4V and CP Ti grade 2. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the metal removal rate of various chemical baths, presenting different acid mixtures and concentration, in order to define which of them would be the most efficient and stable for industrial scale use. A secondary goal of this project is understanding if parts having different wall thickness, and therefore different alpha case layers depths, would present significant differences in the amount of removed metal after the treatment. Lastly, an additional objective is to develop a reliable nondestructive method for measuring the thickness of the removed alpha case layer in components presenting complex shapes.




Rosa, Uros (October 2012) "On-Road Vibration Measurements Of Titanium Exhaust System” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Defining the operational loads of the exhaust system is one of the most difficult tasks in the development process. Titanium exhaust systems are lighter than stainless-steel systems, but also less rigid, if design is not chosen properly. Durability of an exhaust system depends on operational loads, which include many parameters, as temperature, engine vibrations, pressure propagation and vibrations from the road. A measurement system for exhaust system on a twin turbo V8 car has been set up, with ability to measure engine revolutions, speed, surface temperatures and vibrations. High temperature resistant, 3- and1-directional accelerometers have been used. Measuring protocol for different driving conditions have been defined and applied (different engine revolutions and velocities). Measurements have been repeated on different spots of an exhaust system, due to the protocol. Data has been acquired with high sampling frequency and later processed. Power spectrum for every driving condition, direction and spot, has been made. Repeatability of measurements has been discussed, significant frequencies have been detected and spectrums of operational loads have been made. Due to the system response on each spectrum, critical components in design could be optimized – determined operational loads are presenting a base for optimal and efficient design.




Fu, Baoquan (October 2012) "Research and Production of Titanium Alloy by WST” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Western Superconducting Technologies Co.,Ltd.(WST) is now the most advanced and perfect production company and is the world’s leading manufacturer for titanium ingots, billets, bars, rods and forgings. It is one of the main suppliers for the aviation industry used titanium alloy in China. This paper reviews the recent research and production of titanium alloys used in aviation industry by WST. As the moderate strength titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V alloy can be used to fan disk and structure parts for aircraft. WST produced the very large scale bar which diameter was up to 650mm last year. It is the biggest one of the world. TiAlMoZrSi alloy is another material used to below 500°C applications for gas compressor disks, blades. It is very good plasticity, welding and machining properties. TiNb alloy is the key material for fastener. It has very good cold work properties. The level of WST for TiNb alloy can compare with overseas. TiAlSn alloy is a moderate strength a titanium alloy. It has good anti-corrosion properties. The fracture toughness of this alloy is also very good. It can be used to engine of aircraft at 500°C. All the materials of above have already produced thousands of tons by WST. The new researches are introduced by this paper for those alloys. The results show that all the materials can be satisfied the requirements for aviation industry application.




Okamoto, Akio (October 2012) "Kobe Steel Develops High Heat Transfer Titanium Sheet For Plate Heat Exchanger” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Kobe Steel’s high heat transfer titanium sheet has minute convex-shaped bumps on the surface, which increase heat conductivity. Using this new sheet increases the heat transfer rate by more than 10% in boiling heat transfer type heat exchangers. Performance can be increased without changing the equipment design. Due to higher heat transfer, the number of titanium heat transfer plates can be reduced. At the same time, as the volume of fluid can be decreased, a smaller pump and pipes can be used to circulate the fluid.




Warner, Michael L. (October 2012) " Boeing Market Outlook” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Michael Warner, Director of Market Analysis for BCA, will provide an overview of the challenges and opportunities airlines and manufacturers faces in today’s business environment. He will also talk about Boeing’s long-term view of aviation growth and how Boeing’s product strategy will meet the needs of its customers in the future.



Perles, Terrance T. (October 2012) "Molybdenum and Vanadium Market Fundamentals” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This paper will review the factors which influence the supply and demand fundamentals of the molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V) markets which supply the titanium alloy industry. The paper will outline Mo & V reserves and sources of current production. 2012 production figures will be estimated. 2012 consumption data segmented by region and application will be presented. Factors expected to influence future changes in supply and demand will be discussed, and projections for future market supply/demand balances and projections will be made. Finally specific issues related to the supply of Mo and V to the titanium alloy industry will be discussed.




Changanti, Nagesh (October 2012) "Commercial Production of Titanium Sponge in India” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

India possesses large reserves of ilmenite (FeOTiO2) rich in TiO2 content located along the southern peninsular coasts. Mining and processing of these minerals to produce synthetic rutile, pigment grade titanium tetrachloride and titanium dioxide have long been practiced in the country. Ingot melting and manufacture of Titanium/titanium alloy mill products have also been practiced in the country for meeting the domestic requirements. The only gap hitherto prevailing in the ‘Ore-to-Product’ cycle in the metallurgy of titanium, i.e. technology of titanium sponge production from titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), was successfully bridged by Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (through the development of Kroll process of magnesium reduction of titanium tetrachloride). The technology after demonstration over a large number of batch runs at DMRL was recently transferred to establish India’s first commercial titanium sponge plant of 500 tpy capacity at The Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd., Chavara, Kerala.




Preyser, Jacko (October 2012) "Feedstock Market” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Rio Tinto is a leading international mining group. Rio Tinto's interests are diverse both in geography and product. With assets in Australia, North America, Europe, South America, Asia and Africa its businesses include open pit and underground mines, mills, refineries and smelters as well as a number of research and service facilities. The health and safety of their people is not negotiable and fostering a culture of zero harm is a core value throughout the group. Amongst its portfolio of assets is Rio Tinto Iron and Titanium (RTIT), the world’s largest producer of titanium feedstock. From humble beginnings in Quebec, Canada in 1950, RTIT is the world’s largest supplier of titanium feedstock with operations established in Canada, South Africa and Madagascar and representative offices globally. Following years of under investment in the industry, the supply demand dynamics have now reached a critical junction where new supply is urgently needed. The presentation will touch on some of the challenges this brings to the titanium value chain. Despite the current global economic uncertainty, the presentation highlights RTIT’s continued commitment to the industry and reflects on its aggressive investment and growth plans for the future.




Carpenter, Jeff (October 2012) "Titanium Scrap” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Presentation will provide The Boeing Company’s views on and approach to closed-loop processing of titanium scrap.




Seiner, Henry (October 2012) "A Melter’s Perspective on Developments in Raw Materials” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

In addition to recapping the salient points made earlier by the other panelists, this presentation will attempt to tie together developments related to feedstock ore, sponge, scrap and alloy additions to provide the audience with a concise understanding of what has occurred over the past year related to raw materials as well as to consider various possibilities for the future. A year ago, this panel heard about tightness in the feedstock ore markets. This phenomena unfolded as expected during late 2011 and early 2012. But the scrap market of late 20111 and thus far in 2012 has been much weaker than most market participants expected. This presentation will review the effect that these developments have had on a melter and consider possible implications for 2013 and beyond.




Sanders, Daniel G. (October 2012) "Titanium Manufacturing Processes and Alloy Selection for Aerospace Applications” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Titanium has become an important component for both military and civilian jet aircraft since its first introduction around 60 years ago. Titanium alloys are very compatible with composite materials, such as graphite containing plastics, because of their similar galvanic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion. Several new titanium alloys and material forms are being explored that offer advantages over the existing options. The manufacturing of aerospace components can be very expensive when using titanium because of its high strength and low ductility. Dr. Sanders will discuss many projects within Boeing that are being performed to develop new titanium process technologies and materials.




Pachoutinsky, Matthieu (October 2012) "Overview of Titanium Applications in Dassault Aviation Airframes” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Due to high specific mechanical performances and very good corrosion behavior, Titanium alloys are widely used in aeronautical industries. Whereas landing gear or engines manufacturers take the benefit of the wide range -and high quality- of material manufacturer’s portfolio, Dassault chooses mainly the Ti-6-4 workhorse. This allows us to rationalize our sources and to minimize qualification costs. In addition, most of our structural applications follow the same specifications: corrosion behavior, galvanic compatibility, high specific mechanical performances for highly loaded parts constrained in a small volume. By opposition as often reported, the temperature in service is rarely an issue in our case. Though our material portfolio is narrow, we can target a large range of structural parts, with appropriate optimized processes. Titanium is implemented on our aircraft structures using forged parts, casting, Super Plastic Forming – Diffusion Bonding (SPF-DB) and Direct Manufacturing. This paper provides examples of such applications. Advantages and drawbacks are highlighted for each case. Trade offs between high mechanical performances versus costs and environmental impacts are our main challenges which generate studies. Nowadays, a large amount of research focuses on reducing environmental impact: replacement of chemical milling using fluonitric acid and reduction of the "buy to fly” ratio. This last point is a key issue to face a potential shortage and a price increase. For the same reason, Dassault Aviation is promoting the use of recycled material




Glavicic, Michael (October 2012) "Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: Recent Progress in the Advanced Titanium....” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

A summary of the progress achieved in the Advanced Titanium Microstructure Modeling program funded under the Metals Affordability Initiative (MAI) will be presented. The goal of this program is to develop computational models that predict location specific microstructure and mechanical properties for wrought titanium alloys through the integration of phase field, crystal plasticity, variant selection, thermodynamic and neural net models into the commercially available finite element software DEFORM. Other topics to be discussed include the use of 2-point statistics in the separation of electron backscatter data (EBSD) into its primary and secondary alpha components and the incorporation of Kearns numbers for the representation of crystallographic texture into neural net models.




Legzdina, Daira (October 2012) "Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloys at Honeywell Aerospace” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Additive Manufacturing is a layer-by-layer technique of producing three dimensional objects directly from a digital model without the need for hard tooling. Although the technology first originated more than 25 years ago, it has transformed significantly from its early days and is now receiving increasing attention around the world. Today a variety of unique processes are available that utilize one of several energy sources (such as laser, electron bean, ion beam, electric arc) and use variety of feedstock (powder, wire, ribbon). Additive Manufacturing offers a huge potential for aerospace industry- high buy-to-fly ratios, significant cost savings, ability to produce prototypes quickly and inexpensively, ability to produce end of life parts where tooling is no longer available. At Honeywell Aerospace three Additive Manufacturing technologies are being considered for manufacturing of titanium parts. These include Direct Laser Metal Sintering (DMLS), Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Ion Fusion Formation (IFF). Each of these technologies offers unique advantages and opportunities. Presentation will review the various technologies and discuss titanium alloy applications at Honeywell Aerospace




Fodran, Eric J. (October 2012) "Implementation of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Hardware in Aerospace Components” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Electron Beam (E-Beam) metallic Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy provides a unique opportunity to meet the demands of accelerating production needs by supplying a rapid, cost-effective means of fabricating metallic components that are otherwise cycle time intensive and costly to fabricate. This process exhibits an opportunity to achieve considerably lower buy to fly ratios in comparison to traditional wrought product and machining practices, and requires no or minimal tooling. AM is also a rapid yet flexible fabrication method, capable of supplying repetitive production builds as well as providing unit\lot customization. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has qualified Ti-6Al-4Valloy components manufactured via E-Beam AM for subsystem components on naval platforms and is exploring integration of the technology for similar and more challenging components on additional platforms. Several investigations have been performed on the static properties of Ti-6Al-4V components manufactured via E-Beam AM; however, there remains a lack of dynamic mechanical properties data regarding the performance of components manufactured via this fabrication process. To address this, a series of Ti-6Al-4V coupons have been manufactured via electron beam DDM employing an Arcam EBM S12. In fabrication of fatigue coupons the orientation of the coupons with the respect to build (growth) direction was also considered. Fatigue performance and microstructures were evaluated and will be presented. The path forward to implement and qualify components on a recent NGAS air vehicle will also be discussed.




Kondoh, Katsuyoshi (October 2012) "The Next-Generation Development of a Superior Grade Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Mixtures of titanium powders and TiO2 particles were employed as starting materials and consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot extrusion. The content of TiO2 particles was 0~1.5% of the mixture by mass. Solidification of oxygen atoms (from TiO2 particles) into Ti matrix occurred at 1073K for 1.8 ks in a vacuum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the TiO2 particles were completely dissolved during the solidification process. The lattice constant in c-axis increased proportional to TiO2 content, while no remarkable change was detected in the a-axis. Tensile testing showed that Tensile Strength (TS) and Yield Strength (YS) increased in proportion to TiO2 content but elongation decreased slightly with increased TiO2 content. For example, extruded pure Ti powder material with 1.5% TiO2 particles produced 1040 MPa TS, 902 MPa YS and 25.1% elongation. When using Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy powders with 0.5% TiO2 particles, the final extruded Ti-64 powder alloy bars with oxygen solid solution showed 1226 MPa TS and 22.7% elongation. Initial ballistic evaluation showed the Ti-64 alloy powder bars with 0.5% TiO2 particles yielded a marked improvement over the conventionally rolled Ti-64 alloy plate.




Peter, William H. (October 2012) "Forging of Powder Metallurgy Processed Ti-6Al-4V” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

In a collaborative project between Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LMAC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a 300-pound aircraft component forging of Ti-6Al-4V was produced from a billet of material that was prepared using powder metallurgy (P/M) processing. Titanium alloy powder that was made by the plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to produce a 400-pound block. The HIPed material was machined to billet dimensions that were specified by LMAC for standard production components. The billet was then successfully forged along with standard cast and wrought Ti-6Al-4V Extra Low Interstitial (ELI) billets by Wyman-Gordon. After the final forging operation, the part underwent first article inspection testing which included: tensile properties, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, strain life fatigue, fatigue crack growth rate, hydrogen analysis, grain size, and alpha case determination. The testing results for the P/M processed Ti-6Al-4V compared favorably to the requirements for Ti-6Al-4V ELI. The tensile properties were higher, while fracture toughness and stress corrosion results were about 10% lower. These differences are attributed to the finer grain size of the P/M material and the higher oxygen content. This demonstration that a billet produced by P/M processing can be successfully forged with excellent physical properties is expected to lead to follow-on efforts. It may be possible to eliminate open die forging operations and some blocker die forging steps (along with the associated thermal treatments) by using P/M processing to directly form the appropriate shaped billet for a closed die forging.




Barnes, John (October 2012) "Influence of Titanium Powder Source and Processing Conditions on the Microstructure/Mechanical Property Relationship Of Direct Powder Rolled (DPR) Titanium Sheet” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Direct powder rolling (DPR) of metal powders as a commercial consolidation technique has been used for at least 50 years. This technique has received renewed attention by research institutions and industry in support of the global R&D initiative to lower the cost of titanium components and provide stable availability. This has been with a view to produce both CP grade and alloy sheet, the latter from pre-alloyed (PA) and blended elemental (BE) powders, which is not only fit for purpose but has an economical advantage over conventional wrought product. CSIRO Australia and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have both been independently developing processes which produce DPR sheet. In the case of CSIRO, the DPR sheet is then subjected to further consolidation via hot roll densification (HRD) in a continuous manner. This successful technology produces sheet the quality of which is influenced by the properties of the starting titanium powder in terms of chemistry, morphology and consolidation behaviour, and the DPR and HRD parameters used to produce the sheet. Apart from the ongoing necessary R&D carried out to identify an appropriate process window covering initial consolidation density, rolling temperatures, roll speeds, strain rates and subsequent post rolling heat treatments, the influence of the source of the titanium powder on both microstructure and properties has been investigated. Whereas powder derived via a hydride/de-hydride process has been the focus of most of the R&D, if only due to the easier source of supply, work has also been carried out utilizing powders manufactured by the Armstrong process from Cristal Global. Very recent work has also been commenced to evaluate the suitability of CSIRO’s unique TiRO powders.




Scharvogel, Matthias (October 2012) "Manufacturing Titanium Components for Surgical Implants, Commercial airplanes and Other Industries” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Element 22 GmbH specializes in Powder Metallurgy (PM) of Titanium and its alloys. Most components are manufactured by Metal Injection Molding (MIM) in production quantities and used for surgical implants, commercial airplanes and other industries. Element 22 is a fully integrated manufacturer, starting with Titanium powder and manufacturing finished components. The well-known principles of Metal Injection Molding were adopted in order to achieve material properties that are similar to wrought material. Currently, Element 22 uses spherical EIGA Powder, but also started looking at powder made by alternative methods. In 2011, the first ASTM standard for surgical Titanium implants made by Metal Injection Molding was published, with the second standard to follow by the end of 2012. Based on the first published standard, Element 22’s first customer received approval to implant our MIM parts in the United States. Element 22 manufactures several Titanium components for commercial airplanes. MIM does not only create Net Shape parts with a great cost advantage for high volume production, but it also allows design features that can only be achieved with great difficulties when using traditional methods, like undercuts or Titanium –Ceramic connections. One of the great challenges for using all the advantages that can be achieved with these new manufacturing methods is the education of the Engineers to design the components / assemblies accordingly. Based on the existing MIM technology, Element 22 is developing further advanced Titanium Powder Metallurgy production technologies like producing foil or tubes. The porosity can be adjusted from a solid helium tight structure to an open porosity. The components or semi-finished products can be made from any Titanium alloy.




Meraoumia, Thaleb (October 2012) "Dassault Commercial Titanium Market Perspective as it Relates to Titanium " TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Presentation of DASSAULT Company with a short description of different kinds of business jets manufactured. Evolution of the titanium volume used per aircraft (Impact of composites…). Expected Business Jets sales (2012- 2022) based on Honeywell forecast




Ingenito, Maryse (October 2012) "A Supply Chain Perspective” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

This presentation will provide an organizational overview of United Technology Corporation (UTC) with its newly formed UTAS (Hamilton Sundstrand & Goodrich) business unit. The core content will focus on the commercial engine sector from UTC’s perspective, including the latest trends, forecasts and titanium requirements. The presentation will close with a supply chain perspective that highlights critical success factors that each supplier to UTC must adopt to excel in this critical ramp-up period.




Crist, Ernie M. (October 2012) "Advanced Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr for Commercial Aerospace Applications” TITANIUM 2012, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta

Next generation commercial aircraft and aero-engine requirements are pushing the Ti alloy performance needs beyond the upper limits of the workhorse alloy Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), necessitating the use of advanced alloy solutions. This presentation will provide an overview of RTI Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr (Ti-62222) alloy capabilities to address the future commercial aerospace needs. Ti-62222 is a judiciously balanced alpha + beta titanium alloy designed and developed by RMI Titanium in the early 1970s, for damage tolerant aerospace applications that required higher strengths than Ti-64 in section sizes up to 4 inches. A nominal silicon content of 0.15% was added to Ti-62222 formulation to retain strength and improve creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Robust manufacturability of Ti-62222 including melting, chemistry control, thermo-mechanical processing (TMP), heat treatment, and fabricability was established. The alloy has been in production since mid-1990s with significant usage on military aircrafts such as US Air Force fighter F/A-22. The alloy is currently produced in most standard wrought product forms such as billet, plate, and sheet. The alloy version optimized for damage tolerance or strength can be produced via controlled TMP and heat treatment. Potential applications of this alloy include: billet and thick plate for airframe structural parts such as bulkheads, frames, spars, and ribs; sheet and thin plate for skin structures and superplastically formed parts; and forged products for engine components at moderate service temperatures.







Metz, Michael G. (October 2011) "Commercial Aerospace Airframes” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, SanDiego, California

Titanium use in commercial aerospace airframes continues to increase thanks to its compatibility with composites in new aircraft programs. The presentation will look at how the ramp up of Boeing’s 787 and Airbus’s A350, along with higher production levels of legacy aircraft, will affect titanium demand.



Hickton, Dawne S. (October 2011) "ShiftingMilitary Demand” TITANIUM 2011, SheratonSan Diego, San Diego, California

As the geopolitical and economic powers among nations has changed over the decades, so has the demand for global military weapons and related titanium material. Non-titanium metals that were consumed in large quantities during World War II to build aircraft and ground vehicles were replaced with increasing amounts of titanium in more sophisticated models during the Vietnam War and again during the Gulf Wars of the 1990s and 2000s. As the wars in the Middle East over the past decade and recent Arabic rebellions have demonstrated, Cold-War style fighting among nations is no longer the primary threat to U.S. and NATO forces. In Afghanistan, for example, 94% of American fatalities occur within a mile of the enemy and over 90% of combat deaths occur within 400 meters of a road: Large-scale campaigns using squadrons of aircraft, fleets of ships and battalions of mechanized armor have been replaced with counter-insurgency campaigns with close-range fighting supported by UAVs and rotorcraft. How will this Next Army impact the long-term demand for titanium? In addition to this Next Army transformation, conventional weapons are growing dramatically in certain developing nations, like China creating a new arms race. Ms. Hickton will provide insight and historical analysis of these shifts in military demand, not only by technology type within NATO, but also the growth in military demand in China and other developing nations. She will also inform the audience on the current state of the military aerospace and land-based segments and their anticipated demand. The presentation will highlight important new titanium-related programs, such as, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, KC-46 tanker, and A400M transport. In addition, legacy fixed-wing and rotorcraft programs and ground vehicles will be reviewed. Finally, she will present the long-term demand for defense titanium, and discuss its key drivers, including U.S. and European budgetary constraints, China’s military build-up, foreign military sales, and buy-to-fly trends. Defense and titanium business managers and investors will all benefit from Ms. Hickton’s insights and leave ITA 2011 more informed to make better long-term business decisions.



Harshman, Richard J. (October 2011) "Titanium Demand and Trends in the JetEngine Market” TITANIUM 2011, SheratonSan Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium is used in jet engines for its excellent mechanical properties, ease of fabrication, and light weight. The next generation of engines will continue to use titanium extensively even as engine temperatures are increasing in the effort to drive efficiencies higher. This presentation discusses the current market drivers and forecast for jet engine deliveries, the demand for titanium used in the production of jet engine components, and the effect of changes in jet engine design on future titanium demand.



Buch, James, M. (October 2011) "Global Trends in Industrial Markets.” TITANIUM 2011,Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium consumption in the industrial market has improved significantly over the past year driven mainly by large infrastructure projects in emerging economies. In this presentation, Mr. Buch will discuss the dynamics within the key growth segments and consider the value of titanium versus other materials in certain applications.



Hempel, Andre (October 2011) "European Union Markets.” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This presentation summarizes the still ongoing negative effects from the financial and economical crisis in the European business environment and subsequently explain the consequences for the Titanium Industry in aerospace and traditional non-aerospace areas of application. An estimation for the next coming years will be provided, what might be possible scenarios for a recovery of our industry and where some additional growth potentials outside of the traditional areas can be found.



Nishizawa, Shozo (October 2011) "Outlook for Japan Titanium Industry 2011” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Beginning in the second half of 2010, Japan’s titanium industry has increased production. The East Japan Earthquake which occurred on March 11th brought a tremendous number of victims and an enormous damage to industries. Fortunately there was almost no impact on the titanium industry. Sponge producers are working on boosting their production capacity and mill producers are ramping up their production as scheduled




Wuzhung.Zou, (October 2011) "Rapid Rising of the Titanium Industry in China.” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This paper analyses the changes and developments of the Chinese titanium industry in recent ten years, emphasis on the improvements of the capacity, output, market demand, import/export data, titanium industrial applications as well as the technical reconstructions in China, particularly introduces the leading position of Baoti Group Limited and its improvements and future developments. Also give some statement on the future developing trends of Chinese titanium industries.




Chang, Joseph, (October 2011) "Where are we in the Chemical Cycle? Macro factors, capital spending patterns and outlook” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

We are at a critical juncture in the global economy and the chemical sector – the latter being one of the great enablers of the economic engine. There are certainly fears about a double-dip recession, the European sovereign debt crisis, and economic weakness and potential fiscal austerity the US. Many are wondering: Is this 2008 all over again? This presentation will explore the outlook for the chemical sector, the macro factors influencing the outlook and the implications on capital spending patterns.




Pastushan, Nicholas (October 2011) "An Overview Of Aircraft Finance Markets And An Assessment Of Commercial Aircraft Supply And Demand” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

An overview of aircraft finance markets and an assessment of commercial aircraft supply and demand


Khanna, Gautam (October 2011) "US Military Aircraft Review” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Status review of the major defense aircraft programs, including the F35,F16,F18, F22 and C17


Abakumov George (October 2011) "Stress-Corrosion Cracking and Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Plates Consolidated” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Ti-6Al-4V plates, consolidated from low cost powders, manufactured from Armstrong-process and also from hydride-process were studied. The yield strengths of these plates of Ti-6Al-4V are comparable and are about 920 MPa. To remove the prior history of consolidation, the plates are beta annealed and the test results are compared with as received condition. The Armstrong-processed Ti-6Al-4V has significantly higher apparent stress-corrosion cracking threshold than hydride-processed Ti-6Al-4V. Fatigue crack growth study indicates that the fatigue crack growth threshold stress intensities of Armstrong-process and hydride-process Ti-6Al-4V approaches to that of the conventional Ti-6Al-4V. The stage II fatigue crack growth rates of hydride-process of Ti-6Al-4V are substantially higher than that of the Armstrong-process Ti-6Al-4V and the conventional ingot-cast Ti-6Al-4V. The mechanism of the fatigue crack growth rates difference, fracture toughness, and stress-corrosion cracking resistance of Ti-6Al-4V will be discussed in terms of respective Ti-6Al-4V microstructure differences.




Akhtar, Kamal (October 2011) "Processing of CP and Prealloyed Ti6Al4V Powder into Consolidated Parts” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Development work has shown that a suite of solid state powder processing techniques (press & sinter, cold & hot isostatic pressing, roll compaction) can be used to process CP and prealloyed Ti6Al4V powder produced from the ITP process. The focus will be on techniques to optimize powder processing to fit the unique dendritic morphology, low bulk density and high compressibility of the powder. The impact of process parameters (temperature, distillation conditions and heat treatment) on powder characteristics will be described. The compaction behavior, optimization of sintering profiles and mechanical properties of the sintered parts will be described. The use of high compaction pressure (50 TSI) and sintering hold time in the range of 30-60 minutes is sufficient to obtain a good combination of strength and ductility. The 1250°C sintered temperature is better for properties compared with higher (1371°C) or lower (1150°C) temperatures. Cold isostatic pressing was used between compaction pressures of 30 and 60 ksi employing 30, 50 and 65 durometer bags. The scale up potential of this approach will be discussed. The initial results of welding assessment on hot rolled strips will also be presented.



Barnes, John (October 2011) "Australian Titanium: From Ore to More” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Australia has the single largest reserve of titanium ore of any country in the world. Currently, we produce no metal, exporting approximately $1b in unprocessed mineral sand and pigment out of the country. Estimates show that at the current rate of export, the reserves will be depleted in 90 years. CSIRO is the national science agency for Australia and is aggressively working to develop a full supply chain for titanium processing. Under development are metal production processes which can convert TiCl4 into higher value metal and alloy directly. With a conservative value of metal, Australia could produce the same export revenue each year while consuming only 1% of the resource. CSIRO intends to extend our natural resource out to 9,000 years without a negative change impact in economic revenue. Additionally, CSIRO is pursuing other elements of the value chain through leading developments in "powder to product” technologies such as, sheet production, continuous extrusion, cold spray and direct manufacturing technologies. The intent is to provide a supply chain that makes dollars and sense to the Australian economy.



Barre, Charles (October 2011) "HIP of Complex Shape Parts from Various Ti Alloys” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Innovative developments in PM HIP technology provide novel solutions to the old challenges of processing complex shape parts from Ti alloys. These new developments enable to cut substantially the material losses and decrease the "buy-to-fly" ratio several times; to provide uniformity and homogeneity of complex shape parts; to build the material properties above the level of wrought; to control the surface quality for the "net shape" surfaces; to improve machinability of Ti parts.

The PIM HIP approach has the following significant advantages over other techniques:

- the shape can be as precise as that of investment casting;

- the mechanical properties including fatigue can be the same or higher than those of a wrought material;

- the size and the weight of the parts can be the same or larger than that of the largest forgings with the ability of maintaining a complex shape and a superior microstructure

- the surface of the parts can be free of "alpha "case

- all issues associated with the low processing temperatures can be eliminated

In addition, this technology can also provide the design enhancement of the critically loaded parts due to elimination of the design restrictions caused by traditional machining from forgings.



Boyer, Rodney (Ocotber 2011) "Long Term Titanium Development Needs for Airframe Structure” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Increased utilization of composite structure on commercial aircraft, which is viewed as a continuing trend due to its performance and maintenance advantages, will mean increased titanium usage on commercial aircraft. Future composites usage may not stay at the level of the Boeing 787, but it will remain at higher levels than seen on the 777 and prior commercial aircraft. The increased titanium usage is driven by the compatibility of the titanium with the graphite in the composites, both in terms of the corrosion and coefficient of thermal expansion. However, the high cost of titanium is driving designers to be more creative in finding ways to use alternate lower cost materials, even though they would be less efficient than titanium, to help control the costs. This becomes even more important as it appears that more OEM’s will become involved with the larger commercial aircraft – particularly in the Boeing 737 size range, increasing the competition. Most of the titanium research and development efforts will focus on cost reduction. These efforts involve or could involve development of lower cost titanium reduction, lower cost alloys, improved mill processing, including melting, welding, forming, any technologies which could be employed to reduce component, thus system, costs. Of course affordable performance improvements are always of interest. This could involve increased mechanical properties and higher temperature capabilities. Tribological coatings with improved fatigue performance would also be of interest.




Bringman, Berhard (October 2011) "Machine tool Design for Titanium Machining” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Due to its outstanding characteristics, using titanium opens new possibilities for a multitude of products. On the other hand for machine tool builders productive machining of titanium is a challenging task. First of all titanium and especially some of its alloys are hard to cut materials, demanding strong, rigid machines. In addition titanium workpieces tend to be integral parts of complex shape with high demands for geometrical accuracy and surface finish, therefore needing dynamic high precision machines. A general use machine tool is not built for meeting neither the quality requirements of such a part nor the customer’s productivity requirements. Therefore the machine must be designed for its specific task. This approach always starts with the workpiece to be machined. From there the optimal machine design can be developed (from axis buildup to design details). In this presentation the processes to get from the titanium machining requirements to a finished machine tool are shown. New developments for allowing the use of superior cutting processes are shown exemplary.






We are facing an increasing demand for more fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly road vehicles. This has focused interest on weight reduction and improved performance in the automotive industry. Therefore automotive applications of titanium logically follow from the low density, high strength and high temperature durability of titanium and its alloys, and their excellent resistance to corrosion and wear. Exhaust system applications have been a main target for titanium in cars. But although titanium has attractive properties for exhaust system applications that can improve performance and economy of cars, it cannot compete with steel in mass produced cars in all exhaust applications for which it is suited. High price of titanium and inherent physical and mechanical characteristics of titanium alloys, which often dictate some design features, have prevented realization in mass-produced passenger cars. The discussion will focus on solving these problems using various casted titanium components instead of conventionally produced ones in order to reduce production costs and to enable the manufacture of components which have complex design features. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of titanium casting technology in the exhaust system production cycle. Finally, some of the newly developed Akrapovic lightweight and high performance titanium exhaust systems integrating titanium casted components are presented.




Chatterjee, Amit (October 2011) "Titanium in Aeroengines: Developments and the Way Forward” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The presentation will cover the Rolls-Royce journey into the use of titanium alloys, the present day threats and challenges to titanium usage from other alloy classes, and our way forward. Starting with the introduction of IMI 550 in the 1960’s and the development of the the workhorse alloy Ti 6/4 and it’s higher temperature stable mates through to the more exotic intermetallic materials and on to their reinforcement with particulates and ceramics, the present day technologies are exploiting the use of Ti in many varied forms. Novel processes like powder deposition, linear friction welding, near net shape hot isostatic pressed components for cases offer significant opportunities in terms of cost, weight, repair and life benefits. A significant challenge to the greater usage of Ti based technologies is from increased competition from high temperature composites and aluminum based alloys. As we look into the future, material understanding and process modeling will become more important as we try to exploit the material capabilities to its maximum limits without compromising product integrity or flight safety. The growing relevance of costs in our product strategy will force us to work on novel processes that offer benefits over other alternatives. This will be the key to future exploitation.



Colombini, Elena (October 2011) "Surface Modification Of Alpha-Ti Alloys To Increase High Temperature Wear Resistance” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

In exhaust systems for racing applications, assembling and disassembling of components are frequently performed operations. Alpha-titanium alloys present poot wear and fretting resistance, especially when exposed to high temperatures, and joining between connecting elements, like bushes, may take place. The aim of this work is to analyse of the possibility to perform diffusive surface treatments in order to improve the high temperature wear resistance of alpha titanium alloys. In particular, three surface modifications been studied, namely carbon–doped titanium oxide (Fresh Green ® process), plasma-carburizing and plasma-carburizing on pre-oxidised surfaces, in order to compare their durability and wear resistance up to 750°C. The modified alpha-titanium surfaces have been characterized by nanoindentation and non contact surface roughness morphology, while polishes cross sections were used to assess the effective depth of surface modification. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the possible formation of titanium oxides and carbides. Room temperature scratch resistance of the modified titanium surfaces was performed by scratch hardness measurements, according to ASTM G171, while high temperature wear resistance was measured by dry sliding against an alumina counterpart in a ball-on-disk configuration. The results indicate that in the experimental conditions tested, plasma carburizing performances at high temperature are superior to the Fresh Green treatment, depending on the carburizing conditions used. Due to these results, a second round of tests has been implemented in order to optimize the plasma-carburizing treatment in terms of homogeneity, reproducibility and effective depth.




Daigle, Robert (October 2011) "Inside Out” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This presentation will cover what the medical device industry and its manufacturers are looking for from the titanium supply chain. We need to work together in partnership to consistently deliver product that meets specified requirements. Each party has a role in making this supply chain successful. We are all suppliers at different stages, and as such, we must share a common vision that is committed to formal quality systems, defect free product, on-time delivery, continuous improvement, competitive pricing and new alloy development that can compete with other materials presently in use.



de Saint Germain, Adrien (October 2011) TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, SanDiego, California

Although the Reverse Osmosis took the lead in the Desalination Capacities market share, the Thermal Desalination is still expecting its capacities to grow of 7% annually from 2010 to 2015. This growth imply an annual investment of around 3 000 m$, mainly in the Middle East Area. As the world leading EPC Contractor for the MED Technology, SIDEM will describe the consequences of this huge investment for the Titanium tube market. Especially the relation between the Titanium price and its application in the thermal desalination market will be detailed.




Dorsch, T. James (October 2011) "Ti for Military Ground Vehicles: Are Hopes Dashed?” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium alloy is currently a leading candidate to improve ballistic performance and reduce weight for future armored vehicles, as well as armor upgrades for legacy vehicles. Combat vehicles are constantly being upgraded with improved armor to meet the evolving threats. With declining US defense expenditures, and drop in new vehicle production, utilizing more titanium will be challenging. Although titanium has significant weight advantages over other materials, higher costs means that the reality is titanium will find applications only where no other material will do or engineering changes are made to negate the need. This presentation will discuss one OEM’s experience with successes in implementing titanium on ground combat vehicles, including currently fielded platforms and some failures in attempts to design titanium into the system.



Duz, Vladimir (October 2011) "Innovative Non-Kroll Process for Hydrogenated Titanium Powder Production” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This paper will present a new Non-Kroll process for hydrogenated titanium powder production. It is demonstrated that usage of both hydrogen and magnesium in Titanium Tetrachloride reduction process considerably minimized the processing time for both reduction and vacuum distillation processes. A new system design combining both reduction and distillation processes will be demonstrated. The resulting chemistries, particle size distributions, particle shapes and other characteristics of produced powders will be also presented. It will be shown that the properties of the Titanium and Titanium Alloys produced from this powder are meeting or exceeding the properties of ingot metallurgy alloys which mostly contributed by the refine microstructures of Titanium alloys produced by low cost blended elemental approach. A new pilot scale production process expending the powder manufacturing capacity will be also presented.




Erdel, Berthold P. (October 2011) "Innovative, robust machining of Titanium” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

A new, innovative and robust metalworking technology, derived from recycled CO2 – crystals is taking machining of titanium parts to a different, elevated level. Extensive tests and production runs have shown that MWCs machine any titanium grade with ease, high productivity, cost-effectively without environmental footprint. Eliminating costly, detrimental effects of traditional metalworking fluids, manufacturing can expect increased part production, better tool life, excellent surface finishes, dry chips and a clean, healthy workplace. The MWC unit can be retrofit on existing machines within hours offering a fast return-on-investment and low cost of ownership. A thorough outline of the technology, its unit and system will be given and real-world machining examples be presented.


Lasoff, Larry, Horgan, Kevin, Green, Jeff (October 2011) "The Evolution of Supply-Chain Security for Critical Materials to Support the Defense Industrial Base” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This panel will examine the evolution of supply-chain security for strategic and critical

materials, including titanium, as they support the defense industrial base. As the U.S. government, particularly the Department of Defense, seeks to reduce budgets and garner efficiencies, an inherent tension arises in the supply-chain between providing globally competitive materials and components and ensuring delivery of high quality, reliable goods. As evidenced in recent history, left unchecked, this can result in delivery of poor quality or counterfeit parts, the exodus of industry from the United States to lower-cost manufacturing areas and even the complete lack of the ability for the United States to mine, process and manufacturer certain materials. As a result, a noticeable shift is occurring within both the U.S. Government and Industry, as both come to terms with the need for proactive supply-chain security measures that will foster competitiveness in the 21st century.




Fang, Zak Z. (October 2011) "Development of NNS Manufacturing Routes for Producing PM Ti Components-Striving for the Lowest Cost” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Traditional PM Ti materials are perceived as being either low performance, especially with respect to fatigue properties, or high cost attributed to both high cost of pre-alloyed Ti powers and the high pressure processes for consolidation of pre-alloyed powders. These problems are directly tied to the issues of oxygen content, porosity levels, and relatively coarse grain structure in as-sintered state. An ideal PM Ti material and processes would be based on the essence of blended elemental (BE) approach for low cost, but able to achieve desired microstructure, thus adequate mechanical properties in as-sintered state without relying on, or with minimum post-sintering thermomechancial working. This paper discusses a near-net-shape manufacturing route based on making titanium and titanium alloys from TiH2 and elemental alloying powders. A unique sintering technique is discovered that can be used to produce near-fully dense Ti-6Al-4V part (~99%) with very fine or ultrafine grain size (~1 micrometer) microstructure, thus high strength and good ductility in as-sintered state. Being able to achieve fine grain microstructure with excellent mechanical properties in as-sintered state without thermomeahanical working is a very significant progress that presents new opportunities for near-net-shape manufacturing of Ti components at minimum cost.


Fanning, John C. (October 2011) "Recent Developments in High-Strength Near-Beta Titanium Alloys" TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The usage of near-beta titanium alloys for structural airframe applications has grown considerably over the past several decades. Early applications include Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al [Ti10-2-3] for the Main Landing Gear of the Boeing 777 and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe [VT-22] for similar applications in the former Soviet Union. More recently, Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.4Fe [Ti555-3], essentially a derivative of the VT-22 alloy, has been incorporated into several major airframe applications. Use of high strength titanium alloys in lieu of steels reduces weight, avoids problematic coatings, and lowers maintenance requirements. Ti555-3 is capable of favorable combinations of properties that have enabled the expanded use of titanium in aerospace applications. Newer alloys, such as Ti-5.5Al-5Mo-5V-2.3Cr-0.8Fe-0.14O [Ti18] have been designed to provide similar benefits, but with incremental improvements in tensile properties and fatigue life, especially in heavy sections. This presentation provides comparative data for selected high strength titanium alloys.




Forest, John (October 2011) "Cutting Tool Design & Techniques for Titanium” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Modern cutting tool design and new machining techniques are improving energy efficiency, and allowing metalworking to be more environmentally friendly. Through the use of application specific tool coatings, cutting fluids can be reduced or eliminated without sacrificing performance. High performance tool geometry combined with optimized tool path software allows tools to operate at higher metal removal rates, yet consume less energy. Nontraditional coolants such as chilled CO2 are emerging options in machining high temperature alloys such as titanium.




Gaiani, Silvia (October 2011) "Comparison Between Different Titanium Welding Technologies” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The high strength, low weight and very good oxidation resistance at high temperatures of α-titanium alloys have led to successful applications in the automotive field, especially in exhaust systems manufacturing. The technology which is mainly used for manufacturing of cars exhaust systems is TIG arc welding. However, weldability of titanium and its alloys is, from a technical point of view, quite critical: there are operative problems which call for special attention, like adequate gas shielding, correct arc length and welding speed. In order to increase productivity and decrease the impact of heating near the welded joints, different welding technologies have been studied.

In this paper, a comparison between four different automatic processes, TIG, CMT (cold metal transfer), pulsed MIG, and laser-hybrid will be presented and discussed. For each technology, a set of specimens of overlapped joints has been realized, microscopically inspected and compared in terms of geometry, penetration, hardness profile and visual appearance, in order to better understand which can be the benefits or the limits of every single welding technique, and consequently their possibilities of application for titanium exhaust systems manufacturing.




Gambogi, Joseph (October 2011) "Titanium Data Mining in the United States” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publishes quarterly and annual reports reviewing the supply of and demand for titanium metal products. The statistical data in these reports are used by the Government to make policy decisions and by industry in marketing analyses. In order to more accurately determine the availability of titanium, it is important to know who supplies the statistical data; how the data are collected, compiled, and presented; and caveats to consider when analyzing the data.




Gooch, William (October 2011) "Potential Applications of Titanium Alloys in Armor Systems" TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium alloys have an established history of their application to armor technology and published technical papers in many forums describe the replacement of steel wrought plate with wrought titanium plate. Technical papers were presented in previous International Titanium Association Conferences in 2007-2010 that describe the ballistic advantages of wrought titanium. The integration of titanium alloys into an armor system may offer greater ballistic advantages when the total performance is evaluated and this paper will examine potential applications of titanium in these systems.




Grauman, James (October 2011) "Titanium Applications Within The US Navy – Where Are They?” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium usage within the Navy has increased over the last 20 years, but should be dramatically higher based on the excellent performance it has delivered. Unfortunately, low initial cost has won out over life cycle costing for the most part in new shipbuilding and the expanded uses for the metal have mostly come from the maintenance/retrofit side. The notable exceptions have been the LPD 17 piping systems, which eventually got scuttled and items such as seawater pumps and heat exchangers, which have been on ships for decades now. However, it will be interesting to see if this trend continues with the newer class of surface ships that will have significantly reduced manning levels and thus, be less capable of managing corrosion issues while at sea. In the meantime, some of the new titanium "retrofit” components being utilized today are quite interesting. These applications include both low and high strength titanium alloys. Most notable among these is TIMETAL 5111 (ASTM Grade 32). TIMETAL 5111 was developed jointly with the US Navy to be their high toughness, heavy section weldable titanium alloy. Over the last 10-15 years, the testing performed at both the Navy and TIMET have demonstrated that this alloy stands out as the premier high strength titanium alloy for use in fracture critical areas on both Naval surface ships and submarines. Current applications and new developments with the alloy will be highlighted as well as other high profile applications, which may give insight into future areas of use for titanium on US Naval ships and submarines.




Hansen, James (October 2011) "Titanium Trends and Usage in Commercial Gas Turbine Engines” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The increased use of composite material in airframe structures and compatibility issues with aluminum has resulted in an increase in the use of titanium alloys in airframes. However, this trend is not followed for gas turbine. Changes in engine system requirements and operating conditions, combined with an increase in composite usage, has resulted in a reduction in titanium usage. The trend in gas turbine engines is for higher bypass ratios, which are achieved through large diameter fans and relatively small, high temperature cores. Development of higher temperature capable titanium alloys and alloys with improved affordability, specific strength and stiffness are required to enable further engine weight reduction. Improved and affordable titanium alloys will also enable advanced designs that utilize hybrid material structures. This presentation will outline the recent trends in titanium applications for turbine engines along with the challenges lying ahead for this material in future engine architectures.




Harris, Ian (October 2011) "Welding and Additive Manufacturing for Titanium Alloys and the AMC” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Welding of titanium alloys with arc and electron beam welding is well established. Developments in new joining technology include arc, high power fiber laser, hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) and other techniques. These developments will be reviewed and application examples given. Developments focus on increased welding speed at high quality levels aimed at reducing overall welding costs. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive emerging technology area that is receiving increasing attention for its potential in a number of areas. While receiving increasing attention for plastics, the AM field for metals is much less mature. Laser and electron beam powder bed and wire fed processes are receiving the most attention in aerospace and defense industries using titanium and much of the commercial equipment is produced in Europe. The AMC has been built into a group with 22 members from industry, government and academia and focuses on the need to increase the manufacturing readiness of metals additive manufacturing and presenting a common voice to government funding agencies, Focus is on Ti-6-4 powder bed processes, particularly in the aerospace and defense industry. The basis, structure and remit of the AMC will be discussed.




Harvey, Douglas (October 2011) "Mill Perspective and Challenges in the Medical Supply Chain" TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The medical industry, specifically as it pertains to products involving titanium, has many challenges when navigating the supply chain from raw material to applied parts. This portion of the discussion will focus on those challenges from a bar manufacturer’s perspective. The objective is to give insight into the many aspects of planning, procurement and processing for the medical industry and how those aspects affect not only the bar manufacturer itself, but its vendors and also customers, whether they be at the distribution tier, parts manufacturer or the actual medical device company.




Holscher, Roland (October 2011) "New technology for high speed cutting titanium alloys” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Because of its superior properties titanium alloys is a widely used material with the largest single market for titanium products are in the aviation industry. But the properties of titanium alloys do not only exhibit advantages. They also pose difficult tasks, in particular in the machining industry. The low heat conduction factor of 7.5 W/mK exhibited by Ti-6Al-4V, the most commonly used alloy in aerospace industry, leads to the fact that, depending on cutting speed, feed and use of the cooling system, extremely high temperatures occur at the cutting tool edge. Whereas in aluminium cutting – the heat conduction is 15 times higher compared to titanium – more than 75% of the generated heat runs off through the chips, the corresponding figure in titanium cutting is a maximum 25% given off from the cutting process through the chipping. The extremely low heat conduction coefficient results in the absence of the HSC-effect in titanium alloy cutting. The hardening of the material at high cutting speeds, as well as the fact that it is not possible to make use of the heat generated by the cutting process – which leads to a softening of the material (HSC-effect) - do not produce the required reduction in the cutting force necessary for a more economical cutting process. This is the lift off for our investigation and for the paper. Its aim is to artificially create the HSC-effect by means of dual machining the cutting process. If the heat generated during the process does not heat up the material and therefore cannot cause it to soften, this is brought about by means of induction. An inductor goes into operation immediately in front of the cutting tool and heats the material which is subsequently to be removed. For example at 500°C the Ti-6Al-4V already begins to soften considerably about 50 percent, which means that a significantly smaller force is needed in the cutting process. As a result, the load on to the tool is substantially lower compared to today’s machining processes. Conclusively our investigations in preheating machining of titanium alloys at temperatures around 500°C allows lower cutting forces and less tool wear in titanium machining. In addition the process of the induction supported machining allows lowering the process time through the increase of technological parameters. Hence production costs of titanium parts, which have a high removal rate, are going be noticeably lowered.



Houle, David (October 2011) "The Shift Age” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

"The Shift Age" Futurist David Houle takes a quick look back and then present the incredible future rushing towards in the Shift Age and the Transformation Decade. A big picture presentation tha twill be a catalyst for new thoughts and views of the future.




Houser, Robert (October 2011) "Ti Review for Seawater Applications” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This paper provides a general review of titanium’s attributes, benefits, and use with regards to seawater applications. Typical applications include offshore platforms, desalination units, seawater cooled piping and heat exchanger systems. Physical and mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and cost advantages will also be presented in comparison to other common materials like Cu/Ni and steel.




Howson, Timothy (October 2011) "Advances in Aerospace Structural Titanium Forging Design” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The aerospace forging industry has worked through a surge in titanium structural forging product development in the last five years with the launch of several new commercial and military programs including three variants of the F35, the Boeing 787 and the A350. WG has been successful providing material efficient processing solutions for mid- and large-sized near to form closed die forgings for these programs. Those efforts have been supported by engineering advancements in areas such as CATIA 3-D solid modeling capability, forge deformation modeling, die design, dimensional inspection and more.

This presentation will describe some aspects of Wyman-Gordon – Grafton’s industry leading approach in new product development of various titanium airframe components. We will explore product design, process development and tool design in conjunction with improvements in 3D engineering technologies. The discussion will be supported with current and relevant examples of forging development as well as some recent innovations now utilized in production. We will provide examples of material flow modeling, die stress analysis and material velocity profiles. When properly utilized, these types of tools can provide cost efficiencies and greatly mitigate schedule risk on new product development and existing product re-development.




Kapsner, Rick (October 2011) "Best practices in driving down logistics costs as a % of sales” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

There are many areas to find savings in the supply chain. The question is, what order should you focus your efforts (first, second, third etc) to reap the biggest savings for the efforts you expend? As you move towards an optimized supply chain, you will have many options to save money. Your company will have its own ideal hierarchy of tasks and corresponding savings. The tasks you pursue first, and the resulting savings, depends on what you ship (commodities, volumes, frequencies) how you ship (the mode or modes) and the structure of your network. Should you start by focusing on continuously moving trucks and creating tours for truck drivers? Are these the hardest things to do with the lowest potential benefit? Are there easier improvements to the supply chain that can make for bigger and faster returns? This presentation examines the types of optimization for any supply chain that spends at least $1 million in transportation annually. We review why companies might prioritize certain efforts and provide a range of potential savings for each step in the process. The options are broken down into three categories: (1) Easy, (2) More Work, (3) Difficult, compared to the potential savings that can be realized.





Legzdina, Daira (October 2011) "OPTIMIZING BETA PROCESSING OF Ti-1100 ALLOY” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Today’s high performance gas turbine engines require an increase in the thrust to weight ratios, higher operating pressure ratios, higher turbine inlet temperatures and higher compressor temperatures. To meet some of these goals there is a need for high temperature materials with high specific strength and resistance against creep and fatigue. Several high temperature titanium alloys have been developed to meet these needs and work continues to optimize processing routes to obtain best possible combination of properties. Beta processing of high temperature near-alpha alloys offers a desirable combination of high temperature mechanical properties, such as improved creep life and improved resistance to fatigue crack growth. The objective of this work was to explore beta processing window for a high temperature near alpha type Ti-1100 alloy (Ti-6Al-2.75Sn-4Zr-0.4Mo-0.45Si). Billet material was produced via wrought ingot process and using a powder metallurgy route. Isothermally forged pancakes were manufactured from both materials. Microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated and results will be discussed.




Long, T. J. (October 2011) "High Performance Machining of Titanium The Systems Approach" TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Machining Titanium at high metal removal rates can be challenging due to its mechanical and thermal properties. Cutting forces are generally high as Titanium alloys have high tensile strength. Thermal management is critical because only a small portion of the heat is removed from the machining process through the chips due to titanium’s low thermal conductivity. Also, Titanium has the tendency to chemically react with common materials used in cutting tools at elevated temperatures, therefore special attention must be paid to coolant efficiency. Avoiding regenerative vibrations is crucial, as it may cause an increase in cutting forces and damage to the cutting edge, work piece surface finish, and part quality. Dimensional control becomes a challenge and may lead to costly components being scrapped. In addition advanced geometrical cutting tool solutions are necessary to avoid uncontrolled failure mechanism during the machining process and to ensure that the work piece geometry is produced within the demanded tolerance. For all the difficulties presented above, a system’s approach must be taken. A rigid setup starting from the spindle connection, high dampening, the right cutting tool, and an effective coolant delivery system must be provided. In this paper we will present a combination of essential technologies that will enable productivity to be increased in a safe, reliable and controlled manufacturing environment while keeping the geometrical integrity of the machined work piece.



Maekawa, Hirotomo (October 2011) "History, Capacity and Innovation” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Toho Titanium was established in 1953 and started its operation as Titanium Sponge producer. Since then Toho has expanded its business field to Titanium Ingot, Catalyst for polypropylene, Electronic Material and others. Not only having expanded its business field, but also Toho has launched various innovative products. Among them are the world largest VAR titanium ingot, high performance catalyst, high purity titanium dioxide and so on. Especially in this presentation, a new titanium sponge plant and the most advanced and newly developed products will be introduced.




Bender, Eric (October 2011) "Titanium Feedstock Review” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The world of titanium minerals has changed! Titanium dioxide, in its various natural forms: ilmenite or rutile; or in its upgraded forms such as synthetic rutile, titanium slag or UGS; frankly missed the Chinese-led commodities boom of the 2000s. But, times have changed and looking through the rear-view mirror while driving into the future can be a perilous decision for those in the global marketplace looking to source the increasingly scarce mineral. In this paper, TZMI will present a holistic review and independent forecast of the global titanium mineral market, focusing on its impact on the titanium sponge producers. At a time where significant under-supply pressure is growing in the high TiO2 mineral market, purchasers must be aware of the implications that internal constraints will have of their ability to source competitively. High grade titanium feedstocks, which are used by the vast majority of titanium sponge producers, account for approximately 60% of the total titanium feedstock produced in TiO2 units. With the exception of natural rutile and contributions of HiTi 90 leucoxene, high grade TiO2 feedstock is usually produced through some sort of beneficiation process to yield a final slag or synthetic rutile product. South Africa is currently the largest high grade TiO2 feedstock producing country and together with Australia accounts for approximately 57% of the global supply. Neither of these countries currently produce titanium sponge. The production of high grade TiO2 feedstock over the last five years has ranged between 3.2 million and 3.6 million TiO2 units, with the proportions of products in the mix remaining relatively unchanged. For the period 2006 to 2009 there were few significant contributions to high grade TiO2 feedstock supply from new projects, with any new supply during this period unable to offset the declining production volumes. Ironically, the lack of investor interest over this period is now a major part of the cause for the deficits in the short to medium term, with the much needed supply capacity having been delayed for 1-2 years. This in turn generated a significant amount of investor interest in 2010, possibly more than at any other point in recent history. Post the global financial crash, the titanium value chain is stretched to breaking point. Demand for titanium minerals to feed the pigment and metal sectors outweigh supply in some categories, leading to rapidly escalating pricing. Titanium sponge producers sourcing from the global marketplace are increasingly feeling the impact, not only through escalating pricing, but also restrictions around supply volumes. Heading into 2011, TZMI is forecasting continued buoyancy in the titanium mineral sector to result in another eventful year. There is little doubt remaining that the titanium mineral industry has undergone a transformation of sorts which will leave it well placed to capitalise on both the short and long term economic prosperity. The key for the purchaser of these minerals is to look at the new marketplace with a fresh set of eyes and not be constrained by a historical perspective that could lead to costly mistakes.




McMillan, Rod (October2011) "Titanium Usage and Demand Drivers in the Medical Device Industry” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium and titanium alloys present the medical device designer with a number of interesting performance improvements over other materials systems. Biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, strength to weight ratio and low modulus are just a few of the properties that drive the use of titanium in medical devices. During the inevitable swings in aerospace demand, the medical device industry witnesses a titanium industry focus that swings between aerospace and medical. Titanium firms prospecting for new business are often surprised by the dissimilarities between medical device and

aerospace requirements. This talk will explore the advantages of titanium over other material systems for the design of medical devices, the drivers for titanium demand, the effects of uncertain supply, the effect that the regulatory environment has on titanium sourcing, and the unique quality demands of the medical device industry. It is hoped that this talk will inform the general titanium community of the unique requirements of the medical device community.




Michaels, Kevin (October 2011) "Aerospace Industry Dynamics: Implications for the Titanium Market" TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

· What is the outlook for aerospace production and aftermarket demand? How will new product single-aisle products shape industry dynamics? What are the implications of high fuel prices?

· What is the demand outlook for aerospace titanium? How will the utilization of excess titanium inventory shape demand signals to mills?

· What are the key trends in the aerospace supply chain? To what extent will Boeing adjust its supply chain strategy on the B787? What are the implications of the rise of Asia as an aerospace production center?



Munch, Pierre (October 2011) "Super Thin Near Net Shapes” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Efforts to improve Buy-To-Fly (BTF) levels have been continuously pushing our industry forward.

To remain a competitive and viable solution, the extrusion process has shown a great advantage to improve BTF ratio and thus reduce costs for customers. To achieve a step further and reach BTF ratio close to 2, we have gone through a very precise BTF reduction process.

1) Technical capability assessments carried out

2) Identification of the first potential component part completed

3) Calculation of cost and weight savings done

4) Process route defined

5) Test done on the extruded part

6) Results carried out and comparison with objectives completed

7) Tests achieved successfully on the machined part ready to be assembled : Machining time reduced, BTF =2, lead time optimized

Extrusion technology mixed to other technology like linear friction welding or bending have shown as well great benefits. BTF reduction routes using combined technologies are in process.



Mazibuko, Nonjabuliso (October 2011) "Characterization of alpha-case layer on Ti6Al4V Investment Casting" TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

High specific strength, excellent mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility make Titanium and its alloys more useful in the new generation of commercial aircrafts and biomedical applications. However the high melting point and high reactivity of titanium and its alloys with ceramic crucibles and ceramic moulds restrict the use of investment casting process. Accordingly expensive ceramic materials, such as yttria stabilized zirconia and yttria, need to be utilized in order to avoid Ti-6Al-4V/face-coat interaction. Enough data may be found on the investment casting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, but still the mechanism and the characterization of alpha-case need to be deeply understood. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the alpha-case layer generated during the investment casting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using yttria stabilized zirconia face-coat after induction melting in zirconia crucible. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investment cast after induction melting using yttria stabilized face-coat. The alpha-case generated was characterized through the microstructural analysis, microhardness profile, scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The yttria partially stabilized zirconia face-coat reacted with Ti-6Al-4V and led to the formation of a very hard alpha-case layer. The alpha-case is not wholly titanium oxide, but some of the binders and ZrO2 dissolved in Titanium oxide to form Ti2ZrO.





Mazibuko, Nonjabuliso (October 2011) "Effect of Pickling Solution on the Surface Morphology of Ti-6Al-4V alloy Investment Cast” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

T itanium and its alloys are extensively used in the new generation of commercial aircrafts and biomedical applications, because of their advantages, such as high specific strength, excellent fatigue property, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. However the high melting point and high reactivity of titanium and its alloys with ceramic crucibles and ceramic moulds lead to the formation of alpha-case layer, in spite of the thermodynamic stability of ceramic refractories such yttria stabilized zirconia and yttria. Hydrofluoric acid offers a fast pickling rate for removing this alpha-case layer from the surface. Although the chemical milling process has been investigated, the effect of the pickling solution on the surface quality after the alpha-case removal still needs to be addressed. This study, mainly investigated the effect of pickling solution on surface morphology and the removal of the alpha-case layer generated by yttria stabilized zirconia/Ti-6Al-4V interaction during the investment casting. The as cast Ti6Al4V, obtained after investment casting with yttria stabilized zirconia face-coat, was chemically milled using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. This process removed completely the alpha-case layer. Lower hardness and almost no oxygen contamination are revealed after microhardness measurement, Energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analysis. The roughness as well as the glossiness of the chemically milled surface decrease as the hydrofluoric acid concentration increases. Mixing the hydrofluoric acid with either of the two acids; phosphoric and sulphuric acid negatively affect the surface morphology. However increasing the nitric acid strongly improves the surface quality.



Orlov, Dimitrij (October 2011) "The Strategic Role of Scrap Recycling and Scrap Revert Management for the Titanium Industry” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Fluctuating prices for Titanium sponge and limited availability due to political instability, economic crisis or as recently seen in Japan, natural disaster strengthens the importance of scrap materials as alternative means of raw material supply. The recycling of internal scrap volumes and retaining the scrap in the production cycle serves several purposes for the Titanium industry. Cost savings can be generated through stable raw material prices and a lower energy input. The raw material supply can be secured and the environmental impact can be minimized. This presentation addresses the challenges of the supply with raw materials for the Titanium industry and the need to recognize the strategic and economic value of internal scrap. It reviews short term and mid-term fluctuations of the Titanium market growth and its impact on supply strategies. Vertical integration of scrap management between melting, forging and manufacturing, scrap supply strategies for the melting companies and the obstacle of a generally low recognition of the value and importance of scrap recycling and processing by the generating companies will be discussed.



Rao, Kartik, (October 2011) "The FFC Process for the Production of Titanium and Titanium Alloys” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The titanium industry has a long history of seeking a low cost titanium extraction process in combination with low cost direct consolidation or PM part production routes. Metalysis has developed a new generation, electrochemical cell for producing titanium and its alloys utilizing the FFC Cambridge process principles. The new plant is at a scale that will provide sufficient material for comprehensive development programs into the production of low cost titanium products via various consolidation routes. The pilot plant is also at a scale that is commercially viable for the production of tantalum powder. The current status of the development program will be discussed along with R&D developments in the use of the FFC Cambridge process for the production of CP-Ti and titanium alloys




Rocco, Vincent (October 2011) "Vanadium: Not So "Minor" For Titanium” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

While the steel producers sometimes classify it as a "minor metal", vanadium is a key component and raw material for the titanium industry. The consistent supply of vanadium is a major concern to titanium producers, especially during periods of heightened demand. However, since vanadium usage in titanium represents only a fraction of the world's consumption, this key raw material is subject to the whims of the global commodity market. With Ti 6Al4V accounting for over 50% of the global titanium metal usage by some estimates, it is no wonder that to those in the titanium industry, vanadium is anything but a "minor metal". This presentation will consider the sources of vanadium and relative costs of extracting it into a usable form and how the quality requirements imposed on the titanium industry can affect the vanadium supply and cost to a titanium metal producer. A historical review together with the current outlook for vanadium supply and consumption will be examined along with the factors that can affect both the supply and demand. In addition, the future for vanadium in terms of both supply and consumption, together with factors that can influence each, will be discussed.




Scherrer, Daniel (October 2011) "A Screening Test For Cutting Fluids

When Milling Titanium " TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

In 1995 the EPA provided a grant to the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Sciences (now TechSolve) to produce a milling test for comparing cutting fluids. A working committee of industry experts was formed and, since the majority of participants dealt with steel, that material was selected for the test. Subsequently, a standard test was published and used as a first screen by industry for selecting fluids. The development of advanced cutting tools and coating materials has now made this test obsolete. Tool life with only air is as good as with most fluids. For the Aircraft industry an interest in developing a similar test when milling titanium was expressed. It is known that the properties of titanium place a more stringent requirement on cutting fluids and experience has verified that. The test described in this paper was designed to minimize the effect of tooth entry (impact) and provide an extended time in cut. As boundary conditions a fluid that is mostly water provided maximum cooling and one of Soy oil, maximum lubrication. A quality water-soluble oil at 12% concentration was included. Differences between the two extremes were as great as 10 to 1 in tool life.




Schumerth, Dennis (October 2011) The Evolution of Titanium Power Plant Surface Condenser Tubing …….Forty Years & 600 Million Feet Later” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium was discovered by British scientist William Gregor in 1791 and named by Austrian chemist Martin Klaproth after the Titans – the first sons of the earth in Greek mythology. This "reddish brown calx” remained largely a curiosity until William Kroll of Luxembourg, recognized as the father of the titanium industry, perfected his manufacturing process. Today, the Kroll Process remains largely responsible for 80% of the world’s production of titanium.

Titanium exhibits dramatic and highly useful characteristics as a reactive metal in today’s world. Consider its superior strength to weight ratio for use in military and commercial avionics, alloy advancements in the field of biomedical engineering, extensive use as "the” white-base pigment and its high desirability index in the power generation, chemical & industrial processing industries and other applications where both strength and corrosion resistance is desirable if not mandatory. Notwithstanding today’s recognition of these unique characteristics, utilities in the early 70’s took the unparalleled step of installing Grade 2 titanium in their surface condensers. These precedent setting events became arguably the first complete power plant surface condensers ever retubed using Grade 2 titanium. The paper will develop these milestone events and expand on significant current-day process stream improvements, highlight continuing sustainability efforts to lower costs and expose new challenges that bring this material to the forefront of competitive desirability in today's demanding markets. It will analyze and reinforce data to reveal new applications that were not possible even several years ago and identify the most recent installations where the use of titanium and even other competing thin-wall materials were historically considered not suitable.




Seiner, Henry (October 2011) "Where Do We Go From Here ?” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

TIMET's approach to raw materials and melting can be summed up in one word - flexibility. TIMET has four significant melting locations, two in the US and two in Europe. TIMET makes extensive use of both VAR (Vacuum Arc Re-melting) and CHM (Cold Hearth Melting) technologies. TIMET makes sponge and buys sponge, utilizing both long-term agreements and the spot marketplace. TIMET flexes its recipes between sponge based and scrap based production versions as much or more than anyone in the industry. As the sponsor of this panel in 2010 and again this year, as well as a frequent presenter at this and other raw materials panels over recent years, combined with the keen interest required to efficiently manage this flexible approach, TIMET pays particular interest to all of the topics being discussed today during this panel. This presentation will attempt to tie together each of the conclusions reached by the various presenters into a coherent vision of the coming years related to raw material supply for titanium melted products.




Skorija, Michael (October 2011) "Affordability – Is pricing pressure the answer or is there another overarching strategy?” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Today, many companies are dealing with increasing raw materials and processing costs, while at the same time trying to keep sales pricing constant or even reduce the finished goods sales price. Pressure from the OEM’s and the ultimate customer base require us to look at the overall Supply Chain for a more strategic way to address the rising materials costs across the industry. With affordability a main objective of aircraft programs, we can now start to address standardization of material sizes and show that managing the overall working capital and bringing inventories down to a manageable level allows better cash flow and ultimately more material available at a lower price per pound. Understanding the basic common sense approach to defining the components of a supply chain will help you to stop the firefighting and enable you to become more forward thinking and improve profitability. The main objective of any supply chain intervention should be to allow visibility into all segments of the business to drive and measure the performance and to take a complex set of situations and business requirements and break them down into manageable components where actions will receive clear bottom line benefits. If you understand your basic business requirements and can steer to your core products. The changes you make will impact your bottom line in record time.




Smith, Ryan (October 2011) "Titanium Consolidation Techniques: Roll Compaction & Pneumatic Isostatic Forging” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

This paper will present recent developments made in Roll Compaction and Pneumatic Isostatic Forging (PIF) processes. Ametek’s proprietary roll compaction technologies have been applied to produce millions of pounds of nickel, iron, copper and cobalt based alloys since our inception in 1959. Recent enhancement to our existing roll compaction processes and patented Pneumatic Isostatic Forging (PIF) have been made with Titanium alloys. We will present properties of both Cp Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy in thin-sheet, plate, and tube form. Processing advantages and production capacities will be discussed. Focus will be on thin sheet roll compaction (0.050”-0.125”) and near net shape consolidation of tube, bar and plate. Advancements have led to superior fracture toughness, low interstitials for Grade 23 production, and above expected yield strength resulting from our improved grain refinement procedures.



Srivastava, Anil (October 2011) "High Speed Turning of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloy” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Titanium and its alloys have increased utilization in aerospace, defense and medical applications due to combination of high specific strength, toughness, corrosion resistance, elevated-temperature performance and excellent bio-compatibility. But, these alloys are difficult to machine due to low thermal conductivity, low modulus of elasticity and higher chemical reactivity with other materials at elevated temperatures. In general, temperature related machining difficulties are encountered at production speeds in the range of 60 m/min and high-speed machining of these alloys has created considerable interest to researchers, tool manufacturers and end users. This paper presents recent results obtained during high speed turning of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy with the aim of improving "machinability”. Turning tests have been conducted at higher cutting speeds using uncoated, ultra-hard and nano-layered coated and super-finished cutting edge prep inserts. The effects of speed and feed are discussed while turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy under dry and flooded coolant application. The results show that super-finished cutting edge prep inserts significantly (~2x) enhanced the tool life.



Tarney, Edward (October 2011) "Economic Tooling For High Performance Machining Of Ti Alloys - Increased Material Removal Rate And Production Efficiency " TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Aubert & Duval supplies titanium alloy forgings to the aerospace industry. Such forgings are often supplied in the rough machined condition. AD conducted tooling experiments to determine whether changes in the end mills used for rough machining could provide improvements in the machining efficiency. End mills manufactured from ultra-clean PM high speed steel were compared against reference tools made from cemented carbide. Tests were conducted on commercial forgings of Ti-6V and 10-2-3. Initial test results showed 25% higher chip removal rates with HSS tools. Further tests using improvements in geometry and cutting conditions permitted removal rates of up to 2 to 3 times greater than standard cemented carbide tool results. While not the primary goal, tool wear was measured in the course of the evaluation, and was judged to be acceptable for the part requirements. Conclusions show higher material removal rates, improved machining times, and acceptable wear life in roughing mills made from ultra-clean PM HSS compared to cemented carbide.



Thompson, Brian (October 2011) "Friction Stir Welding of Titanium” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The solid-state nature of the Friction Stir Welding process offers several benefits when used for welding and joining. Chief among these benefits are low distortion and excellent weld mechanical properties. FSW utilizes a non-consumable rotating tool to generate frictional heat and transport material across a weld joint. This tool is traversed along a 2-D or 3-D joint profile in order to fully consolidate the joint interface and join two pieces of material together. Tool life is critical to the success of this technology when joining Titanium as longer tool lives translate into higher production and lower costs. Both tool material selection and tool design play a vital and intertwining role in achieving extended tool life. Extensive research into Tungsten based tool materials and the Variable Penetration Tool (VPT) design has achieved tool lives in the thousands of feet. Due to these advancements this technology is capable of joining Titanium alloys up to 1-in thick in a single pass. FSW’s highly repeatable nature ensures tight quality control while providing near base metal mechanical properties. Additionally, low part distortion after welding ensures a reduction in part fit up cost during component assembly. The many benefits of this process has opened the door for FSW in many applications across a wide range of industries including aerospace, energy, and heavy manufacturing. Research at EWI has been key to these developments. In this presentation, some of these advancements will be described in detail. Key topics to be covered include development of specific tool materials, tool designs, and processing that has enabled this technical capability as it is understood today.




Uttenthaler , Peter (October 2011) "High Performance Metal Cutting” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

High performance metal cutting of difficult to machine materials require new concepts regarding substrate and coatings. Especially the machining of titanium generates specific demands on the metallurgical setup of the cutting grades. A new coating concept based on TiB2 was developed which opens new application areas in metal cutting and wear applications. Because of the new possibility to generate this coating with a CVD process the hardness and chemical stability is significantly increased compared to conventional available TiB2 coatings. Additionally the nano- structured composition of this coating leads to strongly improved tribological behaviours during cutting and wear processes. In this presentation, manufacturing, metallurgical features, and the resulting performance of this new development will be presented and discussed which is considered as a technical reliable alternative to diamond coatings.




Walsh, John (October 2011) "The Commercial Aviation Market and theEconomy – Walsh Aviation” TITANIUM2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The presentation will analyze the commercial aircraft delivery cycles for large transport aircraft (Boeing and Embraer), regional jets (Bombardier and Embraer) and the business jet market with an emphasis on linkages and correlation with economic growth and recession cycles. Near term projections of what aircraft delivery rates are likely to be over the next three years will also be explored.



Wise, Jeff (October 2011) "Metals Distribution for Medical Devices” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Everyone in the medical supply chain is in the business of supplying products to end users (patients) whether through an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), subcontract machine shop or fabricator, doctor or hospital. We supply our products in the most efficient way possible so we can remain competitive and grow our business. Global customers are requiring cost control or reduction, increasing internal and supplier quality controls while reducing their supply base for many commodities including metals. This discussion will focus on the metals distribution portion of the supply chain and address internal and supply chain quality controls, cost control, and the customer service concept from a TI point of view. Often, between the raw material producer and the OEM or subcontractor to them lies a distribution company such as TI - Medical. Right place at the right time, with the right material, in the right quantity for the right price to the customer's approved supplier list (ASL). This section of the panel discussion will review the organizational structure, systems, procedures and processes necessary to make it happen.



Withers, James C. (October 2011) "Low Cost Processing to Produce Spherical Ti-6Al-4V PowderTITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

The utilization of titanium powder has become increasingly important to produce low cost and non-melted componentry. Spherical morphology alloy powder is ideal in virtually all powder metallurgy, additive manufacturing and additive layer processing. State-of-the-art spherical titanium powders are made by melting prepared alloy ingot and gas atomizing which results in spherical powder at a high cost in the approximate range of five times ingot cost. Alternate processing has been developed and demonstrated to utilize titanium sponge or electrolytic titanium powder feed with addition of Al/V master alloy and gas atomize to produce spherical Ti 6Al-4V powder. This alternate processing cost to produce spherical alloy titanium powder is a low multiple over the cost of the CP Ti feed and Al/V master alloy. Low cost spherical Ti-6Al-4V powder provides an opportunity to produce low cost componentry and open new markets such as automotive.



Holland, Michael (October 2011) "Aerospace Industry Dynamics Implications for the Titanium Market” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Abstract unavailable.





Williams, David (October 2011) "Perspectives And Challenges Of The Titanium Supply Chain in Airbus” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Abstract unavailable.




Byrne, John (October 2011) "787 Dreamliner It’s More than a Dream” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Abstract unavailable.




Yu, Oscar (October 2011) "Reducing Titanium Cost by Continuous Casting” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

Abstract unavailable.




Voisine, Mike (October 2011) "Optical Processing of Titanium” TITANIUM 2011, Sheraton San Diego, San Diego, California

CLogic Defense has processed millions of pounds of Titanium product, from thin sheets to heavy plates, welded components and most recently, uniquely formed structuresusing optical processing techniques that offer numerous end-item advantages andcombined performance attributes. Defense applications traditionally have been driven by the weight attributes of Titanium, or its unique corrosion resistance, or even its ballistic performance, but overall, we believe its use can be greatly expanded. Optical processing opens significant opportunities toconvert Titanium mill products into performance oriented parts and structures, further expanding the trade space matrix beyond the traditional weight savings. Recent successes include the use of optically formed titanium ballistic plate to create a structure for a combat vehicle application. Looking at the unique attributes of Titanium ballistic plate: readily available, cost effective and consistent, only one piece was missing, how to efficientlyturn raw material into a three dimensional performance structure. This challenge was met using a unique optical processing method that enabled a one-piece combat vehicle structure to be constructedout of one-half inch ballistic plate at the least cost with the highest performance. The forming technology also provided a degree of flexibility and rigidity to the structure allowing designersto "tune” how it would work in actual vehicle applications. The result:This solution was baselined for the vehicle application and achievedthe highest performance, best in corrosion protection and lowest in direct and overall life-cycle costs.








Abakumov,Georg I. (October 2010) 'Titanium Alloys Manufactured by Low Cost Solid State Powder Metallurgy Processes for Military, Aerospace and Other Critical Applications' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Although Titanium powder metallurgy (P/M) offers a substantial cost reduction for manufacturing the near net shape titanium alloy components, this low cost solid state (SS) manufacturing possess did not find any practical applications because of the inferior properties of P/M Titanium alloys to compare with the properties of titanium alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (IM) processes.Residual porosity and high interstitial contents(sodium, magnesium, chlorine and others) degrade the fatigue and other properties of SS Titanium alloys and create the weld ability problems. Residual porosity and high interstitial contents are not the issue with the IM Titanium alloys when the interstitials are being removed during liquid state processing and the voids are sealed by subsequent high temperature deformation being used in producing the wrought titanium alloys. To resolve these quality issues,ADMA Products, Inc. developed the innovative powder production and SS processes to manufacture the near full dense (over 99% of theoretical densities)P/M Titanium alloys with extra low interstitial contents. The chemistries andmechanical properties of the SS Titanium alloys produced by these patented processes are meeting the aerospace, military and other critical specification requirements. This presentation would discuss the innovative hydrogenated titanium powder production process, room temperature consolidation processes(die-pressing, cold iso-static pressing, and direct powder rolling) followed bysintering, post sintering operations such as forging, rolling, HIPping, and others. The resulting microstructures and mechanical properties which are meeting theapplicable Aerospace Material Specifications (AMS), military and otherspecifications will be presented. The various Titanium alloy components produced by these innovative low cost P/M processes will be also demonstrated.



Abkowitz,Susan M (October 2010) 'Advances in PM Titanium: Reduced Cost and ImprovedProperties' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

As demand for titanium products continues toincrease, interest in titanium products producedfrom powder metal has grown significantly inrecent years. This has led to renewed interest innew processes for producing titanium powders andnew consolidation methods being proposed,developed and scaled-up. While these continue tobe studied, the production-proven blendedelemental titanium powder metal manufacturing technology pioneered at DynametTechnology continues to gain acceptance in diverse applications. This technologythat provides opportunities for reduced product costs and for the creation of newcompositions with unique properties will be discussed.


Ackelid,Ulf (October 2010) 'Additive Manufacturing of GammaTitanium AluminideParts by Electron Beam Melting (EBM)' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms ConventionCenter, Orlando, Florida, USA

The EBM technology will be described in detail, with focus on a recentlydeveloped process for gamma titanium aluminide. This intermetallic compound hasa strong potential for aerospace applications due to its low density and high strengthat elevated temperatures, but its use has previously been hampered by the availablefabrication methods.


Ackelid,Ulf (October 2010) 'Improved Surface Quality andProductivity in Ti Additive Manufacturing using EBM MultiBeam' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms ConventionCenter, Orlando, Florida, USA

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) has become anestablished manufacturing technology for fullydense metal parts with excellent materialproperties. The parts are built in a vacuum chamberby additive consolidation of thin layers of metalpowder. EBM opens up new degrees of freedom indesign of complex 3D geometries, e.g. fine networkstructures, internal cavities and channels. The EBMproduction route delivers full traceability fromingot to the final part and do comply with the industry driven standards for bothmedical and aerospace applications.


Akhtar,M. Kamal (October 2010) 'Initiating Low Cost TitaniumParts' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord PalmsConvention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium attracts widespread attention in thematerials processing arena due to the unmatchedcombination of properties it offers: high strength toweight ratio, ductility, corrosion resistance andgood fatigue properties. The attention and usedrivers for titanium will continue to increase asenergy efficiency and resource conservationbecome the dominant themes in metals and chemicals manufacturing. Given therelative abundance of titanium ore and the outstanding material properties it offers,one would have expected titanium to be more widely used. However, the global useof titanium is 16,000 times smaller than that of steel and 450 times smaller than thatof aluminum. The two primary factors limiting titanium use are the high cost of themetal and the challenges in processing it.


Bähr,Erik (October 2010) 'Cold Spray Systems And Components From CGT GmbH For The Production Of High-End Metal Coatings And Parts' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Cold spray has established itself on the market as an innovative method for coating,repairing and manufacturing finished components. The CGT modular systems enable a broad range of metals and alloys, e.g. Aluminium, Copper, Titanium, Inconel or Ti6Al4V, to be used to produce mainly high quality coatings. Cold gas is very well suited for production of thick parts and structures, as it is required e.g. in rapid prototyping or for free-standing parts. This is especially interesting for materials with high strength or high melting points, for which forming is difficult and requires high temperatures. The potential of cold spray for producing complex parts is evaluated.


Barre,Charles (October 2010) 'Challenges and New Solutions for Production of Complex Shaped Parts from Ti Alloys via PM HIP. ' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The near net shape PM process enables to develop and produce economically various types of the complex shape parts and also provides the design enhancement due to the combination of "as cast” complex geometry as well as the properties of HIPed powder exceeding those of the wrought material.


Bertolini,Mark (October 2010) 'Development of a New Generation Pilot Plant for Production of Low Cost Titanium and Titanium Powders Utilising FFC Cambridge Process Principles.' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The titanium market has a long history of seeking a low cost titanium production route in combination with low cost direct consolidation or PM component production routes. Metalysis has developed a new generation, electrochemical cell for producing titanium and its alloys utilising the FFC Cambridge process principles. The new plant is at a scale that will provide titanium for comprehensive development programs into the production of low cost titanium parts. The pilot plant is also at a scale that is commercially viable for the production of tantalum.


Bihlman,Bill (October 2010) 'Aerospace Titanium Demand Outlook' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Outlook for aerospace production


Bryan,D.J. (October 2010) 'ATI 425 Alloy For Aerospace and Defense Applications' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Compositional and mechanical property targets for ATI 425 alloy included a sheet material to meet the strength requirements for Ti-6Al-4V with improved room temperature formability. The average yield strength is close to the Ti-6Al-4V AMS4911 minimum with significantly improved ductility. ATI 425 alloy is a hot- or cold-rollable alpha/beta titanium alloy offering the potential for strength comparable to Ti-6Al-4V with improved room-temperature formability, a consequence of improved room temperature ductility. The continuous, cold-rolled coil product also offers improved thickness tolerance and surface finish over pack-rolled sheet products.


Bryan,D.J. (October 2010) 'Structural Titanium Biomedical Alloys For Aerospace Applications' ,TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Historically, technology and commercial metallic alloys developed for aerospace and industrial applications were transferred into the manufacture of implantable medical and surgical devices. Some examples include: stainless steels (ATI 316L),cobalt-base alloys (ATI 35N alloy, ATI L-605alloy) and titanium-base alloys (ATI CP2, ATI 6-4ELI, ATI 6-4, ATI 3-2.5). There has not, however,been significant cross-pollination of metallic alloys developed for biocompatibility and other specialized requirements of the medical industries into industrial and aerospace applications.


Bucar, Tomaz (October 2010) 'Titanium safety cages in the automotive racing industry' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

he application of titanium and its alloys to automotive parts has grown dramatically in the last years. Automotive applications of titanium follow logically from the high strength, high temperature durability and unique density of titanium and its alloys, and their excellent resistance to corrosion and wear. One of the most important reasons for using titanium in sports cars is weight reduction,which brings better results both in the vehicle performance and fuel efficiency. Designers are constantly looking to save some weight from their design and material choice plays an important part in this. The discussion will focus on the use of titanium safety cages in the automotive racing industry. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the development process of the titanium safety cages using different numerical analyses as well as experimental methods. In conclusion, some of the newly developed Akrapovic lightweight and high performance titanium safety cages for sports cars are presented.


Buch,James (October 2010) 'Titanium Demand in Military Markets' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The use of titanium in military applications has increased over the last decade, and the future will present both opportunities and challenges for continued expansion. While the global economic recession may be behind us, the negative impact on military budgets is looming. At the same time,technological advancements and continued a symmetrical warfare will push weapons designers toward the use of titanium to provide troops with the appropriate tools to accomplish their mission. Mr. Buch will present some of these opportunities and challenges facing the global titanium industry for both military aerospace and ground vehicle applications in the coming decade.


Cain,Kevin J. (October 2010) 'Industrial Titanium Demand Forecast' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

2010 is being viewed as a transition year; bridging the recessionary period to one of economic growth.The opinion on the pace of the recovery is varied;some expect a powerful recovery, and others expect a slow climb over the next few years. Some economists believe we’ll have an abbreviated rebound followed by another slump. Regardless of what shape this recovery is taking, it’s apparent that two broad market influences have taken shape within the industrial sector. This presentation will review the influences that consumer demand and infrastructure requirements will have on the recovery of the industrial titanium market sector.


Connor ,Suzanne (October 2010) 'TITANIUM NOW: The Future of Things' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

This presentation is about the marriage of high design and titanium. Generation Y will continue to influence the sales of consumer products in addition to setting market trends. Combining an ideal material such as titanium, design, and the largest generation in history sets the foundation of a strategic plan. In 2010, we are at the dawn of a new era in consumer products. The time is now for titanium to become the material of choice for designers and consumers alike.


Dalton,Hunter (October 2010) 'Titanium Demand and Trends in the Jet Engine Market' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The materials used in the next generation of jet engines are being strongly impacted by the incessant drive to create "green” engines with greater efficiency, lower noise, and lower emissions than the engines of today. Titanium is used extensively in jet engines for its excellent mechanical properties, ease of fabrication, and lightweight. This presentation discusses the current market drivers and forecast for jet engine deliveries, the demand for titanium used in the production of jet engine components, and the effect of changes in jet engine design on future titanium demand.


Dewhurst, Philip (October 2010) 'Titanium sponge supply past,present and future' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium sponge is produced in just six countries;between 2003 and 2008 world output grew to unprecedented levels at a rate of almost 20%py,largely because of massive expansion in industrial quality capacity in China. In 2009 only 51% of world sponge production capacity of 224ktpy (a third in China) was used. With12ktpy of new capacity in Japan in 2010 and some 55ktpy of new capacity (about 20% of which will be aerospace grade) due on stream in China before the end of 2011, supplies should be abundant in the medium term. Planned increases incapacity in Russia, Japan and the USA have been deferred, probably until 2014/15,pending market developments.


Dolynuk,V. (October 2010) 'Chinese Titanium Processing Industry : Progress and Future' ,TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Dorsch,T. James (October 2010) 'Past, Present and Future ofTitanium for Ground Combat Vehicles' ,TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The US Combat Systems operating group of BAE Systems, has been developing applications and fielding titanium components for ground combat vehicles. This year marks the 20th year since the start of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle titanium Commander’s Hatch project. This presentation will provide an historical review of titanium applications at BAE Systems, and review current applications as well as discuss future opportunities and challenges for applying titanium on ground combat vehicles.


Fu, Baoquan (October 2010) 'EFFECT OF VAR PROCESSING PARAMETERS FOR TI-1023 ALLOY MACROSEGREGATION', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

ß-titanium alloy has good elevated temperature properties and resistance to oxidation, it widely used to aerospace application.Ti-1023 (Ti-10V-3Fe-2Al) alloy is a typical ß-titanium alloy. The ß stabilized elements (such as V and Fe) are very high in Ti-1023 alloy. Especially Fe is typical element which is easy to segregation at metallurgy period.This alloy is usually fabricated by 3th vacuum arc remelting (VAR). The macro segregation is relatively notability for VAR titanium alloy ingots. It will produce considerable serious effects for mechanical properties of titanium alloy. Any procedure variation will result in the fluctuation of melting bath. This fluctuation will cause non-homogeneous distribution for titanium alloy elements. So precise controlling the VAR procedure can deduce the macrosegregation in titanium alloy. How to realize the precise controlling the VAR procedure? To choice the reasonable parameters are only method to solve this problem. This paper studied the effect of melting current and stirring coil magnetic for the macro segregation of Ti-1023 alloy. When the current was smaller, the buoyancy was the key factor for molten bath. The temperature of molten bath was trend to unification. So the segregation of Fe element would be not obvious. The Fe segregation would be increased with the magnetic field of stirring coil. When the magnetic field increased to certain high value, the Fe segregation would be decreased very obviously. The simulation of magnetic field also used to analysis the effect of magnetic field for macro segregation. It was correspond with the actual ingot macrostructure. The result of this paper can be used to produce the commercial big Ti-1023 ingot which size is bigger than ф600mm.


Gaiani ,Silvia (October 2010) 'PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS SHEETS', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

From a practical point of view, the manufacturing of all the several members of exhaust systems requires different plastic deformation technologies, like tubing,bending, sheet metal forming, etc. Due to this reason, Akrapovic performed in its laboratory a large variety of experimental tests in order to collect a complete set of data which can be used to predict formability and an isotropic behavior of the titanium alloys used for its own products range. Recently, the mentioned data has been used to build dedicated an isotropic mathematical models which can be embedded in a finite element code. For predicting titanium a alloys deformation, in the present study the Barlat’s anisotropic yield function has been chosen. As a matter of fact, accuracy of numerical analysis depends on the use of a constitutive model that precisely describes the behavior of the material. This is especially important when the material exhibits an isotropic characteristics, as most cold rolled titanium sheet metals do. The paper will describe the experimental procedure used to collect the set of data necessary for FEA simulation and also the procedure used to validate the numerical model. A comparison between simulation and real deformation processes will be presented and discussed.


GEIGER,JASON (October 2010) 'Iluka Resources Titanium Mineral Feedstocks History and Future Trends', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium mineral feedstocks have a wide range of consumer, lifestyle and industrial applications.They are primarily used to produce TiO2 pigment for paint, plastic and paper, but are importantly also used in the production of titanium metal, and welding electrodes.


Gooch,William A. (October 2010) 'The Design and Applicationof Titanium Alloys to U.S. Army Platforms -2010 ' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms ConventionCenter, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium alloys have long been used for reducing system weight in airframe structure and jet engine components. The high cost of titanium, however,has historically prevented their application to military ground vehicles. In recent years, the cost of titanium has fallen relative to the cost of composite and ceramic armors and titanium is now a valid option for some Army applications, whether for weight reduction or improved ballistic performance. The distinct advantages of low density, high strength, a large competitive industrial base, and well established forming and shaping techniques establishes titanium as an excellent material for many military applications. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has invested significant research efforts in understanding the material processing requirements for ground versus aerospace applications and this paper will provide an overview of that research. A major concurrent effort has been amending existing military specifications to allow the use of lower cost, higher oxygen content titanium alloys that meet specific ground applications. The paper will end with a review of some of the past and current applications of titanium on US Army platforms and augments previous presentations given in this forum in 2007, 2008 and 2009.


Gorski,Tony (October 2010) 'Supply Chain' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

We all know it sounds like the right thing to do –Lean out this, or Lean out that to reduce costs and improve efficiencies. And in today’s economic climate we all need to focus on extracting free cash flow and working capital. But too many times great Lean improvements are made in granular microcosms of the business, leaving the business heads searching for the P&L improvements and game-changing transformation. Join Tony Gorski,President of Demand Point and former CEO of JCIT International, for an informal chat session to discuss how to prevent "random acts of lean" and how to create quantum leap shifts in fulfillment strategy.


Gould,Jerry E. (October 2010) 'Fundamentals and Advances in Solid State Joining for Ti-Alloys' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Harris,Ian D.(October 2010) 'Advances in Arc and Hybrid Welding, and AM of Titanium Alloys' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

This presentation will review the latest joining processes for titanium alloys and the field of AM for metals. Processes such as hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) and narrow groove tandem gas metal arc welding (NG TGMAW-P) are suitable for most titanium alloys in both thin and thick sections. Processes such as GTAW-HW,VHP UAM, EBFFF, and laser processes can be used to produce free form fabricated(FFF) parts without significant tooling and in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.The attributes, advantages, and disadvantages of several of these processes will be characterized, and a nationally-based forum for exploitation in a collaborative manner will be described; namely, the Additive Manufacturing Consortium (AMC)that has formed to address the complex needs for material property data in the metals field, especially within the aerospace community, but including ground vehicle applications. While there are several active arenas for metals AM none of these is coordinated and there is little collaboration outside MAI. AMC seeks to provide a mechanism for collaboration to minimize redundant generation of the required design allowable data required for ground-based and flight-based applications, particularly with respect to the cost of A and B basis LCF and HCFdata generation. Even applications that are already being developed are several years from flight qualification, and AMC goal is to reduce the timeline to flight qualification by coordinated development and cost-sharing the development cost for this critical data.


Hay,Mariah Ruth(October 2010) 'Design and our Health: The Link between Comfort,Aesthetics and Healing' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


HAYASHI,DAISUKE (October 2010) 'A high performance titanium sheet for plate type heat exchanger' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium with high corrosion resistance is expected as the main materials for plates in PHE for these systems, because seawater is often used as heat source for small thermal energy conversion. As the efficiency of plate evaporators for the small thermal energy conversion is wanted to become better, Kobe Steel, Ltd. has been developing the technology to improve the thermal efficiency of vapor heat exchanger.


Hickton,Dawne S. (October 2010) 'GLOBAL COMMERCIAL AEROSPACE' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The commercial aerospace industry, including its titanium suppliers, experienced a historic cycle over the past several years. As recently as 2007, the stars were perfectly aligned for titanium suppliers as several new commercial aerospace programs (787, A380, A350) were ramping up, financial markets were booming, and the titanium supply chain signed long-term agreements and funded major capital investments, all justified by forecasts that"proved” demand far exceeded supply for years to come. How could the forecaster sand planners have missed the tsunami of 2008-2009? Where were the plans for the sub-prime mortgage meltdown and banking crisis, or the global recession and 10%unemployment rates, or the 50-plus million lbs of excess titanium inventory created by the once-popular take-or-pay contracts?Ms. Hickton will provide insight and analysis into the key drivers of the run-up and decline in titanium during this period and also put this recent cycle into perspective relative to other cycles in the industry. She will also inform the audience on the current state of the commercial aerospace segment and the anticipated demand for titanium over the next twelve months. The presentation will highlight important titanium-related programs like the 787, A380, A350, single-aisles, and regional aircraft. Finally, she will discuss key drivers and threats to long-term titanium growth in the commercial aerospace segment, including demographic drivers,buy-to-fly trends, growing titanium applications on the airframe, competing materials, and new programs from Comac, Bombardier, and single-aisle replacements. Commercial aerospace and titanium business managers and investors will all benefit from Ms. Hickton’s insights and leave ITA 2010 more informed to make better long-term business decisions.


Hill,Robert (October 2010) 'The Vacuum Heat Treatment of Titanium Alloys for Commercial Airframes', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

For this discussion we will review basic vacuum and pyrometry technology. We will then relate this information to the critical heat treatment of particular airframe components and the capacity increases that were necessary to support this growth.


Holz,Dr. Markus (October 2010) 'The European Titanium Market Chances and Risks' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Dr. Holz will summarize the deep impact of the financial and economical crisis in the European business environment and subsequently explain the consequences for the Titanium Industry.An estimation until 2011/2012 will be provided,what might be possible scenarios for a recovery of our industry and where are some new growth potentials outside of the traditional areas.


Houser,Robert(October 2010) 'Titanium Use in the Geothermal Industry ' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Geothermal power plants around the world experience diverse corrosive environments. Some plant locations are so corrosive that titanium is one of the few candidate materials that can survive pasta standard 18 month test string casing. The ability to survive these environments is critical when the design life spans of geothermal power plants are typically over 20 years. Various grades of titanium tubular products have been installed around the world and are doing very well in these highly corrosive environments.


Ivasishin,O.M.(October 2010) 'Innovative Process for Manufacturing Hydrogenated Titanium Powder for Solid State Production of P/M Titanium Alloy Components' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The presentation will cover the current activities of the team to further improve upon the innovative hydrogenated titanium powder production processes.Laboratory scale non Kroll process results will be demonstrated along with "scale up” activities for high volume production of low cost hydrogenated titanium powder.


Kean,P. (October 2010) 'Direct Powder Rolling (DPR) of Titanium.' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

This paper will outline the activities being undertaken at CSIRO, Australia, to develop a process based on powder metallurgy for the production of semi-finished flat products. A number of projects were established under the banner of the CSIRO Light Metals Flagship to advance research in titanium powder metallurgy. This programme has resulted in some significant achievements; the TiROTM process for the continuous production of pure titanium powder, an innovative process for the production of titanium-aluminium alloy powders, and the development of an integrated method,based on direct powder rolling, for manufacturing titanium and titanium alloy strip.In addition, progress has been made in developing a direct extrusion process and near-net shape powder metallurgy in general.


Khanna, Gautam (October 2010) 'Major Titanium Platforms -- A Closer Look' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

We will review the demand outlook for Ti-intensive aerospace and defense platforms, and offer some perspective on their size, timing, and risk. As part of this analysis, we also will assess the DoD budget outlook and how this informs the prognosis for the Ti-intensive DoD platforms. We also will frame the current state of the aerospace cycle.


Kim, George; Punga, Nikki, (October 2010) 'Use of Nano-Particle Titanium Dioxide (n-TiO2) Thermal Spray Coatings for Abrasion Resistance in Severe Service Applications', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Co Authors: George Kim*, Perpetual Technologies;Jason Falzon and Jimmy Walker, F.W. Gartner Thermal Spraying, Ltd.; Michael Franceschini and Nikki Punga*, HATCH Ltd.Recent developments in thermally applied,nano-particle, titanium dioxide coatings have extended the practical application of this technology to wear components such as agitator blades,anti-swirl baffles and metal-seated ball valves for the hydro metallurgical industry.This paper explains the research that led to the commercial development of the nano-powders, thermal spray application processes, quality control parameters and methods used to produce high-quality abrasion resistant coatings on both simple and complex part shapes. The authors will also show where nano-particle coating technology holds promise for other applications in oil and gas exploration, the chemical process industry, geothermal power, coal gasification and coal-to-liquid processes.


Kosaka,Yoji (October2010) 'Superplastic Forming Properties of TIMETAL®54M' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms ConventionCenter, Orlando, Florida, USA

Ti-5Al-4V-0.6Mo-0.4Fe alloy (Ti-54M) is a new alloy developed at TIMET. The alloy exhibits strength comparable to that of Ti-6Al-4V and superior machinability under most machining conditions. While primarily developed for machinability, the nature of the alloy is well suited for superplasticity. SPF properties were investigated on sheets produced in the laboratory. A total elongation exceeding 500% and satisfactory m-values, 0.45~0.6, were observed at temperatures between 1400ºF and 1550ºF, which are 100~200 ºF lower than that for Ti-64,Further investigations on finer grain, approx. 2 µm, Ti-54M sheet revealed that the fine grain sheets exhibited SPF capability at temperatures as low as 1300 ºF showing elongation higher than 1000%. Flow stress of the fine grain sheet at slow strain rate is 2~4 times lower than that for Ti-64, which is beneficial in SPF operations. This paper compares SPF properties of Ti-54M to those of Ti-64 and potential benefits in practical SPF operations will also be discussed.


Larson,Mark W.(October 2010) 'Counteracting Cutting Vibration in Machine Tools' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms ConventionCenter, Orlando, Florida, USA

he machining of hard materials like titanium generate mechanical vibrations within the machining and tooling mechanical systems resulting in reduced optimum cutting conditions. Productivity and tool life are inversely proportional in these materials unless vibration can be reduced and the cutting zone properly cooled. Makino has developed its new AdvanTige technology for milling Titanium. Makino’s latest solutions for titanium include new 5-axis machining centers designed specifically for titanium applications, and a series of new technology developments that will both improve productivity and increase tool life.


Lemons,Jack E. (October 2010) 'Current State of Titanium and Titanium Alloys for Biomedical Applications', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Recommendations from the 1960’s introduced titanium and alloys for applications as materials for surgical implant devices. Acceptance resulted inconsiderable basic and applied science plus and clinical trial investigations that continue today.Titanium has evolved from multiple sources and properties to standardized biomaterials that are selected by composition and properties for multiple types of surgical implants. The very specialized physical, mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of titanium biomaterials,especially the surface oxide and biocompatibility profiles have expanded applications and success ratios for many types of implants in medicine and dentistry.At this time, the use of titanium and alloys in biomedical applications is extensive with all surgical disciplines recognizing the merits of this metallic biomaterial.Clinical applications exceed a million devices per year within several surgical specialties. Importantly, clinical outcome assessments of longevity for treatments utilizing titanium often exceed decades, with some devices remaining in clinical function for the lifetimes of patients treated. National and international reviews provide the opinion that biomedical applications of synthetic origin biomaterials,including titanium, will continue and may expand over future decades as populations’ age and demand quality of life.


Libby, Abby (October 2010) 'Military Panel' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Long,Thomas J. (October 2010) 'Advanced Thermal Management Tooling for Milling of Titanium Structures', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The projected growth in titanium usage for commercial and military aircraft has elevated the importance of manufacturing strategies to improve machining productivity. The high temperature strength, inherent chemical reactivity and limited thermal conductivity of titanium are the major factors contributing to poor machinability and excessive tool wear. FEA metal cutting simulations indicate that tool surface temperatures are in excessof 1000°C at contact stresses of 3 GPa. The metal cutting tool industry has improved tool performance by engineering the insert geometry, substrate materials, and coatings. In addition, performance has been improved by directing metalworking coolant into the cutting zone with external nozzles to reduce tool temperatures and evacuate metal chips. Recently, an indexable milling tool system has been developed with internal coolant capability to directly apply metalworking coolants from beneath the tool/chip interface by incorporating coolant channels through the inserts. The internally cooled tooling systems increase metal removal rates by at least 50%, while improving tool life up to 400% compared with the most advanced tooling today. FEA metalcutting simulations indicate a significant reduction in tooling temperatures as a major factor in tool life extension. The impact temperature reduction on fatigue of WC-Co tools and tool life extension will be discussed. In addition, the implications for specific applications in machining titanium with these commercial tooling systems will be discussed.


Lovendahl,Steve (October 2010) 'Titanium Machining Challenges' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Boeing has sold over 800 – 787’s and Airbus has 500 firm orders for their A350, when you combined this work with Lockheed Martin’s F-35 program,there is a significant titanium work statement to be machined in the supply base. The challenge is to develop the supply base’s ability to machine hard metals structures. The requirement goes beyond just being able to machine parts, but being able to support increasing delivery rates of 10 or more.This means delivering the right quantity, of quality parts, on time, with zero defects.


Luckowski,Stephen L. (October 2010) 'New Titanium Armored Protective Crew Compartment the Next Lightweight Titanium Innovation for Enhanced Soldier Protection' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The dynamic nature of on-going U.S. military ground force operations in Iraq and Afghanistan has put increased emphasis on the need for lighter weight, add-on armor solutions to a number of vehicle platforms. The U.S. Army Armament,Research and Development Center (ARDEC) is the Army center of excellence for lightweight and novel armor solutions. ARDEC boasts numerous titanium innovations around emerging titanium welding and continuous-melt furnace technologies, as well as advanced, production-ready manufacturing processes to rapidly and intelligently design titanium solutions currently used in Stryker, Abrams, and Bradley combat vehicle systems, and more recently, in Humvee Ground Maneuver Vehicles (GMVs).


Marlowe,Donald E. (October 2010) 'The US FDA and International Governmental Agencies Rolein Materials for Medical and SurgicalDevices' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Product approval, particularly medical device approval, as performed by the Food and Drug Administration, should be viewed as risk management, i.e. management of the risks to patients and users of the device. In both the US and Europe,the majority of medical devices are regulated as Class 2 products, i.e., they are reviewed against existing voluntary consensus standard when such are available. In general, FDA approves medical devices for market, not the materials of manufacture. While there are a few exceptions to this rule, the materials of which the device is manufactured only get reviewed in the context of their application, such as biological safety,electromagnetic compatibility, corrosion resistance, etc. Very often review of the material only consists of review of the voluntary consensus standard which describes the material. For orthopedic implants, these are the standards developed by the relevant committees of ASTM International and the ISO. The committees(ASTM F04 on Medical and Surgical Devices and Materials and ISO TC 150 Surgical Implants) have almost a 50 year history in the development and management of materials standards such as those for titanium. This paper will review the current regulatory picture on both sides of the Atlantic and the importance of standards in medical product risk management.


Marzec,Gary (October 2010) 'Lean Supply Chain' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium and specialty metals manufacturers and consumers are challenged by changing demands placed on their supply chains. Heavy competition and increasing liability continue to pressure profits in a down turned economy. Achieving profitable growth while improving controls and mediating risks can be achieved through the use of existing Supply Chain techniques and lean Manufacturing Technologies (SCMT). SCMT allows for open communication channels and the synching of information throughout the supply chain. Typical problem areas include managing consignment inventories, tracking genealogy of the heat from the ingot to end product, and tracking test results. Managing the supply chain through a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) hub allows the entire supply chain to access accurate,real time information while simultaneously cutting waste and streamlining workflow. Now, costs and revenues can be tied to actual activities at both internal and external sites.


Masingill,Jeff (October 2010) 'Ducommun’s current titanium aerostructures manufacturing capabilities and what manufacturing trends are expected in the future?' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Mei,Junfa (October 2010) 'Optimising the Properties of Net Shape HIPped PowderTi-6Al-4V Samples' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The work reported here focuses on understanding the factors that influence the internal microstructure and the structure of the as-HIPped surface of NetShape HIPped components since both of these are expected to affect properties. In the case of powder HIPped Ti6Al4V it is shown that the fine internal microstructure formed during HIPping is a result of the transformation of the martensitic phase, which is present in the atomised powder, when HIPping is carried out below the beta transus. This leads to bulk properties that are comparable with those of thermo mechanically processed samples. The fatigue properties can however be downgraded if conventional HIPping procedures are used since this leads to surface roughness on the scale of the powder particles caused by penetration of the strong Ti6Al4V powder into the mild steel. A simple change in the HIPping schedule, which takes advantage of the different temperature dependence of the strength of mild steel and Ti6Al4V, eliminates this problem and samples with a smooth as-HIPped surface produced using Net Shape HIPping in fact have better fatigue properties than those of samples where the surface is machined off. These and other observations on the factors controlling the properties of NetShape HIPped components will be discussed.


Mercer, Laura Nightingale; Clappison, Justin, (October 2010)'Design and Fabrication of Titanium Piping for Pressure Hydrometallurgy Service' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Co Authors: Luca Banfi, Loterios S.A., Justin Clappison and Tracey Caruana, HATCH Ltd.The objective of this paper is to identify the different applications of Titanium Grade 2 and Titanium Grade 12 piping for Pressure Hydrometallurgical Service. The rationale behind choosing either grade will be explained throughout the paper. Discussed in detail will be the advantages of each grade with respect to relative commodity costs, fabrication considerations (such as welding, bending and machining), temperature and pressure considerations and corrosion resistance in severe services. The results of this paper will aid in the creation of guidelines to optimize the material selection and design of titanium piping systems.


Metz,Michael G. (October 2010) 'An Overview Of The Russia And CIS Market For Titanium Mill Products', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Overview of the Russia and CIS market for titanium mill products. Demand drivers for titanium consumption will be explored for significant market segments in Russia and the CIS, with a review of the past several years and an outlook for the future consumption.


Michaels,Kevin (October 2010) 'Airline Economics: Purchase New Aircraft or Fly Parked Aircraft? Implications for New Aircraft Demand in theComing Years' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

There are approximately 2000 large commercial aircraft parked around the world, and this talk will focus on the economic forces driving the airlines as they consider the option of the purchasing new aircraft or choosing to take aircraft out of the parked fleet to support their growth, and how that choice impacts the prospects for commercial aircraft build rates in the coming years.


Nathan,James M. (October 2010) 'Titanium Scrap: Being Responsive, Not Reactive' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Instead of reacting to the extreme volatility of the titanium market, scrap companies must be responsive by staying at the forefront of analytical and processing technology to anticipate the quality and quantity needs of their clients. Closed loop arrangements, internal recovery programs and scrap-buy-back programs are now part of the business landscape. So also is international competition that can be difficult to project.Perceptive responsiveness is critical because titanium scrap, a by-product of production, saves natural resources and reduces energy consumption.


Ng,Eu-Gene (October 2010) 'Challenges of Machining BetaAlloy Titanium' , TITANIUM 2010, GaylordPalms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Machining of beta phase titanium is more difficult than alpha beta and alpha titanium alloys due to higher yield strength and sensitivity to strain hardening. Experimental results show the methods and strategies that can be used to overcome most of the difficulties encountered and the limitations of what can be done with today’s technology.


Nyrhila,Olli (October 2010) 'Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) of Titanium Alloys' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive laser melting technology that can be used for manufacturing functional metal components and tools in various alloys including light metal alloys,high grade steels, stainless steels and nickel and cobalt based superalloys. DMLS method has been utilized many years in prototyping applications in various industries, including medical and aerospace. During recent years the main emphasis has been to qualify DMLS in manufacturing applications.


Ory, François (October 2010) 'The Art Of Processing Titanium Alloys Into Cannulated Bars For Trauma Applications' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Introduction to Forecreu Biométal, or how small hole, long bar technology in tool steels initiates development in Orthopaedics.


Parry,Laird (October2010) 'Use of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting Systems for Improving Manufacturing Flexibility and Efficiency with Titanium Components' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting systems are finding widespread applications in manufacturing for improving efficiency and flexibility, but many do not understand where they fit into the range of manufacturing processes. This presentation will provide attendees with the following:  1. How AWJ systems function, their capabilities,their benefits and their limitations  2. How AWJ systems compare with more traditional cutting and machining systems and how it can be a complementary process  3. Characteristics of applications where AWJ can improve efficiency and manufacturing flexibility  4. Examples of AWJ use in a wide range of industries. 5. How to evaluate the use of AWJ for their particular applications


Pastushan,Nicholas (October 2010) 'Financial Markets, Lessors and Impacts on Aerospace Finance' ,TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Aircraft leasing market trends and financing market conditions for new and / or used aircraft


Pearson,Murray S. (October 2010) 'A Comparison of Refractory Lined, Carbon Steel and Ti EXW-Clad Pressure Vessels for Specific Operating Conditions' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

o Authors: Steve Gothard, W.E. Smith HudsonLtd.; Wayne Bristowe, Murray Pearson* and Christopher Stunguris, HATCH Ltd.Pressure vessels in hydrometallurgy and many chemical process industries throughout the world require the use of specific lining systems to protect the parent vessel materials from corrosion and/or abrasion. Typically, these lining systems are required for chemically aggressive processes that operate at elevated temperatures. Two basic lining system types are: 1) refractory linings in conjunction with an impervious corrosion resistant membrane; and 2)metal-clad vessels consisting of titanium or other corrosion resistant metal bonded to a carbon steel shell.Operating conditions play a key role in selecting the type of lining system to be utilized for a specific application. Lining systems in turn have an impact on the process vessel size, which ultimately affects the capital cost of the vessel. The capital costs for each type of lining system must be considered for each application,as well as maintenance concerns, quality control, and delivery. Operating condition splay a key role in the final selection of lining systems utilized for specific projects based on initial capital cost, life-cycle maintenance costs, and overall service life.This paper will examine the fundamentals of each lining system, their inherent technical strengths and weaknesses, and present relative costs and delivery comparisons for each lining system as they apply to specific operating conditions and vessel sizes.


Renguan,Hao (October 2010) 'Research on Pickling Hot RolledCommercial Pure Titanium Strip on the Continuous Pickling Line of Special Steel' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord PalmsConvention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

After hot rolled on the hot continuous rolling mill and annealed in the continuous annealing line, the commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti) strip (3.8mm*980 mm) was covered with scale layer, mainly TiO2, on its surface, and this scale layer must be removed by acid pickling before cold rolling. This paper describes the acid pickling process for CP Titanium strip on the continuous pickling line of Special Steel. In order to treat CP-Ti on the pickling line of special steel without stopping the line, we used a special method (a patent of BaoSteel) to connect CP-Ti strip and special steel strip without welding them together directly. The pickling process for hot rolled CP-Ti are different from those for special steel pickled on the same pickling line. We used electrolytic sulfuric acid as pre pickling, and two mixed acid (HNO3 + HF) section as final pickling. The scale breaker has also been applied before pickling. The roughness of the pickled CP-Ti strip surface is about Ra 2.3 – 2.8 µm, and the surface quality meets the requirements of NO.1, according to ASTM.


Roach,Michael D. (October 2010) 'Recent Advancements in Laboratory Instrumentation and Analysis Techniques to Characterize Fatigue Mechanisms in Metallic Alloys' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Recent advancements in laboratory instrumentation and advanced evaluation techniques available for materials characterization are greatly advancing the knowledge base on fatigue mechanisms in a variety of materials including titanium and stainless steel alloys. The combination of electron back scattered diffraction(EBSD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis at selected intervals throughout the fatigue life of a sample provides valuable information on the slip and crack initiation mechanisms taking place. Once a fatigue crack has been initiated in the analysis area, additional information on the crack propagation mechanisms may also be collected at later intervals. Representative samples of Ti-6Al-4V ELI and 316L stainless steel will be discussed to demonstrate the capabilities of these characterization techniques.


Roegner, Eric V. (October 2010) 'Military Panel' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Rosenberg,Edward (October 2010) '"The Next Generation”' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

n this panel presentation you will see a glimpse of tomorrow through the eyes of"the next generation”. It is they who best understand what it will take to fulfill the needs and aspirations of their emerging market segments.Each generation leaves behind evidence to tell the next what has been important to us. Our industry has come a long way in a relatively short time span. It is our foundation upon which the next chapters will be written. I sincerely hope that those in attendance can share the pride and excitement I feel in working with these talented visionaries of tomorrow.


Royer, Michael P. (October 2010) 'Master Alloys – Getting Ready For Takeoff!' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

As the titanium industry readies for an anticipated aerospace turnaround, the supply of master alloys will need to keep pace. Increasing production and use of prime sponge will necessitate a corresponding increase in the supply of critical alloying materials such as those containing vanadium, molybdenum, niobium, silicon,chromium and other specialty materials. Master alloys are typically supplied as binary alloys where the primary constituent is usually alloyed with aluminum. Increasing applications for more demanding alloys such as Ti-17 have resulted in the development of more sophisticated multi component master alloys. This paper will provide a general overview of the demand for master alloys and an outlook for meeting the challenges of the titanium industry’s critical markets.


Rugg,David (October 2010) 'Trends and Issues in Titanium Alloy Use in Gas Turbines' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Titanium alloys have a remarkable history in facilitating gas turbine evolution. However, there are still significant issues for management of current fleet, supply chains and the introduction of new alloys and processes. Of particular significance is the potential of improved predictive models for demanding load regimes that also pave the way for advances in alloy and process route improvement.In addition, titanium use is under threat from Ni base alloys in the high pressure compressor and carbon fibre composites for fan blades that have significant advantages in terms of signature and blade containment. These issues will be reviewed in the context of fundamental boundaries to use.


Ruiz-Aparicio,Luis J.(October 2010) 'Development of ATI 425® Titanium Alloy Flat Rolled Products' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

ATI 425® Alloy is a new alpha/beta titanium alloy with Ti 6/4-like strength levels and remarkable hot-and cold-ductility, superior to current alternatives for aerospace and defense applications. This cold formable titanium alloy, with its high strength, cold formability and lower-temperature super-plastic formability, has emerged as an innovative,high-potential alternative to 6-4 titanium, today’s workhorse alloy. Its unique combination of properties together with tighter gauge tolerance and improved surface finish allows it to be considered for a wide variety of applications where design challenges include weight reduction or an alternative to steel, aluminum,composites or other titanium grades.


Sanders,Daniel G. (October 2010) 'Diffusion Bonding Performance Test Results for New Titanium Alloys (BaoTi and VSMPO Fine Grain Titanium Alloy 6Al-4V, TIMET 54M and ATI 425) Using Different Bonding Temperatures' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

A joint development program was performed by Boeing and Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing and Technology Institute (BAMTRI) for diffusion bonding (DB) of fine grain titanium alloy 6Al-4V produced by Verknaya Salda Metallurgical Production Association (VSMPO) and Beijing Titanium Industry Company (BaoTi) to Titanium Metals Corporation(TIMET) alloy 54M and Allegheny Technologies Incorporated (ATI) alloy ATI425. The objective of this study was to determine if the several different alloys could be diffusion bonded together with themselves and to each other at various temperatures. The test includes macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the bond-line.


Sears, James W. (October 2010) 'Overview of Near Net Shape Manufacturing of Titanium Components at Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

he Army’s demand for lightweight munitions and armament systems has resulted in the increased use of titanium. However, there is a dearth of both legacy knowledge and manufacturing capabilities within the Army to allow for rapid insertion of titanium as a preferred material in current and future systems. One of the main inhibitors for titanium insertion by the Army is the cost associated with conventional titanium manufacturing The Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory aim is to focus on Near Net Shape Manufacturing(NNSM) technologies and assess which of those hold the greatest promise for"affordable” titanium structural components.


Skorija,Michael (October 2010) 'Supply Chain / TOC / Lean /Six Sigma - Where & How They Fit Together', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

It is quite evident that these methodologies are complimentary and their individual weaknesses are resolved by their convergent strengths. For organizations starting on a journey of Supply Chain Excellence, it is not the question of which approach to pick but how to start. Bring a Lean flavor to the strategic discussions and incorporate what is valued and voiced by the customer, identifying disconnects and waste. During the course of identifying improvement projects use a Six Sigma approach for data collection to better present the current state performance and highlight the defects and disconnects within the supply chain(s).


Standridge, Michael (October 2010) 'Best Practice Methods for Machining Titanium' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

I will cover machine tool requirements and their impact on productivity, application & programming methods that maximize productivity in turning,milling, and drilling. I will discuss our cutting material technology and its impact on cutting data along with new tooling concepts design specifically to enhance productivity in titanium.


Swenson, Robert L. (October 2010) 'Ferrotitanium' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms ConventionCenter, Orlando, Florida, USA

he production and consumption of ferrotitanium is a large part of the overall titanium metal industry.There are various sources of titanium by-product and scrap that are used to produce ferrotitanium. The volumes are significant and play an important role in the overall supply and demand balance of titanium raw materials. The usage of ferro titanium continues to increase for the production of ultra-low carbon steels. The most common form is a 70% titanium alloy, but there is also a 35% alloy and off-grade sponge that can influence the market. The titanium industry is going though another of its famous cycles. This presentation will show how the ferrotitanium business influences the titanium marketplace.


Thiebault, Eric (October 2010) 'Military Panel' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Tozaki, Yasuyuki (October 2010) 'Asia Market Overview' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Dr. Tozaki will provide an overview of the Japanese titanium industry: current conditions, how the recent economic recession affected the industry;and influence that demand for different applications is having in production (seen through shipments), as well as trends in exports and imports.After introducing the activities of the Japan Titanium Society (JTS), which have contributed to the development of the world titanium industry, and the applications characteristic of Japan’s domestic market,Dr. Tozaki will make some proposals for the world titanium industry’s further development.


Trzcinski, Michael J. (October 2010) 'Titanium Pedestrian Bridge Design Competition' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

The Titanium Pedestrian Bridge Design Competition arose through the interests of two organizations: The Defense Metals Technology Center (DMTC), and The University of Akron.DMTC learned that The University of Akron had apressing need to build a pedestrian bridge to link the two parts of its campus.


Urban, Keith A. (October 2010) 'Coolant: Improving Quality toEliminate Issues In Titanium Machining' ,TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Basic Presentation Details include:• Educate clients on how to successfully manage cutting fluids for useful life cycles measured in years as opposed to months with competitive products. These include water based coolants and cutting oils on all types of metallurgy.• Focus on the ability to greatly extend cutting tool life thru improved fluid management and greatly reduced machine fatigue and unplanned down time related to poor fluid management.• Define content required for total fluid management systems design.


van Oudenaren, Paul; Williams, John; , (October 2010) 'Design and Manufacture of Titanium Metal-Seated BallValves for Severe Service Applications' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Co Authors: John Williams, Mogas Inc., Paul van Oudenaren and Laura Nightingale Mercer, HATCH Ltd.This paper highlights the challenges and innovative engineering that lead to the design, manufacturing and supply of titanium, metal-seated ball valves for two of the most demanding services in the valve industry: high-pressure acid leaching circuits and pressure oxidation autoclaves. These services require highly reliable, abrasion-resistant isolation valves for maintenance activities and emergency shutdown functions in safety instrumented systems. The paper summarises two decades of research and development, including pressure oxidation of refractory sulphide ores (1989 -1995), the development of improved balls, seats and coatings for high-pressure acid leaching of nickel laterite ores (1995 - 2005) and the most recent developments undertaken by the authors (2006 - present) for the new generation of pressure oxidation facilities currently under construction.


Wallace,Jeff (October 2010) 'Titanium: Taming the aluminum OF the 21st Century' , TITANIUM 2010,Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Abstract Unavailable


Warsaw,Ashley (October 2010) 'Awaking the Sleeping Giant' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

he uses of titanium within the education of young designers are being overlooked to focus on medical, technical, and experimental uses. Integrated into a plethora of consumer devices, titanium has infinite potential to reach even further into these unfound markets by supporting the next generation of designers. These young, forward thinking students could be easily shaped by the titanium industry expanding its limited support of our educational systems.This presentation will address the current state of titanium as it is handled in the education system and ways to encourage the younger generation of designers to develop the material further.


Williamson,Randall Scott (October 2010) 'Stress Corrosion Cracking Characterization of Elevated and Nominal Oxygen Weight Percent a+ß Ti-15 Molybdenum' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) research was conducted on both an experimental elevated oxygen weight percent (0.74%) heat and a nominal oxygen weight percent (0.13%) heat of a+ß Ti-15 Molybdenum. SCC testing was conducted using the slow extension rate methodology outlined in ASTMG129 in both smooth and notched sample configurations. Both smooth and notched samples were tested in distilled de-ionized water and in Ringer’s solution at physiological temperature (37°C). Percentage of elongation ratios (PER) and reduction of area ratios (ROAR) were calculated and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces. The PER and ROAR for both heats showed no indications that SCC mechanisms were present in either the smoother notched conditions. Furthermore, SEM examination of the fracture surfaces revealed no evidence of SCC fracture morphology on either of the heats regardless of sample configuration or testing media.


Wills, David J.(October 2010) 'Efficient Machining Solutions in Titanium Alloys' , TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Due to the combination of useful engineering properties, including high strength, low weight,corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, the demand for titanium alloys in the aerospace, energy,medical and chemical process industries  continues to increase. The set of physical properties inherent to titanium, such as low thermal conductivity, low elastic modulus, high reactivity and high strength,creates a different set of requirements for machining processes. These properties collectively reduce the metal removal rate (MRR) during machining and cause titanium to be considered a difficult-to-machine (DTM) material. Since the MRR is lower for titanium than steel or aluminum, the machining cost per part is higher.Since these higher costs may be a threat to the expanded uses of titanium, ATI Stellram has focused on improving machining methods, cutting tools and machine tools that can improve efficiencies.


Withers,James C. (October 2010) 'Status of Alternate Processing to Manufacture Titanium' ,TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

There has been continuing activity for the past seven decades for alternate processing to produce primary titanium, alloy powder and fabrication of products at lower cost. Recent investigations have demonstrated titanium powder can be produced directly from ore/TiO2, alloy powder by direct reduction of chloride intermediates,and producing alloy near net shapes from the powders at the low cost of approximately two to three times the powder cost. The low cost product production of titanium powder as an alternative low cost product to sponge has progressed to a commercial demonstration stage due for start-up in late 2010. Intermediate chlorides can be co-reduced electrolytically or metallothermically to produce alloy.Processing has been demonstrated to produce Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder as well as several other alloy compositions. These powders as well as sieved fractions of Kroll sponge have been utilized to directly produce fully dense alloy near net shapes for very low cost. The status of these processing will be reviewed.


Xiangdong,Wang (October 2010) 'Chinese Titanium Industry 2010', TITANIUM 2010, Gaylord Palms Convention Center, Orlando, Florida, USA

Chinese titanium capacity, output, demands, market, trend and future work are summarized in the presentation.




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